J. Clayton Clarke ("Kyd")
Watercolour reproduced on John Player cigarette card no. 31
Scanned image and text by Philip V. Allingham
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Of the set of 50 cigarette cards, initially produced in 1910 and reissued in 1923, fully 13 or over 25% concern a single novel, The Pickwick Papers, attesting to the enduring popularity of the picaresque comic novel and also suggesting that the later, darker novels such as Our Mutual Friend and The Mystery of Edwin Drood offered little for the caricaturist, the only late characters in the series being the singularly unpleasant Silas Wegg and Rogue Riderhood from Our Mutual Friend, and Turveydrop, Jo, Bucket, and Chadband from Bleak House. The popular taste was clearly still towards the earlier farce and character comedy of Dickens. The series includes a total of nine character cards from the cast of The Old Curiosity (1840-41), or 18% of the total: Dick Swiveller, no. 11; Mr. Chuckster, no. 12; the innocent and virtuous heroine, Nell, no. 22; the benign, jolly Punch-and-Judy man Short (Harris), no. 26; the villainous, lecherous Quilp, no. 27; the Brasses' quirky maid, The Marchioness, no. 28; the oily attorney, Sampson Brass, no. 29; the dictatorial Sally Brass, no. 30; and Short's morose, discontented fellow-puppeteer, Codlin, no. 31 — characterisations based on the original serial illustrations of Dickens's "Clock Works" team of Phiz sixty-one plates; Daniel Maclise, Little Nell and the Sexton; and George Cattermole, fourteen plates, often architectural settings, but including the iconic death of Little Nell in At Rest for Chapter 71, 30 January 1841 (seventy-third plate in the series).
Kyd's representations are largely based on the original illustrations by Phiz and Seymour, although the modelling of the figures is suggestive of Phiz's own, expanded series for Household Edition volume of the 1870s. The anomaly, of course, is that Kyd should elect to depict minor figures from the first Dickens novel such as the Dingley Dell cricketers Dumkins and Luffey and the minor antagonist Major Bagstock in Dombey and Son, but omit significant characters from such later, still-much-read novels as A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations. Five of the fifty cards or 10% of the series come from the cast of The Adventures of Oliver Twist; or, The Parish Boy's Progress (1837-39): Oliver himself, asking for more; Fagin with his toasting fork, from the scene in which he prepares dinner for his crew; Sikes holding a beer-mug, and the Artful Dodger in an oversized adult topcoat and crushed top-hat. Surprisingly, some of the other significant characters, including Nancy and Rose Maylie, are not among the first set of fifty characters, in which Kyd exhibits a strong male bias, as he realizes only seven female characters: only the beloved Nell, the abrasive Sally Brass, and the quirky Marchioness from The Old Curiosity Shop, Sairey Gamp from Martin Chuzzlewit, Aunt Betsey Trotwood from David Copperfield, the burly Mrs. McStinger from Dombey and Son, and the awkward Fanny Squeers from Nicholas Nickleby appear in the essentially comic cavalcade.
The puppeteers with contrasting personalities, Codlin and Short, make their initial appearance in Phiz's Punch in the Churchyard (Chapter 16). Following the models that this illustration provided him, Kyd gave portly Short a pleasant expression and a waistcoat, and the lean Codlin a long coat and striped trousers; however, in Kyd's illustration it is the dour Codlin and not the amicable Short who is carrying the trumpet.
Created 9 January 2015