Albert of Saxe-Coburg, Prince Consort, 1819-1861
Married Queen Victoria in 1840. Chief inspiration behind the planning and carrying out of the Great Exhibition of 1851. His contribution to Victorian artistic taste, hitherto largely ignored, has been examined in Prince Albert and Victorian Taste, by Winslow Ames, Methuen, 1968. His designs for jewellery include the porcelain, enamel and gold set for his wife; the jewel for Florence Nightingale; and the Collar and Badge of the Order of the Star of India; possibly also the Albert Medal.
Ashbee, Charles Robert, 1863-1942
Architect, designer and writer. Founder of the School and Guild of Handicraft (1887/8-1907). Key figure in English Art Nouveau, and a continuing inspiration, right up to the present day, to the designers of silverwork and jewellery, as well as being a formative influence on the Liberty metalwork style. His success in interesting the public in the work of the Arts and Crafts Movement was of great benefit to his contemporaries and successors, among them Nelson and Edith Dawson; his close imitator Edgar Simpson; Mr and Mrs Arthur Gaskin; Bernard Cuzner and other Birmingham designers. Wrote An Endeavour Towards the Teaching of John Ruskin and William Morris, 1901; Modern English Silverwork, Essex House Press, 1909; and Craftsmanship in competitive industry: being a record of the workshops of the Guild of Handicraft and some deductions from their twenty-one years' experience, London, 1908, as well as making a translation of Cellini's Treatises, 1898. Exhibited at the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, and Vienna Secession. Bibliography: Jewellery and Fans, Modern Jewelry, Bury, Shirley. “The Arts and Crafts Experiment, the Silverwork of C.R. Ashbee” . Victoria and Albert Museum Bulletin III.i.1 (1967).
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Firm of jewellers, originating in Paris, expanding in the present century, with branches in London, Biarritz and New York. Founded by Frederic Boucheron, who had a shop in the Palais Royale when this was the fashionable jewellers' quarter, but moved later to the Place Vendome. Famous for elaborate and lavish diamond jewellery, very fashionable in the period from 1855 to 1910, but hardly ever out of favour in the whole of the nineteenth century, as in the more remote past and the present. One of the most original designers for Boucheron was Octave Leouilliard who lifted the diamond flower spray out of the class of the merely lavish and technically remarkable to a level of artistic achievement not previously attempted. Made jewellery designed by Jules Debut for Sarah Bernhardt in the 1880s. Exhibited in the Centennial Exhibition in Paris in 1900, but the Art Nouveau style was not sympathetic to the Boucheron ethos, and their jewellery in this idiom is some of their least successful, for examples of their work in this style see La Joaillerie francaise en 1900 , by G. Meusnier, Paris 1901, and “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” Studio Special number Winter 1901-1902.
Goldsmith and jeweller, partner in the firm of Watherston and Brogden (previously Garland and Watherston, 1837-C.1846), 16 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 1846-1860. Took over the firm and continued to operate from this address until the eighties. Ex. 1851, 1867, 1878. Remarkable for his technical mastery of the difficult filigree and granulated decoration needed for ihe Archaeological jewellery which he specialized in making from 1862. See Flower, Plate V.
Burne-Jones, Sir Edward, 1833-1898
Painter and designer, associate of William Morris and the Pre-Raphaelite painters. Commissioned by John Ruskin to provide designs for the 'Whitelands' cross which led to his making a large number of jewellery designs, some in the Wightwick Manor Sketchbook (now at Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton) also in The Secret Book of Designs (British Museum Prints and Drawings department) and in the book called Thoughts of Designs for the Book of Flowers (Victoria & Albert Museum, Department of Design). The designs for the 'Whitelands' cross as well as some further designs based on the rough drawings in the Wightwick Manor Sketchbook are in the Sharp Collection in the Library of Queen's College in New York. Georgiana Burne-Jones states in Memorials (1904) that only one piece of jewellery was ever made up, but he is reputed to have designed a number of pieces for his daughter Margaret, wife of J.W. Mackail, which may have been any of the many designs noted above or even further unknown designs. Burne-Jones claimed that he had made fifty designs for the 'Whitelands' cross, of which only five are in New York.
“The Decorative Arts of Burne-Jones,” Art Journal, Easter Art Annual 1899, by Aymer Vallance. “Edward Burne-Jones — Designer to John Ruskin,” by James S. Dearden, Connoisseur, vol. 170.no.684, 1969, pp.89-94.
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Burges, William, 1827-1881
Architect and Designer. His wide interests, in Gothic and French Renaissance architecture, antique metalwork and jewellery, archaeology, and Indian and Japanese art, combined to produce an eclectic decorative style which he used to good effect in his jewellery designs. Though less evident in the ecclesiastical metalwork and the jewellery designs which may have been made for commercial production, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (P.&D.93.E.9.), this combination produced happy results in his designs for Lord Bute. His interest in the Archaeological jewellery of the Castellanis led to his attempting a design in this style, but it completely lacks the flair of the Gothic designs for Lord Bute. The almost Byzantine richness of interior decoration for Cardiff Castle and his own remarkable Tower House in Melbury Road, Kensington, have a parallel in the enamel jewellery of the turn of the century, particularly the work of Henry Wilson, and the mixture of painted decoration, semiprecious stones and mirror glass on his furniture and interiors provides a preview of the Art Nouveau use of mixed media for jewellery. Bibliography: “St. Fin Barre's Cathedral,” by Charles Handley-Read, The Architectural Review 141 (1967): 423-40.
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Caetani, Michael Angelo, Due di Sermoneta, 1804-1883
Patron and collaborator of the Castellanis, father and sons. His association with the family began in 1828 and he was able to procure access to excavations being carried out by the State for Fortunate Pio Castellani. Continued his association with the firm after the retirement of Fortunate Pio, and maintained a long correspondence with Alessandro and Augusto Castellani during their spell abroad, forced upon them by their unacceptable political beliefs, which they shared with the Duke. That this collaboration was recognised as being a serious professional partnership is shown by the fact that a medal was awarded to the Duke for his part in the design of the Castellani exhibit shown at the Vienna Exhibition in 1873. Bibliography: Thieme-becker, V, 346.
Castellani, Alessandro, 1824-1883, and Augusto, 1829-1914
Goldsmiths and archaeologists, sons of Fortunate Pio Castellani (see below). Augusto was the founder of the Collezione Castellani, a collection of classical jewellery which rivalled the famous Campana Collection which was sold to the Louvre in 1860, a large part of which is now in the Museo Nazional di Villa Giulia. Some items from the Collezione Castellani were bought by the British Museum in 1870 and some more at the Castellani sale in Paris in 1884. Neither of the Castellanis actually worked for the British Museum, though Alessandro did advise the Greek and Roman department on the acquisition of classical antiquities, an activity highly advantageous to himself (see Vever II, 156).
During the years of exile forced on him by his political views, Alessandro spent some time in Paris, when he is said by Vever to have imparted the secrets of the technique of decorating jewellery in the 'Etruscan' manner to his French colleagues. Experts in the field of classical jewellery are apt to dismiss the Castellanis as fakers, but this is a misrepresentation of the position occupied by the firm in the history of nineteenth century jewellery, and is a reputation acquired, presumably, through their tendency to rather over-enthusiastic restoration of antique jewels. The collection in the Villa Giulia includes a number of copies of antique jewels made by the firm which have always been acknowledged as such. Augusto Castellani wrote Antique Jewellery and its Revival in 1862, and Delia Orificeria Italiana in 1872. Alessandro published a catalogue of the Italian peasant jewellery which had become a special interest of his father during a time when he was pursuing his researches into the techniques of Etruscan goldwork, called Italian Jewellery as worn by the Peasants of Italy, collected by Signor Castellani, (London 1868). Their collaboration with Michael Angelo Caetani, Duca di Sermoneta, is described above. Jewellery from the Castellani workshop was exhibited in London for the first time in 1861, then again a year later at the International Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations. Ex. Florence 1861, Paris 1867, Vienna 1873. Bibliography: Thieme-becker, VI, 142-143.
Castellani, Fortunato Pio, 1793-1865
Goldsmith and jeweller. Entered his father's goldsmith's workshop in Rome in 1814. Began imitating Roman jewellery excavated from tombs in 1826. After lengthy research discovered a method of imitating granulation and found workmen (and women) able to carry out the delicate granulated and filigree decoration of his 'Etruscan' revival jewellery in St Angelo in Vado, a small town in the Marches where the methods used for producing the local peasant jewellery were virtually the same as those used in antiquity. One of the craftsmen imported from St Angelo in Vado was called Benedetto Romanino (see Thieme-Becker). No work was done in the workshop in Rome during the period 1848 to 1858 and Fortunato Pio Castellani retired in 1851, handing over the business to his sons. The manufacture of Archaeological jewellery was resumed by Augusto Castellani after 1858. Jewellery from the Castellani workshop is marked with crossed capital Cs. Thieme-becker, VI, 143-143.
Third son of Fortunato Pio Castellani, mentioned by Vever as having conducted the negotiations between the Papal Government and the representatives of Napoleon III which resulted in the acquisition, by the Louvre, of the Campana Collection.
Born 1862 in Cologne. Trained as an architect in Brussels. Emigrated to America in 1882, where he worked with Associated Artists, a group of interior decorators headed by L.C. Tiffany Produced an essay on design, which anticipates the work of Horta and van de Velde, in 1887 (see the two articles on Colonna by Martin Eidelberg in Connoisseur 166 (1967): 261 and 176 (1971): 123-30). Working in Paris in the nineties designing, among othc things, jewellery for L'Art Nouveau, the shop opened in 1895 by Samuel Bing. Bibliography: Studio vol. 17: 44, 45. Jewellery designs by Colonna for L'Art Nouveau, Paris.
Architect and silversmith. Articled first to J.D. Sedding, then completed his articles under Henry Wilson (see below). Took up metalworking in 1897 on Wilson's advice. Taught at Birmingham 1904-1907 when he got to know the Gaskins (see below), but his jewellery is not like theirs, nor particularly like Wilson's work. His work is illustrated in the Studio, vol. 37: l37, 139.
Silversmith and jeweller. Studied at the Vittoria Street School of Jewellers and Silversmiths in Birmingham under Arthur Gaskin. Designer for Liberty's 'Cymric' range of silverwork and jewellery. Illustrations of his work in the Studio, vol. 18: 258, and vol. 37: 226.
Painter and silversmith. Studied painting at the South Kensington Schools but took up metal working and enamelling, which he studied under Alexander Fisher, in 1891. Most of the enamelled decoration of his silver work and jewellery was carried out by his wife Edith Robinson (m.1893) whom he taught himself. Like Mrs Gaskin, Edith Dawson's health was seriously impaired by overwork and by the fumes from the gas-powered enamelling kiln and in the end she was advised to give up work. Bibliography: Studio vol. 6: 173, “A chat with Mr and Mrs Nelson Dawson on Enamelling,” by E.F. Strange; vol. 22: 169. “Some Recent Work by Nelson and Edith Dawson,” by E.F. Strange. Jewellery and Fans.
Architect, designer and writer. Relentless critic of modern design in jewellery, which with few exceptions he thought deplorable. Reserved his admiration for the Renaissance-style jewellery of Froment-Meurice (shown in the Great Exhibition of 1851) to which he devotes a whole colour-plate in Metalwork and Its Artistic Design, published in 1852, the year in which Specimens of Ornamental Art Workmanship in Gold, Silver, Iron, Brass and Bronze, appeared. Designed jewellery (as well as wallpaper, tiles, carpets and metalwork) for the 'warehousemen', Howell and James, 5, 7, and 9, Regent Street, described as 'linen drapers, silk workers, lacemen and jewellers', which was shown in the 1872 Exhibition. Having been at such pains to point out the deficiencies of contemporary jewellery design, it might be expected that Digby-Wyatt would produce something of startling originality, but the design for Howell and James is, predictably, indistinguishable from most of the other good but unexciting jewellery which was produced during the seventies. Bibliography: Matthew Digby-Wyatt by Nikolaus Pevsner, Cambridge University Press, 1950.
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Italian goldsmith and jeweller. Worked for Robert Phillips, and was known for his Archaeological goldsmiths work and his Giuliano-style enamel work, both of high quality. His mark is a stylised Fleur-de-lys with the monogram C.D.
Botanist, designer and writer. Largely responsible for popularising the Japanese style in decorative art, Dresser's interests ranged over a wide field including the application of natural forms to design. One of the few artists who designed specifically for mass-production. In 1862 he published The Art of Decorative Design, and in 1874 Studies in Design, as well as works on botany and Japanese art. His articles in The Technical Educator, subtitled The Principles of Design, which appeared in 1871 and 1872 are addressed to the 'silversmith' and 'jeweller', mong others, and one must assume that much of the 'japonaiserie' in jewellery is traceable to his articles on the Japanese style for metalwork design. Bibliography: The Silver Designs of Dr. Christopher Dresser, by Shirley Bury, Apollo, 76.10 (1962): 766.
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Architect and writer. Published Hints on Household Taste, in 1867, a collection of articles that originally appeared in the Cornhill Magazine, which contains passages of critisism of modern jewellery design. Like Sir Matthew Digby-Wyatt, Eastlake attempted to improve contemporary taste by designing jewellery himself with very similar results. Exhibited at the same time as Digby-Wyatt's jewellery in 1872.
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Goldsmith and jeweller. Son of Gustav Fabergé (1814-1893) who founded the family firm in St Petersburg in 1842. Peter Carl Fabergé took control of the firm in 1870 and was joined in 1882 by his younger brother, Agathon. Famous chiefly for the 'toys' and automata which were made fashionable by the Russian Imperial family, and the hardstone pots of flowers and animals which have been the enduring passion of rich collectors ever since they were first made, the firm also made a certain amount of jewellery, and the high standard of craftmanship evident in all their work had an entirely beneficial effect on the jewellery design of the early twentieth century. Bibliography: Peter Carl Fabergé, His Life and Workx, by H.C. Bainbridge, Batsford, 1949. The Art of Carl Fabergé, by A. Kenneth Snowman, Faber & Faber, 1953. Modern Jewellery, plates 146-148.
Goldsmith and jeweller. Son of Alexis Bibliography: (b.1811) who was the founder of the firm. Made jewellery in the Japanese style decorated with cloisonné enamel, the technique which had been revived in France for jewellery by his father in the sixties. Lucien Falize wished to go to Japan to studv cloisonné methods but he was prevented by pressure of business in Paris. Bibliography: Vever.
Enamellist of remarkable ability, he first worked for Lalique, later branching out of his own in 1899 when he specialised in objects in Pliqué-a-jour, which are some of the most technically sophisticated pieces of Art Nouveau metalwork.
Goldsmith, painter, sculptor and cnameller. Pioneered the revival of artistic enamelling in England; he went to Paris in 1884 to study enamel techniques and set up a workshop soon after his return to England. Taught enamelling at the L.C.C. Central School of Arts and Crafts (1896) and at his own school which he opened in 1904. His experiments with layered effects to add depth to painted enamels were widely imitated by artists like Nelson Dawson (a pupil of his), Arthur Gaskin, and Henry Wilson. He was already decorating silverwork with the interlaced Celtic ornament that was later to become popular, as early as 1896. Wrote The Art of Enamelling on Metals (1901-1905), which appeared in four parts in the Studio, vols. 22, 23, 25, and 28. Apart from these articles his work is extensively reproduced in volumes of the Studio. Bibliography: “The Art of the Enameller, and of Mr Alex Fisher in particular,” by Fred Miller, Art Journal (1898): 263-67.
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Parisian jeweller renowned for his delicate and fantastic bijoux etrusques, inspired by the jewellery from the famous Campana collection which had been bought by the Louvre in 1860. Fontenay showed this 'Campana' jewellery in 1876 when he exhibited for the first time under his own name. Made jewellery from carved jade which had come from the Summer Palace in Pekin in 1860. Wrote Les Bijoux anciens et modernes, pub. 1887. Bibliography: Vever.
Fouquet, Alphonse, Parisian jeweller specialising in neo-Renaissance jewellery decorated with painted enamels. His Grande Chatelaine Bianca Cappella was made in 1878 and the Broche Renaissance in 1880. Bibliography: Vever.
Parisian jeweller, he succeeded his father Alphonse Fouquet (see above) in the family firm in about 1890. Known as the creator of the Style Mille-neuf-cent, as well as designing jewellery himself he carried out Mucha's designs for Sarah Bernhardt, the Princess Lointaine brooch and the Medée snake hand ornament, (Bernhardt was reputedly a very dilatory payer and Fouquet suffered from her reluctance to reimburse him for this work), and pieces designed by Mucha for his shop (see “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans.” Studio special number. Winter 1901-1902.) Fouquet's shop in Rue Royale became, with the Maison de L'Art Nouveau Bing, one of the focal points of Art Nouveau jewellery design as well as having one of the most splendid interiors in Paris, which was also designed by Mucha. Mark: Gges. Fouquet.
Sculptor. Became interested in metalwork and enamelling in 1896. Designed and made jewellery for his wife c.1898. 'It was in despair of providing Mrs Frampton with really artistically effective ornaments that Mr Frampton was struck with the idea of himself producing these entirely in enamel.' From the article, “Jewellery and other enamel work by George Frampton A.R.A.” Studio, vol. 16: 249-52, where the resulting jewellery is also illustrated.
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Goldsmith and jeweller. Son of Francois-Desirée Froment-Meurice (see below), and succeeded to the family business, which Mme Froment-Meurice had run after the early death of her husband. Executed several important official commisions, the Nef Parisienne, presented to the princess Amelie at the time of her marriage to the due de Bragance and the tiara for the jubilee of Pope Leo XIII, carrying on the tradition of the firm. He continued to work in the style of his father, producing neo-Renaissance jewellery right up to the turn of the century. In 1900 he turned to an extremely modified modern style but seemed to be dominated by the reputation of his remarkable father for the whole of his career. Mark: FROMENT MEURICE. Bibliography: Thieme-Becker 12, 521-23. A History the Crown Jewels of Europe, by L d Twining (Batsford, 1960) Plate ll4b.
Goldsmith and jeweller. Son of the silversmith Francois Froment who founded the firm in 1774. Stylistic innovator with wide influence on French, and after 1851, English jewellery design. Pioneer of the Gothic style in France, and greatly admired, particularly in this country, for his enamelled jewels in the Renaissance style. Philippe Burty, who wrote a book about his life and work considered that one of his finest pieces was a pendant in the Renaissance style which was made for the Queen of Spain (the redoubtable Queen Isabella, who had succeeded to the throne of Spain as a baby and thus precipitated the still unresolved feud which separates the Carlists and the Bourbons. A set of jewellery made for her by the French Court jeweller, Lemonnier, was one of the much publicised exhibits in London in 1851.) Jewellery made by Francois-Desirée Froment-Meurice for the Great Exhibition in 1851 included 'Diamond and enamelled bouquets. Bouquets composed entirely of diamonds. Jewellery in the Moorish, Byzantine, and Renaissance style, etc.'
Bibliography: Philippe Burty, F.-D. Froment-Meurice, Argentier de la Ville de Paris (1883). Francis Dumont, “Froment-Meurice, le Victor Hugo de l'Orfèvrerie,” Connaissance des Arts, 57 (Nov. 1956). Thieme-Becker 12, 521-23. Mark: FROMENT MEURICE.
Parisian jeweller, contemporary of Lalique, he employed many of the unusual materials, such as ivory, horn, and uncommon semi-precious stones, which are a feature of Lalique's own work. He employed Japanese craftsmen in his workshop after he had visited Japan and studied techniques of metalwork and enamelling. Worked for Maison de L'Art Nouveau Bing. Exhibited at the 1900 Centennial Exhibition in Paris.
Painter, illustrator, silversmith and jeweller. Studied at the Birmingham School of Art where he became involved with the Tempera Revival and joined the Birmingham Group of artists. Married Georgina Cave France, a student at the School of Art, where she had studied silverwork, and in 1899 they turned jointly to designing and making jewellery in gold and silver which was frequently decorated with enamel. Made designs for Liberty's 'Cymric' jewellery venture. By a piece of organisational oversight practically no English decorative art was shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Paris in 1900, but the Gaskins were among the few English artists represented, jewellery made by them was included in the exhibit arranged by Walter Gilbert and the Bromsgrove Guild. Arthur Gaskin succeeded R. Catterson Smith as head of the recently opened Vittoria Street School of Jewellers and Silversmiths in Birmingham in 1902. Some pieces of the Gaskin's jewellery are marked with a capital 'G'. Bibliography: Arthur S. Wainwright, “The Jewellery of Mr and Mrs Arthur Gaskin” Studio, vol. 16: 293-301.
Sculptor and metalworker. Made numerous designs for jewellery, which are collected in an album now in a private collection (see Plate 62). Made the design for the Badge and Chain for the Mayor and Corporation of Preston in 1888 (ex. Royal Academy 1892), and the Presidential 'Badge for the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours between 1891 and 1896. The jewellery worn by Mrs Samuel Wilson in the portrait by Gilbert which decorates the Wilson mantlepiece (now in the Leeds Art Gallery) was reputedly designed by Gilbert and made for her. Bibliography: Isabel McAllister, Alfred Gilbert (London, 1929). Lavinia Hand1ey-Read, “Alfred Gilbert and Art Nouveau,” Apollo, vol. 84: 17-24. Modern Jewelry, Plates 192-96.
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Sculptor and designer. Cousin of Alfred Gilbert (see above) and admirer of his work, Walter Gilbert's work is very derivative and his name is now almost forgotten. Founder of the Bromsgrove Guild of Craftsmen, exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Paris in 1900 as one of the very few English artists to do so. Bibliography: Barbara J. Morrison, Saga of the Guild of Decorative Art (1969).
Goldsmith and jeweller. Sponsored by Robert Phillips when he first came to England. Accomplished 'archaeological' jeweller and outstanding enamellist. Giuliano's characteristic style of enamel decoration (see Plate 64) was widely imitated towards the end of the nineteenth century; though few of the imitators approach his technical mastery of this difficult medium, his Italian assistant Pasquale Novissimo equalled him in both goldsmithing and enamelling. Giuliano established himself in business at 115 Piccadilly and his two sons Federico and Ferdinando opened their own business at 47 Rowland Street sometime in the nineties. Soon after the death of Carlo Giuliano his sons presented the Victoria and Albert Museum with some copies of classical jewellery made by their father, but these were later stolen. A photograph of these pieces, reproduced in an article, M.H. Spielmann, “Art Forgeries and Counterfeits,” Magazine of Art (1903-1904), shows how very closely they resemble the ancient jewellery from which they were copied. Marks: C. & A.G. C. & E.G. C.G. Bibliography: M.L. D'Otrange, “The Exquisite Art of Carlo Giuliano,” by Apollo 59 (1954): 145.
Architect and designer. Described by Sir Max Beerbohm as 'the greatest aesthete of them all', his designs for wallpaper, furniture, carpets and textiles spread the influence of Japanese art in this country. Bibliography: Dudley Harbron, The Conscious Stone (Latimer House, 1949). Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement (Elek, 1969).
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Architect and designer. The famous metalwork decorations of the Metro entrances in Paris had a strong influence on the decorative art of the fin de siecle. The jewellery designed by Guimard for his wife is a predictable extension of the flowing line employed in the decoration of his furniture and interiors as well as in the Metro metalwork. Bibliography: F. Lanier Graham, Hector Guimard/ Exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1970.
Writer on fashion and decoration. Daughter of the painter Thomas Joy. The Art of Beauty , which appeared in 1878, advocated a style of dress and jewellery which came to be identified with the Aesthetes; dresses with flowing unencumbered lines and simple jewellery, gold or strings of beads, which became quite fashionable in bohemian society in the eighties. Bibliography: Bea Howe, Arbiter of Elegance (Harvill Press, 1967).
Painter, metalworker and enameller. Important figure in the revival of artistic enamelling, which, he took up in 1896; his experiments with colours and firing techniques greatly increased the range of effects available to the enamellist. The method used for the enamel panels decorating the 'Herkomer Shield', which was shown at the Royal Academy in 1907, was to lay transparent enamel over a ground of black and white underpainting — known as grisaille — using the enamel colours sparingly. The first firing for the background was done at intense heat, and the subsequent firings, of which there were a great number, could be done at a lower temperature thus reducing the distortion of the colours. His enamelled Presidential Badge set with semi-precious stones, for the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours, was made in 1897. Bibliography: M.H. Spielmann, “Prof. Hubert Herkomer as a painter in enamels,” Magazine of Arts 23 (1899).
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Austrian architect and designer. One of the founder members of the Vienna Seccession Movement from 1897. Designed jewellery which was made by the Wiener Werkstatte, founded in 1903 on the lines of C.R. Ashbee's Guild of Handicraft.
Painter. One of the most renowned artists of the nineteenth century, much admired by the Emperor Napoleon III who comissioned from Ingres a design for a cameo to rival the grandes camées of antiquity. His portraits which span the whole period from 1802-1859 provide a record of jewellery fashions in the first half of the century. Bibliography: George Wildenstein, Ingres (Phaidon, 1954). J.A. Gere, “A Drawing by Ingres” British Museum Quarterly vol. 16: 40. Ingres catalogue of the exhibition held at the Petit Palais, Paris, Oct. 1967-Jan. 1968.
Caricaturist, painter and designer. Collaborated with Sem, Dufy, Cocteau and André L'hote on the publication Le Mot. Cocteau, writing of Lalique's jewellery in Portraits-Souvenir, 1900-1914, says that Iribe made designs for Lalique ' . . . (Vous dévoilerai-je que Paul Iribe est a l'origine de ces noeuds de couleuvres? Il était jeune dessinateur chez Lalique et copiait pour son patron les serpents qu'il transportait dans ses manches et dans ses poches.).' Bibliography: Benezit. Jean Cocteau, Portraits-Souvenir, 1900-1914. Editions Grasset, 1935.
Sculptor, ceramic artist and goldsmith. In 1901 started making jewellery in silver set with semi-prccious stones, chosen for their unusual colour such as amber, green onyx, malachite and opals, in collaboration with Mogens Ballin. Jensen's sculptural training is apparent in the massive shape adopted for the silver jewellery (Plate 95), and he early established a distinctive manner from which the recognisable Jensen style of the present day was evolved. Mark: JENSEN Bibliography: Modern Jewelry, Plates 89, 200-202. Ivan Munk Olsen, Solvsmeden Georg Jensen (Kopenharn, 1937) in the series Dansk Kunst (summary in English).
Designer for Liberty's 'Cymric' range of silverwork and jewellery. Work by him illustrated in the Studio, vol. 22: 126.
Architect, designer and writer. Owen Jones, through his writing, and the publication of his great pattern books which advocate the rationalisation of natural forms for use in decoration, was instrumental in reforming midnineteenth century taste in ornament. Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra, appeared in 1842. The Grammar of Ornament, in 1856, and Examples of Chinese Ornaments, in 1867. The influence of these works on contemporary design was considerable, especially on the decoration of 'standard' jewellery where the appropriate ornamentation is taken from examples provided by Jones. Bibliography: Joan Evans, Style in Ornament (Oxford University Press, 1950).
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Designer and illustrator. Trained at the Glasgow School of Art. Designed for Liberty's 'Cymric' range of jewellery and silverwork. Bibliography: Modern Jewelry Plate 185.
Painter and designer. Taught at Kingston-on-Thames School of Art before the first world war, which he left after being reprimanded for his too advanced teaching. His pupils founded the Knox Guild of Craft and Design, one of whose members managed to salvage a large number of designs discarded by Knox at the time of his departure from Kingston. A number of these designs, among which were drawings for jewellery, were recently exhibited at the Victoria & Albert Museum , with pieces of jewellery and objects in silver and pewter, and established his reputation as an important, previously underestimated, figure in the Celtic Revival and the Arts and Crafts Movement. Designed for Liberty's 'Cymric' range of silverwork and jewellery and the Tudric' range of pewter. Bibliography: Mario Amaya, “Liberty and the Modern Style,” Apollo 77 (1963): 109.
French Jeweller, silversmith and glass-maker. Regarded as the greatest French Art Nouveau jeweller, the influence of his work was apparent in European jewellery of every quality from the most expensive to the cheapest mass-produced pieces. Made two sets of jewellery for Sarah Bernhardt in 1893-94, exhibited at the Salon in Paris under his own name for the first time in 1894 and became a Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur in 1897. His most famous pieces of jewellery are those made for Calouste Gulbenkian between 1895 and 1912. Exhibited in Paris in 1900, Turin in 1902 and London in 1903 and 1905. Mark: LALIQUE. R.L. Bibliography: , by Leonce Bénédite, “Lalique” Revue des Arts Deécoratifs (July 1900). Modern Jewelry Plates 159-164.
Artist-craftsman. Worked in Vienna and Paris before moving to Berlin. Mark: E.L. Bibliography: by Graham Hughes, Modern Silver (Studio Vista, 1970).
Founded by Sir Arthur Lascnby Liberty (1843-1917) in 1875. From 1862 he was manager of Farmer and Rogers Oriental Warehouse, where some of the Japanese exhibits auctioned off after the closing of the International Exhibition in 1862 were sold. Liberty numbered amongst his customers E.W. Godwin, William Burges, Rossetti, Burne-Jones, John Ruskin and Whistler. The importance of Liberty's contribution to Continental decorative art at the turn of the century is indicated by the fact that in Italy one of the alternative names for Art Nouveau was Stile Liberty. The Liberty 'Cymric' metalwork venture, which dates from 1899, utilised the talents of many of the young designers connected with the Arts and Crafts movement, and represents the commercially successful application of Art Nouveau in England. Designers for Liberty's included Oliver Baker (examples of his work illustrated in Studio, vol. 19: 128), Arthur Gaskin, Bernard Cuzner, Archibald Knox, Jessie M. King and Rex Silver. These names have only been revealed by painstaking research since Liberty's insisted on anonymity for the designers of the silverwork and jewellery, see Shirley Bury, “The Liberty Metal-work Venture,” Architectural Review 133, no. 792, (1963), and Mario Amaya, “Liberty and the Modern Style,” Apollo 77 (1963): 109. The jewellery and silverwork was made in Birmingham by W.H. Haseler and bears either the mark of this firm, W.H.H., or one of the Liberty marks, Ly. & Co. or L. & Co., with the impressed mark CYMRIC.
Designer and metalworker. Married J. Herbert Macnair. Taught enamelling and gold- and silver-smithing at the Glasgow School of Art. Bibliography: “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” Studio Special number, Winter 1901-1902.
Related material: Frances and Margaret MacDonald sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Designer, metalworker and embroidress. Collaborated with her sister Frances on the design and execution of a small amount of jewellery, including the pendant and necklace designed by C.R. Mackintosh, who she married in 1900. Bibliography: “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” Studio Special number, Winter 1901-1902.
Related material: Frances and Margaret MacDonald sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Architect and designer. Influence of his characteristic style, particularly as exemplified by the metalwork decoration for the Glasgow School of Art and the Cranston Tea Rooms (1897-1910) can be seen in much of the Arts and Crafts jewellery and in work from the Wiener Werkstatte like the jewellery designs by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser. Bibliography: Modern Jewelry, Plate 191. Robert Macleod, “Charles Rennie Mackintosh,” Robert Macleod (1968). Gleeson White, “Some Glasgow Designers and their work,” Studio 11 (1897): 86-100, 227; 12 (1897): 47-50; 13 (1898): 12. “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” Studio Special number, Winter 1901-1902.
Related material: Mackintosh sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Painter and illustrator. Chiefly painter of genre subjects and small portraits. Made the complex design for a manchette bracelet which was carried out in niello by the jewellers S.H. & D. Gass and shown in the Great Exhibition in 1851. Official Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations.
Related material: Maclise sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Designed and made a small amount of jewellery, see illustrations in Gleeson White, “Some Glasgow Designers and their work,” Studio 11 (1897): 86, 227 and “Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” Studio Special number, Winter 1901-1902.
Related material: Macnair sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Painter, member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and President of the Royal Academy. The Natural Ornament drawings which he made while working for Ruskin on illustrations for a lecture on this subject are a remarkable foretaste of Art Nouveau jewellery design.
Related material: Millais sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
French jeweller who came to London in 1848 and set up shop at 7, New Burlington Street. He exhibited a large bouquet of diamonds and rubies in the Great Exhibition in 1851 and made the famous green jasper 'Hope' vase in 1855 which was exhibited in Paris in that year. Bibliography: L. Dussieux, Les Artistes Francois a l'etranger (Paris, 1876).
Designer, embroidress and craft-jeweller. Daughter of William Morris from whom she received her artistic training. Designed and made jewellery.
Designer and metalworker. Trained as an architect. Member of the Glasgow School. Made jewellery in beaten copper, aluminium and silver decorated in enamel and coloured glass. Bibliography: Gleeson White, “Some Glasgow Designers and their work,” Studio 11 (1897): 86, 227; 12 (1897) 47; 13 (1898): 12.
Designer and Craftsman. His influence, largely exerted through his designs for Morris, Marshall, Faulkener and Co., the decorating firm opened in 1861, on the decorative art of the late nineteenth century can hardly be estimated, and interest in this work has revived enormously during the last few years. He seems never to have designed, jewellery, though pieces are frequently attributed to him, and it is difficult to say how great a part he played in determining the final shape of the necklace said to be designed by him but made after his death by Margaret Awdry. Bibliography: Ray Watkinson, William Morris as a Designer (Studio Vista, 1967). J.W. Mackail, The Life of William Morris (London, 1899). Philip Henderson, William Morris, his life, work and friends (Thames, 1967).
Related material: William Morris sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Painter and designer. Born and partly trained in Czechoslovakia, he went to Munich in 1885 and finally arrived in Paris in 1887. Made the design for his first poster for Sarah Bernhardt, which was to make him famous overnight, in 1894. Mucha's posters for Bernhardt seem to embody the whole Art Nouveau spirit, but he, like Alfred Gilbert, always denied that his art was connected in any way with the movement. Similarly his jewellery (Plate 104), like that of Lalique, Fouquet and Grasset, is in the mainstream of Art Nouveau inspiration, as were the jewellery designs in Documents Décoratifs, which must be the basis for much of the massproduced jewellery in the Art Nouveau manner which was made in 1900 and the early years of this century. Mucha went to New York in 1904. He collaborated with Tiffany over some designs of which one jewel survives, see Alphonse Mucha, his life and work, by Jiri Mucha, Heinemanr 1966, plate facing p.328. A parure de corsage designed by Mucha and made by Fouquet (who also made the jewels for Bernhardt) is illustrated in Jewellery and Fans. The snake bracelet and hand ornament made after the Medée poster is reproduced in Maurice Rheims, L'Objet 1900 (Arts et Metiers Graphiques,). Bibliography: Brian Reade, Art Nouveau and Alphonse Mucha (H.M. Stationary Office for the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1964.)
Goldsmith and jeweller, of Phillips Bros., 31, Cockspur Street 1846-1852, 23, Cockspur Street c. 1852-1881, one of the earliest English firms to make Archaeological jewellery in the Castellani manner. Exhibited a necklace in the 'Greco-Etruscan' style in the International Exhibition in 1862. His contacts with Italy included the employment and encouragement of Italian craftsmen who came to this country, i.e. Carlo Giuliano and Carlo Doria, who, at a guess, were not the only ones; and the popularising of coral jewellery for which service to the Neapolitan economy he was decorated by the King of Naples. Exhibited 1851, 1862 etc. Bibliography: FLOWER. Art Journal Illustrated Catalogue, 1862, p.68.
Gem engraver and medallist. Born in Rome, Pistrucci came to England after the fiasco of his relationship with the dealer Bonelli, who was selling his engraved gems at vastly inflated prices as antiquities. One of these found its way into the collection of Payne Knight and is now in the British Museum. Pistrucci attempted to protect his work by marking his gems in an unobtrusive place with his secret mark, the Greek A. Became chief engraver at the Royal Mint and was responsible for the head of George III, done after a jasper cameo portrait which he made for Sir Joseph Banks in 1816 when he first came to England, and the George and Dragon on the reverse of the crown, see Forre IV, 588 for the original design. He designed the Waterloo medal, 1819, coronation medal and cameo portrait of George IV, 1821, medal for coronation of Queen Victoria, 1838 and the marriage medal in 1840 (shown in the Royal Academy in 1840). The coronation medal for Queen Victoria, like the coronation medal for George IV, was made by Rundell and Bridge. Bibliography: Pistrucci's own, incomplete, account of his life is included in A.W. Billing, The Science of Gems (1867). See also L. Forrer, A Biographical Dictionary of Medalists (London, 1909), vol. IV. Mostra di Pistrucci, Exhibition catalogue, Palazzo Braschi, Rome, 1955-1956.
Gem engravers and shell-cameo cutters. Daughters of Benedetto Pistrucci. Eliza made a cameo portrait of her father (Forrer IV, 583) which was sold at Christie's about ten years ago (see Frank Davis, “A Nineteenth Century Lapidary,” Illustrated London News (4th March 1961), and exhibited in the International Exhibition in 1862 a sardonyx cameo of the death of Adonis. Bibliography: See also L. Forrer, A Biographical Dictionary of Medalists (London, 1909), vol. IV.
Architect, designer and writer. One of the most influential designers in England in the 1840s, he was mainly responsible for the wide popularity of the Gothic style. His work in applied art was widely imitated for many years after his death, even, in the case of ecclesiastical decoration, until the turn of the century. The marriage jewellery which he designed for Miss Helen Lumsden, his intended third wife which was shown in the Mediaeval Court at the Great Exhibition in 1851 set the pattern for English Gothic jewellery and revived the use of enamelling, a technique which had fallen into disuse at the end of the aghteenth century. This jewellery was made for Pugin by John Hardman & Co., of Birmingham, ecclesiastical metalworkers. Hardman's continued to make jewellery of Puginesque design, possibly adapted from Pugin's drawings which were taken to Birmingham by his son, Edward, at the end of his life, some of which was shown by them at the International Exhibition in 1862 (Art Journal Illustrated Catalogue, 1862, p.223). Puginesque pieces extremely like Hardman's 1862 jewellery exist marked with the initials A.P. in Gothic letters, presumably in imitation of Pugin's usual mark which was A.W.P. in Gothic letters (see Flower, Plate 41b).
Pugin's writings included Contrasts, pub. 1836, The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture, 1841, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume, 1844, and Floriated Ornament, 1849, to name but a few, which furnished later 'Gothic' designers with a vast quantity of material to draw on. Bibliography: Benjamin Ferry, Recollections of A.N. Welby Pugin (London, 1861). Michael Trappes-Lomax, Pugin (Sheed and Ward, 1932). Shirley Bury, “Pugin's Marriage Jewellery” Victoria and Albert Museum Year Book, 1969.
Related material: A. W.N. Pugin sitemaps (homepages) in the Victorian Web:
Goldsmith, silversmith and jeweller. In partnership with Alwyn Carr, whom he met while studying at evening classes, from 1898. They specialised mainly in ceremonial or commemorative pieces, caskets, goblets, etc., but made a small amount of jewellery in a restrained but effective design. Bibliography: Esther Wood, “Some metalwork by Omar Ramsden and Alwyn Carr,” Studio vol. 32: 21-24. Eric Delieb, “Omar Ramsden — me fecit,” Apollo 75 (1961): 184.
Painter, sculptor and designer. Founder, with Charles Shannon, of the Vale Press. His chief interest was stage design from 1906 onwards. The jewellery designed by him for the production in 1907 of Attita at His Majesty's Theatre was made by Mrs Gwendolen Bishop, see Studio 32 (1907): 137. Had earlier designed a small amount of jewellery for his friends which he was usually dissatisfied with when completed. His jewellery designs resist rigid classification, being most like the late nineteenth-century neo-Renaissance style and French Art Nouveau, though the ring designed for May Morris is similar to a ring designed by Henry Wilson for W.R. Lethaby (in his album of designs now in the Victoria and Albert Museum) and a 'castle' ring in the book of tracings of Liberty jewellery designs in the Victoria and Albert Library. Bibliography: Self-Portrait: Letters and Journals of Charles Ricketts, ed. Cecil Lewis (London, 1939).
Painter and poet. Member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His mysterious jewel-like pictures spread the popularity of exotic ornaments and accessories. Eastern jewellery, oriental silks and Italian velvets and damasks. These preferences are reflected in the two jewellery designs that he made. His own collection provided many of the strange jewels which are worn by the models in the large figure paintings done after 1860 like The Beloved, Monna Vana Regina Cordium Rosa Triplex and La Bella Mano. Bibliography: H.C. Marillier, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (George Bell and Sons, 1899). Virginia Surtees, Paintings and Drawings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (Oxford, 1971).
Related material: D. G. Rossetti sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Writer and draughtsman. The most influential writer on art in the nineteenth century, his books achieved unprecedented popularity for specialist works of this sort. Virtually unread since, interest in Ruskin has recently revived. Relentless critic of nineteenth century jewellery design and of the cult of the precious stone, he, like Morris, advocated the return of the mediaeval designer-craftsman. He avoided the trap which both C.L. Eastlake and Sir Matthew Digby-Wyatt fell into, and did not involve himself directly with jewellery design, beyond causing a small, highly-detailed, painting of a hen's wing feather to be made into a locket which he presented to his cousin Joan Severn on the birth of her third child. see Sheila Birkenhead, Illustrious Friends (Hamish Hamilton, 1965), p.252).
Related material: John Ruskin sitemap (homepage) in the Victorian Web
Bibliography (including works available on this site)
Helsinger, Elizabeth K. Ruskin and the Art of the Beholder. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Hewison, Robert. John Ruskin: The Argument of the Eye. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Landow, George P. The Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.
Landow, George P. Ruskin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Landow, George P. "Your Good Influence on Me": The Correspondence of John Ruskin and William Holman Hunt. Manchester: The John Rylands Library, 1976-77.
Peterson, Linda H. “Ruskin's Praeterita: The Attempt at Deconstruction” in Victorian Autobiography: The Tradition of Self-Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.
Quennell, Peter. John Ruskin, the Portrait of a Prophet. Collins, 1949.
Ruskin, John. Works. The Library Edition. Ed. Cook and Wedderburn. London, 1903-1912.
Sawyer, Paul. Ruskin's Poetic Argument: The Design of the Major Works. Cornell: Cornell University Press, 1985.
Silver, Reginald (Rex) 1879-1954
Designer. Worked in the studio of his father, Arthur Silver, chiefly a designer of fabrics and wallpapers. Employed by Liberty's as a designer for the 'Cymric' range of silverwork and jewellery from 1900.
Interior designer, glass worker and jeweller. Took over the firm of Tiffany 8c Co., New York, founded by his father, Charles Tiffany, who had started making jewellery in 1848. In the seventies Tiffany's imported jewellery from Boucheron. At the turn of the century the process was reversed and goods made by Tiffany's were being sold by Samuel Bing in his Maison de L'Art Nouveau. Bibliography: Modern Jewellery, Plates 88, 197-199.
Belgian architect, painter and designer. Studied painting in Antwerp and Paris, but was forced to give it up c.1893 owing to ill-health, and he then turned his attention to design. Important early exponent of the theory of Art Nouveau. Settled in Germany in 1899 where he remained until 1917 and his work is illustrated in the German section of "Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans,” but he had already made a name for himself in Belgian Art Nouveau with Victor Horta in Brussels in the early nineties. Unlike most of his contemporaries van de Velde's designs for jewellery are not rooted in the tradition of design based on organic forms inherited from Morris and Viollet le Duc, his neo-Rococo shapes are almost all made up of abstract, linear forms. Bibliography: Modern Jewellery, Plates 85, 182, 183.
Vever, Parisian firm of jewellers
Parisian firm of jewellers founded by Ernest Vever who retired in 1880. Taken over by Paul (1851-1915) and Henri (1854-1942) author of the standard work on nineteenth-century jewellery, La Bijouterie Francaise au XIXe Siècle, 3 vols. (1904-1908).
Architect and designer. Influential member of the Arts and Crafts movement. Member of the Art Workers Guild from 1884. Exhibited with the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Made designs for a mace and chain and a brooch both in the drawings collection in the Library of the R.I.B.A. Bibliography: “An Interview with Mr Charles F. Annesley, Architect and Designer,” Studio vol. 1: 231-37.
Architect, silversmith and jeweller. After completing his architectural training he joined the office of J.D. Sedding as his chief assistant. He completed work left undone at the time of Sedding's death in 1891. His interest in metalwork dates from about 1890 and he set up a workshop about five years later. He was assisted by H.G. Murphy (1884-1939) and J.P. Cooper, (1869-1933) who were both to become considerable figures in their own right. Joined the Art Workers Guild in 1892. Taught at the Royal College of Art under W.R. Lethaby from c.1901 and at the L.C.C. Central School of Arts and Crafts. Succeeded Walter Crane as President of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1915. Some of his work is marked with a monogram H.W. Bibliography: Silver-work and Jewellery (London, 1903). Modern Jewellery, Plates 187, 190. H.G. Murphy, Plates. 188, 189.
Sculptor, goldsmith and jeweller. Son of Louis Wolfers who was in the family firm, Wolfers frères of Brussels, the Belgian Court jewellers, from c.l 850. Philippe Wolfers turned to designing and making jewellery in 1897. Exhibited with the Wiener Werkstatte in 1899, at the Centennial Exhibition in Paris in 1900 and in Turin in 1902. His jewels are all marked 'P.W. exemplaire unique.' From 1812 the mark of the firm of Wolfers freres was a W surmounting the cross of the Legion of honour, changed in about 1850 to the mark used in the present day, W with a boar's head. Bibliography: Modern Jewellery, Plates 177, 203. Wolfers' work is illustrated in Studio, vol. 16: 135, 13; vol. 20: 196, 197.
7 March 2015