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ctober began with your webmaster adding excerpts from a 1901 Blackwood’s article on the origins of the Chinese Opium Wars that apportions blame to the East India Company and the British and Chinese Governments. Next, prompted by Ruth Richardson’s “Florence Nightingale's Illness and How It Aided Her Contributions to Medical Care & Public Health,” he put online one of his essays from three decades ago — “Aggressive (Re)interpretations of the Female Sage: Florence Nightingale’s Cassandra” and created a homepage for Nightingale in our section on public health.

Philip V. Allingham, Contributing Editor, Canada, continues his massive illustration project, adding dozens of images and commentaries on Dickens’s Old Curiosity Shop by Phiz and a half dozen other illustrators. He has also added 54 illustrations by Thomas Worth and commentaries for a dozen of them plus 20 illustrations by Harry Furniss.

Jackie Banerjee recently reviewed Penny Harris's new book on Robert Owen and the Architect Joseph Hansom, an "unusual co-operation," as she terms it in her subtitle, between the social reformer and a young, up-and-coming architect. She also added a new page on St Thomas's Cathedral in Mumbai, and George Gilbert Scott's fountain just outside it — both of these with the help of photographs by Patrick Carson. Patrick's photos also enabled her to write a tiny bit more (not enough!) about the Irish sculptor Thomas Farrell, and his (and the metal-worker Thomas Potter's) work on the Wellington Testimonial in Dublin. After that she worked on a longer project about animals in Victorian times, seeing how they were involved in everyday life — as pets, in zoos, menageries and circuses, as subjects of study, as part of the workforce, and as subjects of humanitarian concern. In the course of this, she wrote some short pieces, one about Hogarth's depiction of The Second Stage of Cruelty, one about The Charge of Scarlett's 300 or Heavy Brigade at Balaclava 25th October 1854, and another about G. H. Thomas's illustration of Mrs Gatty's The Law of Authority.

Simon Cooke, our Books editor, has written two more of his well-researched and sensitive essays, one about the illustrator Celia Levetus and the other about the illustrations of Georgie Gaskin. Levetus is one of those talented but almost forgotten women associated with the Birmingham School of Illustrators. Gaskin is better known for her jewellery and metalwork, but her exquisite illustrations (such as this one) are often overlooked.

Rita Wood has now given us an excellent picture of the architect Edward Taylor's work in York and the surrounding area, adding his Heworth Methodist Church and Easingwold Town Hall, both very attractive buildings. Interesting features outside the town hall are a memorial fountain and a canopied market cross.

Thank you to Antoine Capet, reviews editor for the online journal, Cercles, for sharing with us Professor Anne Brunon-Erst's review of Chris Barker's Educating Liberty: Democracy and Aristocracy in J.S. Mill's Political Thought, and Professor Yann Theloniat's review of Clara Dawson's Victorian Poetry and the Culture of Evaluation.

Special thanks to Ash Nallawalla for pointing out some confusion about Elphinstone College in Mumbai, which quickly moved from its original building to another nearby. It was hard to sort out, but especially good to know, because one of the architects of the latter was the Bombay-born Parsi, Khan Bahadur Muncherji Cowasji Murzban. A memoir of Murzban's life gives a fascinating insight into that period in Mumbai.

Many thanks also to Francoise Baillet and @PunchBooks, for identifying this cartoon from Punch as one of Gerald Du Maurier's, and to Simon Knott for correcting the location of a lovely relief by E. M. Rope. Twitter is a wonderful medium for fact-checking!

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eptember began with your webmaster finding, formatting, and putting online attacks by the Quarterly Review on the British government’s bloody engagements in Egypt and the Sudan: “There was no enemy, and no war, but we had to fight”: Gladstone's Ministry & Egypt” and “Gordon’s Actions in Egypt and the Sudan, Particularly Regarding Slavery.” Continuing to add and then link to one another varying view points expressed in Victorian periodicals, Landow then added excerpts from the Edinburgh Review, including “‘The Most Pressing Difficulty of the Day’: The Situation in the Sudan,” “Justifying England’s Actions in Egypt,” and “Egypt’s Debts in 1884,” and one entire long article from from Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, ““Fanaticism in the Soudan” plus an excerpt, “‘The Policy of England in Egypt Has Been a Gigantic and Fatal Error from Beginning to End’” and, for a change, something that has nothing to do with the empire — ““Morris & Co. and the Arts Under Socialism.” Throughout Patrick Leary has generously provided essential assistance by identifying authors of these anonymous articles from his copy of The Wellesley Periodical Index as well as making valuable corrections. Leary’s identifications have led to the site’s adding biographical material for the author of one of these anonymous articles, who turns out to have been a swashbuckling former naval officer, Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden (1822-1886), adviser to the Sultan of Turkey who became known as “Hobart Pasha.”

At the very end of last month, Jackie Banerjee completed a review of Alec Hamilton's new book, Arts & Crafts Churches, which has a wide-ranging introduction and a gazetteer packed with illustrations (including photographs from one of our own contributing photographers, John Salmon). She then wrote an introduction to the life and work of the landscape-painter Benjamin Leader Williams, and added a number of his paintings, including his well-known February, Fill Dyke. Following on from this, her review of The Invention of the Modern Dog: Breed and Blood in Victorian Britain prompted her to open a new section on Victorians and animals, to which she added several pieces from contemporary sources — about the 1874 Birmingham dog show, and two prominent dog-fanciers, Sophie Duleep-Singh and the Duchess of Newcastle, as well as a contemporary account of the illustrator Harrison Weir.

Our editor for book illustration and design, Simon Cooke, contributed another of his excellent essays on an illustrator, this time the chromolithographer W. R. Tymms. He later added another book binding designed by Tymms, this time for Byron's popular The Prisoner of Chillon. He followed that up with an essay on Tymms's work in designing book bindings. This was a case where attribution required a very specialized knowledge of style, publishers' practices and so on. Simon's next piece was an essay on illustrator Florence Rudland, best known for her illustrations to a later edition of Mrs Sherwood's well-known The Fairchild Family.

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor from Poland, contributed “Thomas Hardy's Far from the Madding Crowd: A Pastoral Tinged with Tragedy,” and Tim Willasey-Wilsey, Editor for Military and Colonial History, contributed “Monument to Lt-Col John Nugent in St. Thomas's Cathedral, Bombay” and “Those Who Died in the Wreck of the Alexander on the English Coast.

Rita Wood contributed photographs and commentaries for two Yorkshire churches rebuilt by R. D. Chantrell: St Martin's, Fangfoss, and St Catherine's, Barmby Moor. A family connection with Minton meant that tiling is a special feature in these churches. So far we have the tiles at St Catherine's, which include a memorial tile to Herbert Minton himself.. Another set of photos and accompanying text resulted in a much fuller entry for architect Edward Taylor's best-known building, York's Art Gallery.

Patrick Leary, Founder and Editor of the discussion list Victoria, shared two previously published essays with us: “A Victorian Virtual Community [Notes and Queries]” and “How the Dickens Scandal Went Viral.”

James Spates contributed “Van Akin Burd: The Last Interview,” and Mary Millar shared “‘You Dirty Boy’: A Rare Victorian Political Cartoon.” Dr. Brent Shannon Associate Professor, Department of English at Eastern Kentucky University, shared his list of 98 university novels to which other members of Victoria added a few more. Deanna McCombs sent in additional photographs of stained glass by Burne-Jones in the chapel of Harris-Manchester College, Oxford, including the Faith & Prophecy, Charity & Mercy, Justice & Humility. Prayer & Inspiration windows. Michael Williams added three more essays to his puerperal (childbed) fever project: “Contrasting Epidemics: Puerperal Fever and Cholera,” “Puerperal Fever: Fog and Filthy Air.” and “Puerperal Fever: Overcrowding and Effluvia.”

A new contributor, Patrick Carson, has offered us some wonderful material from his two privately printed books, one on Bombay and the other on Thomas Potter, a metalworker who provided fine ecclesiastical and secular work for two of the major architects of the age, George Gilbert Scott and G. E. Street. The Potter book has allowed us to expand several older entries, for example, on the Law Courts' clock (the spectacular case was made by Potter!), and Christ Church Cathedral (the equally spectacular chancel gates were Potter's too). Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt's Chatham Barracks Memorial Arch, also with gates by Potter, was another addition. As for Patrick's Indian material, the first piece online is not in Bombay but in Kerala, the picturesque Holy Trinity Church, Idaiyangudi, Tinnevuly, with its important architect/missionary, Robert Caldwell, still honoured in S. India for inspiring the Tamil Renaissance.

Thanks to Gavan Tredoux, who edits a Francis Galton website, for providing the correct page numbers of an anonymous 1867 review of Darwin’s The Origin of Species.

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ugust began with your webmaster once again drawing upon the treasures of the Hathi Trust Digital Library and The Internet Archive to create a section on Egypt based upon the 1856 Imperial Gazetteer, which provides context for Tim Willasey-Wilsey’s “St Mark’s Anglican Church” and “Misr Railway Station, Alexandria, Egypt.” Landow wrote The Utilitarian Theory of Economic Imperialism, or Empire as Auxiliary, Britain’s Inadvertant Destruction of Turkish and Egyptian Rulers, and The Bear’s Shadow: Russia and Victorian Britain’s Foreign Policy. The new section on Egypt also provides a center for much of our material on Egyptomania and on painters, such as David Roberts, J. F. Lewis, and Frederick Goodall. In addition, Landow added 25 of Francis Frith’s photographs of Egypt, some of which now appear in the articles derived from the Gazetteer.

A second stage in the Egypt project began with the realization that the 1842 Encylopædia Brittanica has a massive article on the history and contemporary politics of that country — 100 double-columned pages of fine print. The Brittanica’s Egypt provides us with an invaluable time capsule of early Victorian understandings of the country that remained the center of British foreign policy for the second half of the nineteenth century and beyond. Here are a few of the many excerpts from the Brittanica and articles based upon it: “France’s Egyptian Strategy from Louis XIV to Napoleon and After,” “Napoleon Explains Three Reasons for the French Invasion of Egypt,” ““An Expedient Which Wisdom and Humanity Must Alike Condemn”: the British Destroy the Protecting Banks of the Nile,” “Ibrahim, Ali Bey, and Mohammed Bey — Three Successive Egyptian Rebel Rulers,” “Mehemmed Ali’s Civic and Economic Reforms,” “Mehemmed Ali and the Egyptian Army in the 1840s,” and “Russia Unexpectedly Obtains a Foothold in Turkey” and “The Rise, Fall, and Rise of the Mamlukes and the Creation of the Ottoman Empire’s Supreme Porte.”

The month’s final additions to the Egypt-Sudan project took the form of adding material from Victorian periodicals, the most important parts of which were the weekly bulletins on the Nile Expedition to rescue General Gordon in The Illustrated London News, their four dozen illustrations of that operation, and “England in Egypt,” a long article from The Westminster Review. The Graphic provided a few dozen more illustrations about the Sudan, and The Westminster Review some interesting excerpts, including a reviews of books about Gordon written shortly after his death, and a scathing account of the disorganization and poor planning of the Sudan expedition “By an Officer Who Was There)

During the sweltering early days of August, Jackie Banerjee finished making a small gallery of Frances Burney photographs, some of which, like that of St Michael's, Mickleham, relate to the Victorian period too: St Michael's was the church in which both she and George Meredith were married. She then added some new material about the Scottish artist William Strang, including Herbert Furst's 1917 International Studio article about him, and some new works. These included a self-portrait, and the allegorical Adoration, which might strike us as rather creepy now. After that, Simon Cooke's latest brilliant essay (see below) introduced her to the illustrations of several Birmingham artists, such as Georgie Gaskin and Celia Levetus, for whom she wrote very brief introductions. She also added an article about Levetus by H.W. Bromhead from the Art Journal (1900), and an extra few illustrations of her work. Her favourite among these was The Angel for Blake's Songs of Experience. Working with Rita Wood on Victorian York (again, see below) proved equally inspiring, and here she added an essay on the Yorkshire Fine Art and Industrial Exhibition of 1866.

Later this month she opened two new sections. One was on the artist Lucien Pissarro, his paintings, wood-engravings and the Eragny Press, established in London with his wife Esther. The other was on the architect James William Wild, and (with the help of John Salmon's brilliant photographs) his introduction of polychromy in church-building at Christ Church, Streatham. She found pictures and articles about the opening of two of his other buildings, St Martin's Northern Schools and the Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green, in contemporary issues of the Illustrated London News. She also added a brief introduction to Godwin of Lugwardine, the firm that made tiles for many of the important Victorian churches and public buildings.

Simon Cooke's latest, on the Birmingham School of Illustrators, is an exciting addition to our already very well stocked section on Victorian illustrators, especially since it includes some talented but overlooked women illustrators. This big and intricate enterprise features some new title pages, such as this one for Renaud of Mountaubon by Fred Mason, and bookbindings too, like this one by Mason for the same book.

In addition to his essays about Alexandria mentioned above, Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed “The Twilight of the East Indiamen,” “The Wreck of the Alexander on the English Coast (1815),” and “New Passages to India.” Ian Mcleod’s essay about a battle in the Sudan — “‘You Broke the British Square’: The Battle of Tamai, 13 March 1884” — then led to Landow first creating a section on Suez and the Suez Canal and then one about the Sudan that features not only material from Victorian gazetteers and encyclopedias but also three dozen articles and illustrations from the 1885 Illustrated London News.

John Salmon's photographs of J. W. Wild's Christ Church, Streatham, already mentioned, included some beautiful ones of stained glass windows, a set by the architect J. F. Bentley, and a pair of really wonderful ones by Walter Crane: The Widow of Nain and The Charge to Peter.

Rita Wood's recent contributions from York have focussed on the architect Edward Taylor, and at the end of last month she dug into archives to bring him to life for us, with work (for example) on "The Sycamores," a pair of semi-detached houses he designed for himself and his father. Another of her welcome contributions is an attractive former Chapel on Peckitt Street, York, demonstrating the kind of fine work being done there. Then Rita went exploring and sent in a batch of splendid photographs of the architect G. E. Street's St Andrew's, Weaverthorpe, again with her own commentary.

James Spates added two valuable tributes to earlier Ruskin scholars — “The Superlative Scholarship of Helen Gill Viljoen” and “Van Akin Burd: A (Mostly Inadequate!) Tribute.”

Deanna McCombs, a new contributor, sent along a series of photographs of stained glass by Burne-Jones in the chapel of Harris-Manchester College, Oxford, that included the west window emphasizing the Evangelists, the east window featuring angels and the nativity, and the wonderful Days of Creation windows.

Thanks to Geri Giebel Chavis, Professor Emerita, St. Catherine University in St. Paul, for sharing a section of her forthcoming Routledge book, Peril and Protection in British Courtship Novels. Thanks, too, to Gordon Brackstone for correcting an error in the biography of Frederick Robinson, Viscount Goderich and to Shana Mendelson and her Junior Scouts for suggesting on online source of material about the history of costume. Thanks also go to Tim Mcgee for pointing out that one of the images of a Rossetti drawing was reversed!

David Lawrence of Kingston University London write with the sad news that Stuart Durant, one of our contributors, has died.

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uly began with your webmaster adapting two books for the site: Lionel Gossman’s From Expulsion to Emancipation: Jews in England 1290-1858 saw completion, and Susan Matoff’s Conflicted Life: William Jerdan, 1782-1869. London Editor, Author, and Critic is also online. In the course of preparing both volumes, Landow added many portraits thanks to the National Portrait Gallery. Extracting large parts of Matoff’s book about Letitia E. Landon, he created a section in the author directory, adding biographical essays, including “Letitia Landon’s Public Persona,” “Landon Almost Marries John Foster,” and “Landon’s Mysterious Death — Murder, Suicide, or Accident?.” In addition, Matoff provided discussions of her poetry, fiction, and editorial work: “Letitia Landon’s Public Persona,” “ Landon’s takes over book reviewing for the Literary Gazette” and “Landon Edits and contributes all content to the Drawing-Room Scrap Book, 1832-1839.” Next, drawing upon the Hathi Trust’s riches, Landow transcribed 32 poems from the 1839 edition of her works.

With lockdown restrictions easing here, Jackie Banerjee has been dreaming of holidays, continuing her work with Colin Price on seaside piers, but with many more to go. She also opened a new section for Ruskin's friend and follower W. G. Collingwood, and, with John Salmon's photographs, added St James, Bushey High Street, Herts, where the editor of the Literary Gazette, William Jerdan, was buried. Then, she turned to the artist Keeley Halswelle, after coming across an account of him in some early journal material, and some of his paintings, including Welcome Shade and Green-Robed Senators.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey, our editor for Military and Colonial History and Visiting Professor at King's College, London, contributed “Victoria College, Alexandria, Egypt.”

Many thanks also to Rita Wood, for her contribution (both photos and commentary) on 10-10A Stonegate, York, with its wonderful tiled façade and fine woodwork — also for her material on the architect who carried out the Victorian restoration, Edward Taylor.

Caroline Murray contributed an enjoyable piece about W. G. Collingwood's book, Ruskin Relics. Most of its illustrations were usefully added to the already very rich section on Ruskin.

Mike Williams contributed “Puerperal Fever: A Question of Definition,” the first of a promised series of essays on this disease that killed so many women during the Victorian years.

Thanks to Albert Pionke for providing the date of a Punch cartoon.

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une’s most important news: Joanne Devereux, Assistant Professor at Western University, in London, Ontario, joins us as Assistant Editor for Gender Matters. The month's first contribution from outside our editorial board came from Mike Williams, who sent along “From a Pin to a Steam Engine: Prosser’s History of Birmingham Industrial Patents, a detailed study showing the step-by-step growth of the technologies that created the Industrial Revolution.” J. R. Watson, Professor of English in the University of Durham, kindly shared with us two essays that add add crucial information to our section on hymns within the religion section: “The Victorian Hymn” and “Ancient or Modern, Ancient and Modern: the Victorian Hymn and the Nineteenth Century.”

Your webmaster added two examples of Punch’s racist attacks on those wanting justice in the Eyre Affair — “Library of Fiction” (Review of The Reign of Terror in Jamaica and “Chamerobzoh. (A Negro Melody.)”— and the preface to Henry Bleby’s The Reign of Terror in Jamaica. Next came Punch’s London’s Nightmare, which uses Oliver Twist’s Bumble to satirize obsolete, entrenched local government. Continuing to use the riches of the Hathi Trust, Landow transcribed and formatted two Punch poems mocking Tory resistance to extending the right to vote: “ Reform Bill is coming, oh dear! oh dear! A Cry from the Conservative Party” and “The Reform Bill Done into Hiawathan Verse by Mr. Punch.” In addition, on Punch’s views of gender matters saw new material, which includes a funny cartoon on lady novelists and sensation novels supposedly unfit for daughters, Needle Money, a protest about the poverty and working conditions of seamstresses plus the story of Tom Hood’s “Song of the Shirt.” On the less pleasant side, we have the “Great Reform Meeting. By Our Own Reportress,” a supposed record of a meeting about female suffrage filled with condescension.

Jackie Banerjee opened a new section on the pioneering journalist and women's activist, Emily Faithfull, dealing with her successful initiative, the Victoria Press, and her powerful call to action, entitled Women's Work. While adding paintings as illustrations for new contributions, she opened a new section on the military painter, Orlando Norie, gave some extra information on Louis Desanges, and included several other new paintings from the National Army Museum in London, such as this one of mutinous sepoys being alerted to an attack. On a quieter note, she started a section on the artist Joshua Hargrave Sams Mann, although it was hard to find out much about his life. The life of the etcher and author Lucy Brightwell is better documented, and it was a special pleasure to include a short piece about her by Michael Blaker, R.E., who sadly passed away in November 2018: many thanks to Catriona Blaker for permission to do so. heir subsequent correspondence led JB to include Michael's knowledgeable piece on the sizeable number of French etchers involved in the early days of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers. She also opened a new folder on the prolific engravers, William and Edward Francis Finden. The rest of the month passed in writing about Petworth House in Sussex, and some of the many works in its art collection, including John Flaxman's Pastoral Apollo and John Edward Carew's Adonis and the Boar. A favourite among the large number of Turners there (already on our site) is The Confluence of the Thames and the Medway.

Among the other very welcome contribution this month were Rita Wood's, about the architect J. P. Pritchett's Lady Hewley’s Almshouses, at St Saviourgate, York; and Paul Goldman's account of the artist and illustrator, Eleanor Vere Boyle, for which Simon Cooke scanned and discussed about a dozen illustrations. The most attractive are probably the ones for Hans Christian Andersen's Fairytales, like this one of Tommelise on the swallow's back. Later in the month, Colin Price sent in some extra photographs of LLandudno Pier, starting a new series on these Victorian seaside structures, including those at Bangor and Mumbles, and one at Cromer. At the end of the month came a long overdue piece on Robert Owen, from Penny Harris, whose book on Owen and the architect Joseph Hansom will be out later this summer. JB provided some illustrations, such as one of Hansom's splendid but ill-fated Harmony Hall in Hampshire.

Three Emeritus Professors made new contributions to the website: Amitav Banerjee sent in a review of William Dalrymple's The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty in Delhi, 1857, which throws so much light on the other side of the uprising; and Robert Fraser sent in his very insightful and enjoyable reflections (including his own poems, and a moving choral performance of one of them) on selected paintings in the Royal Holloway Picture Gallery's collection. This was an unusual multi-media project, and we're grateful to all concerned for the necessary permissions. Lionel Gossman, M. Taylor Pyne Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages,  Princeton University, has contributed a book written especially for the Victorian Web: The History of Jews in Great Britain. Thus far the first four chapters are online: “The Middle Ages until Expulsion (1290),” “The Reformation, Cromwell, the Commonwealth, and Readmission of the Jews,” “he Restoration, Glorious Revolution, and Enlightenment,” and “The ‘Jew Bill’ of 1753.” In addition, Susan Matoff has shared her book about William Jerdan and Letitia E. Landon: Conflicted Life:William Jerdan (1782-186): London Editor, Critic, & Author. Thus far 10 chapters are online. Prompted by Matoff’s book, Landow has created a section on Landon.

The Oxford & Cambridge Club reports that the Victorian Web has proved a "wonderful resource" for its "Library Matters" newsletter during lockdown. Thanks!

Thanks to Philip L. Stein, who did the HTML formatting in Mary Jean Corbett’s important review of James H. Murphy’s Irish Novelists and the Victorian Age and Peter Mallios’s Joseph Conrad's Contemporary Reviews both of which Review19 has shared with us. Bill McKelvy of Washington University in St. Louis wrote in to correct a typo. Thanks!

The website translated “Victorian and Victorianism” into Hungarian — the nineteenth language in which some of our material has appeared.

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ay begun with your webmaster completing rescans of many of George du Maurier’s Punch cartoons. Then, after reformatting and adding commentaries and series of links to 170 of them, he added another dozen new cartoons. He next spent several days similarly upgrading our section of 150 cartoons of Charles Keene, after which he expanded the section on Linley Sambourne with a forty cartoons and commentaries, after which he wrote “Punch on Whistler and Burne-Jones after the infamous Ruskin-Whistler Trial.” Next, he created a sections on Punch cartoons about Benjamin Disraeli and women’s dresses, coiffures, and jewelry, linking it to material in our sections on costume and jewelry.

Finding time during lockdown, Jackie Banerjee worked with a large set of photographs from contributing photographer John Salmon, to write about St Peter's Church, Bournemouth, one of the most important Anglo-Catholic churches of the later Victorian period: its main architect was G. E. Street, and its interior (especially the Keble Chapel) is exceptionally rich in decoration and fittings. Stained glass windows designed by Street himself, and by Edward Burne-Jones, William Wailes, Alexander Gibbs (probably), Percy Bacon and Clayton and Bell (to give just one example of each), add to the colour and significance of the church. She also wrote a brief introduction to one of Caroline Norton's sisters — the author and, in one case, illustrator, Lady Dufferin. The rest of the month went on creating a new section for George Borrow, with a biography, a discussion of his literary legacy, and samples of three of his best-known works, The Bible in Spain, Lavengro and Wild Wales.

Philip V. Allingham and Landow worked together on more than 100 of Charles Green’s illustrations for Dickens’s Christmas Books.

Andrzej Diniejko, our contributing editor from Poland, continued his work on Disraeli, adding “Benjamin Disraeli and the Jewish Question in Victorian England.”

Drawing together artwork from many sources, Simon Cooke contributed a full-length and very handsomely illustrated article, "The Mistake of Going on Holiday: Travel, Tourism and Leisure in Early and Mid-Victorian Illustration." This includes new illustrations by George Cruikshank, Richard Doyle, "Phiz" (Hablot Knight Browne) and Lady Dufferin — again, these links lead to just one example of each. He went on to write about the illustrator John Sliegh, including some new illustrations of his work, and updating and extending an earlier essay on Sleigh's bookbindings.

Stephen Basdeo contributed “The Difference between Lantern and Lanthorn” and “Napoleon’s Surprising Popularity in Nineteenth-Century England.” Mike Williams contributed “Kingsley, Millar, Chadwick on Poverty and Epidemics” and “Kingsley, Industrialization, and National Degeneration.” Many thanks also to Brigid Allen for beginning a new section on the author Emily Eden, with an essay entitled "Prospects of India: Emily Eden and her brother Lord Auckland, 1830-35."

Dave May kindly wrote to point out an incorrect image in our section on agricultural technology, and Nick Thomas-Brown also corrected a point in one of our 17-year-old student essays. Thanks to both! Courtney Maheny e-mailed to report that she has been unable to use the Firefox browser to use this site. Which Browsers work best with The Victorian Web? This site has been formatted to work best with Safari and Chrome, both of which are available for Macintosh and Windows operating systems.

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pril began with your webmaster completing work on the “Ruskin’s Venice” project, after which he created a small set of networked documents comprising Swinburne’s criticism of Lord Byron, William Wordsworth, Matthew Arnold, and Charles Reade. Continuing to experiment with creating networks of an author’s comments, Landow next added several of Henry James’s comments about London, including “London and Paris Compared,” “The Romance of a Winter Afternoon in London,” “The Fog, Smog, and Skies over London,” and “London melts by wide, ugly zones into the green country.” Ruskin’s Venice may be complete for now, but Ruskin keeps coming to mind in “Ruskin on the “Darkness and Mystery, the Stage Properties of Superstition” and “ “There is no sacredness in round arches, nor in pointed”: Ruskin on Gothic Architecture and Religion.”

Realizing that many of the Victorian texts on the site did not appear in “Victorian Texts in the Victorian Web,” your webmaster has added a dozen and a half missing authors, including Charles Dickens and Oscar Wilde as well as lesser known ones, such as Lord Dunsany, William Hope Hodgson, and William Brighty Rands. In addition, he added Albert Bruce-Joy’s Memorial to The Right Honorable Gerald Fitzgibbon, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland and addiitonal photographs to the same sculptor’s Memorial to James Whiteside, an earlier Chief Justice. The 1864 Illustrated London News provided an image of Dublin’s Winter Garden and Exhibition Building and William Theed, Junior’s statue of Prince Albert at Balmoral. Mining old materials stored on his computer, your webmaster then added several piece of Mackintosh furniture to the architect-designer’s section. During the last week or so of the month Landow began rescanning the cartoons from George Du Maurier’s English Society, reformatting the documents, and adding both commentaries and links to cartoons on the same subjects. By the 30th 70 of these delightful cartoons went online.

Thanks once again for the Mass Gallery for sharing their images and information with our readers. Philip Hermogenes Calderon’s The Fruit Seller, Edward Wiliiam Cooke’s Vesuvius, Augustus L. Egg’s A Cottage Garden, Andrew MacCallum’s The Fire at Clerkenwell, July 28 1876, John William Godward ’s Sketch for Amaryllis and After the Serenade, Keeley Halswelle’s The Needles, Isle of Wight, Frank Holl’s The Blacksmith's Rest, Arthur Hughes’s Night Toilers, Fresh Sea Breezes, Benjamin Williams Leader’s The Carnarvonshire Coast, William Blake Richmond’s A Centaur by Moonlight, Morea and Landscape at Sunset , Thomas Matthews Rooke’s Phyllis Deserted - Become the Spirit of the Almond Tree, Sidney Herbert Sime’s Hast thou, spirit, Perform'd to point the tempest that I bade thee?', George Francis Teniswood’s Twilight on the Avon, Ruins of Kenilworth Castle in the Distance, and Charles William Wyllie’s Southampton Water.

Philip V. Allingham created revisions and expansions of his essays on the illustrations of Charles Green of Dickens’s Christmas, in the process of which revisions he expanded many of his older commentaries on Thomas Nast, Phiz, and other illustrators of these works. Of particular interest how the 1912 illustrations of The Haunted Man turn it into a different kind of work.

This month Jackie Banerjee has been continuing to work with Rita Wood on the Victorian architecture of York, discussing for example the former Yorkshire Club with its notable tiling, and the Museum Lodge, which your webmaster had photographed in passing, on an earlier visit. One of the new pieces is about the dazzling mosaic of the Ascension, in St Andrew's, Kirby Grindalythe, in the East Riding. As well as opening a new section on the diarist Francis Kilvert for Simon Cooke's essay (see below), she added excerpts of his work with commentaries, and opened another new section for the diarist Arthur Munby — and then a general one for diarists, which she hopes will encourage more contributions. The diary commentaries so far have brought in some interesting new material, like Thomas Allom's illustrations of Claremont in Surrey, which Kilvert visited and reported on in great detail.

Later in the month she discussed two topics inspired by Munby's diaries: Arthur Munby, Cross-Dressing and Lesbianism, and Arthur Munby's Encounters with Ruskin. She also included a sympathetic discussion of Queen Victoria's diaries, by Arthur Ponsonby. Her most exciting finds were a gilded bust of a youthful Prince Albert on the Brighton Museum and Art Gallery website, by Baron Marochetti — and a Parian ware copy of it at the V & A.

Simon Cook contributed a “Francis Kilvert and the Pre-Raphaelites,” which prompted Jacqueline Banerjee to create a section on him along with a biography and excerpts from his diaries. Making full use of his access to the Gleeson White archive at the Houghton Library, Harvard, he also wrote essays on Gleeson White's applied arts: on his bookplates, and on his monograms, adding several examples of each, such as a bookplate for his daughter, Cecily Rose, and a monogram with a tulip design for himself.

Thanks to Sheldon Goldfarb for sharing with our readers his post on Victoria: “A Textual Error Hides Thackeray’s Attack on the Victorian Religion of Commerce.” Many thanks to Joanna Williams for sending in an extract from her recent book, dealing with the artistic decoration of Manchester Town Hall, and Ford Madox Brown's part in it. This month we also have a new contributor, Simon Wenham, who teaches in Oxford University’s Continuing Education Department and who contributed “The Great Exhibition of 1851” and “Life in the Time of Cholera: How the Victorians Dealt with Epidemics.’

Thanks to the Liss LLewelyn Gallery for sharing both an image of William Strang’s Seated Nude and a discussion of his work in metalpoint graphics.

SFEVE (Société Française d’Etudes Victoriennes et Edouardiennes) has shared the announcement of what appears to be a particularly interesting conference, Popular forms and practices of reading and writing in the Victorian and Edwardian periods.

Thanks to Otis Tyler for reporting a typo in a passage in the John Stuart Mill section.

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arch began with your webmaster reaching the last corrections and updates to material in the sculpture section. Whew. Then, as the Coronavirus pandemic became known, he and Ruth were forced to cancel our three-week trip to London, where we had planned to meet with Jackie Banerjee and Simon Cooke, who've both been very busy with contributions, editing, and corrections. Cynthia Gamble has kept Landow busy by contributing two monographs that derive from her John Ruskin, Henry James, and the Shropshire Lads (2008): John Ruskin and his Oxford Tutor, Osborne Gordon and Henry James and the Ruined Abbeys of Shropshire.

Bob Freidus, our London-based contributing photographer who specializes in sculpture and architecture, returned from Venice with hundreds of pictures that Landow edited, fixing perspective, color, and contrast and adding passages from Ruskin. Thus far the project has produced a set of forty sets of photographs and Ruskinian commentary about Venetian palazzi and the beginnings of one on Venetian churches. Once Landow began working with Freidus’s photographs, he decided to create galleries of photographs of flooded Venice and the city’s bridges from ones he himself had taken in twenty years ago when one of the Venetian universities invited him for a week to peal about distance learning and the internet. (How time flies!)

Philip V. Allingham completed work on hundreds of Harry Furniss’s illustrations and turned to revising those by Arthur Rackham and Charles Green.

Jackie Banerjee would like to acknowledge some very welcome contributions. Philip Pankhurst sent in a fine set of pictures of architect Henry Woodyer's St Michael's Church and College, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire. Rita Wood also sent in photographs of several places in York distinguished by their use of architectural ceramics and terra-cotta: the former Club Chambers and Drill Hall, and the York Dispensary and solicitors' offices. The latter led JB to explore the life and other work of its noted Liverpudlian architect Edmumd Kirby, who also designed York's city centre Barclays Bank, and much more besides. Particularly pleasing was the little Church of the Holy Name of Jesus that Kirby built beside his own home in Birkenhead. More difficult to arrange and discuss was a batch of photographs of the Golders Green Crematorium in London, sent in some time back by our own contributing photographer Robert Freidus. JB ended up by going to see the crematorium for herself. Many thanks to historian Eric Willis who kindly showed her round the chapel and columbaria interiors and pointed out some of the famous urns and memorial plaques there (ranging from Freud's to Anna Pavlova's)

Later in the month, she opened a new section on Jules Bastien-Lepage, the young French painter who influenced British contemporaries like Sir George Clausen and Sir John Lavery, and who visited England frequently, painting, for example, The London Bootblack and an acclaimed portrait of Sir Henry Irving.

Simon Cooke sent in a deeply considered and handsomely illustrated essay: "Art Nouveau Bindings: Designers, Styles, Influences, and Publishers," followed by an updated and much expanded version of his piece on Rossetti's book-cover designs.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey sent in photographs and information about George Blackall Simonds’s The Maiwand Lion in Reading and The Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire.

Rita Wood continued to send in her very welcome material on Victorian buildings in York, such as the attractive Museum Lodge on Museum Street, and Antoine Capet, reviews editor of the online journal Cercles, gained Peter Mandler's permission to share with us Mandler's review of The Metaphysical Society (1869-1880): Intellectual Life in Mid-Victorian England, ed. Catherine Marshall, Bernard Lightman and Richard England. Andrew Rossabi, who is writing volume two of his biography of Richard Jefferies, provided some useful additions to our bibliography for that author, and Colin Price contributed a photograph of the lovely "Consider the lilies" window in Bodelwyddan Church, Clwydd.

Thanks to Sarah Colgreave for sharing images and information about works in her gallery, including George Howard’s Freiburg From Johannisberg Nauheim, three works by Henry Scott Tuke, RA (Resting, Tying Sails, andPortrait of Thomas Cooper Gotch).

A contributor's query led to our inclusion of a rather special window by Clayton and Bell: Jacob's Dream. We wonder if anyone knows what became of its partner, The Chess Players, formerly at Ardmiddle House, near Turriff in Aberdeenshire?

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ebruary began with your webmaster continuing to work his way through the 4,800 HTML documents in our section on sculpture, adding crucial links, updating materials, and correcting typos, and the task was completed by the last day of the month. The work involved converting documents that had only a single image linked to multiple ones containing variants of the main image into galleries of images or photo-essays containing them. In addition, many of the older images, particularly those photographed or scanned from nineteenth-century periodicals and books, needed improvement to contrast and brightness.

Philip V. Allingham contributed three dozen discussions of Harry Furniss’s illustrations for Oliver Twist, which included substantial essays comparing individual plates by Furniss to those by George Cruikshank, Felix Octavius Carr Darley, Sol Eytinge, Charles Pears, and F. W. Pailthorpe.

Before leaving for India, Jackie Banerjee discussed Valentine Cameron Prinsep's huge canvas, The Imperial Assemblage held at Delhi, 1 January 1877. This is in the Royal Collection, images of which have now become available for scholarly purposes (be sure to check their website before using, though). On return, prompted by a query on Twitter, she wrote about William Whiting's hymn, "Eternal Father, Strong to Save," the melody for which was composed by John Bacchus Dykes. With Colin Price's help, she also added a commentary to his photograph of Heaton, Butler and Bayne's stained glass window depicting the "Miraculous Draught of Fishes" at Leicester Cathedral. Marie Spartali Stillman's Madonna Pietra degli Scrovigni, from the Walker Gallery in Liverpool, is another new addition to the painting section.

Many thanks to Joe Pilling for his review of Eleanor Fitzsimmons' The Life and Loves of E. Nesbit.

We now have 10.2K followers on Twitter, some of them very engaged — quick to comment, share their research, suggest new topics, etc. Thank you to all of them!

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The new year and new decade began with your webmaster beginning to make his way through our tens of thousands of documents in order to make sure that all of them, especially those created back in 2002, matched our current style sheet and HTML rules. After the first dozen days of work the sections on etching, engraving, and other graphic arts as well as those for mosaics, stained glass, technology, and most of book illustration have seen completion. Jackie Banerjee (whose off to India again) began work on the parks and cemeteries section, and Diane Josefowicz worked on History, Science, and Technology and has begun the large section on painting. Landow has spent several ten-hour days and several shorter ones on the sculpture section, and now is only at sculptors whose names begin with the letter F.

Carrying out a New Year's resolution, Jackie Banerjee wrote about some of the pictures that had long been sitting on her desktop: a former infants' school and a hotel in her own neighbourhood, both attractive late Victorian buildings; the Portland Bill lighthouse; and Edward Lear's painting of Butrinto, Albania. She also added a short piece on Arthur Clough's contemporary reputation as a poet, and opened a new section on the artist (Ann) Mary Newton, with a biography of her all-too-brief life. Her favourite works by Newton were her Self-Portrait, and her View of Naples. Many thanks to Caroline Murray, who contributed a fascinating piece on Newton's family connections (she was the sister of Arthur Severn): "From the Spanish Steps to Munstead Wood."

Later this month, Rita Wood sent in some pictures of the grand display of late Victorian Arts and Crafts work in the Royal Arcade, Norwich. This necessitated opening a new section for designer W. J. Neatby, with a contemporary account of his life and work. Thanks also to Colin Price for his lovely interior photographs of St Marie's, Sheffield, with its splendid stained glass windows by Pugin/Hardman and George Goldie/William Wailes. Thanks to Colin also for his picture of the attractive Gothic Buttington Bridge over the Severn to Powys.

Simon Cooke has contributed an essay on Gleeson White’s book designs with 10 images, many from Harvard University’s Houghton Library, where he carried out his research project.

Thanks to Joshua Gooch, Associate Professor, D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York, for sharing (and formatting) substantial portions of his Palgrave Macmillan book, The Victorian Novel, Service Work, and the Nineteenth-Century Economy. These include “Productive and Unproductive Labor in Victorian England,” “Banking, Finance, Service Work and the Growth of Victorian Financial Markets,” and “Service Workers in Victorian England.”

Thanks to Louise Hope for writing about a broken link and a no longer extant site.

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ecember began with Landow still paging through the typed pages of notes stored in five-by-eight inch binders compiled in the 1970s. Among the riches hidden there appeared references to “Mr. Swinburne’s Debt to the Bible” and “Scottish Art and Artists,” two excellent, very detailed essays in the Scottish Review and another to Coventry Patmore’s “Mrs. Cameron’s Photographs” in Macmillan’s magazine. The 1896 Quarterly Review’s “Robert Browning as the Inspiration for Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelites” exemplifies another such critical gem. Thanks again to the Hathi Trust, whose accurate OCR makes transcribing and formatting such valuable Victorian work so much easier that it would otherwise have been. On the eighth Landow put online ““Scorn for the humanitarian spirit’ — a Review of Christopher Herbert’s Evangelical Gothic: The English Novel and the War on Virtue from Wesley to Dracula” and “Christopher Herbert on Bram Stoker’s Dracula as ‘Evangelical Gothic’

Jackie Banerjee completed a project she started last month, on Regent's Park. This involved some additions to our sections on John Nash, including some elegant terraces in the Outer Circle of the park. She also added his little summerhouse in, and design-work for, St James's Square. For Decimus Burton, who collaborated with Nash on the Regent's Park scheme, she added a villa in the park, The Holme, and the now long-gone Colosseum close by. In doing all this she came across her old account of Marble Arch, from 2006, and spruced it up. We try to keep improving! Other additions included a fine old locomotive which was on display at Cork's Kent Station. This came from revisiting material on Ireland to add text to Robert Freidus's wonderful extra pictures of St Fin Barre's Cathedral. So there is now a bit more about William Burges's quirky gargoyles and grotesques. A bigger task was to incorporate several more very welcome pictures into a much enlarged account of the cathedral's interior. Later she added a contemporary account and some extra photographs to George Gilbert Scott's Vaughan Library at Harrow and a mosaic of Pharmacy symbols to our public health sector. Her last piece this month was a review of the exhibition, "Forgotten Masters: Painting for the East India Company," at the Wallace Collection.

Philip Allingham has created a series of illustrated documents about Dickens’s Pickwick Papers that compare the work of multiple illustrators. One particularly interesting set examines the way various artists depicted Sam Weller’s father, the amiable and portly Tony, over a period of 80 years. Do enjoy those by Phiz in 1837 and in 1874, Sol Eytinge, Harold Copping, Felix O. C. Darley, Harry Furniss, and J. Clayton Clarke ("Kyd"), this last an artist whose images of Dickens’s characters on cards that came with packs of cigarettes made them very popular.

Andrzej Diniejko, our Assistant Editor for Poland, has written The Critique of Rabbinic Authority in Isaac D’Israeli’s The Genius of Judaism. Landow then added a response to D’Israeli.

Many thanks to Amitav Banerjee for his detailed review of William Dalrymple's The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company, a disturbing exposé which serves as a warning for the modern world as well.

Lionel Gossman, M. Taylor Pyne Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages at Princeton University, contributed a transcription of Grace Aguilar’s “History of the Jews in England” (1847) and a brief introduction to this author.

Thanks to Dr Kay J. Walter, Professor of English, University of Arkansas at Monticello, for sharing her “How I came to Ruskin” and for Kristin Mahoney for sharing the announcement of “Fin du Globe: Decadence, Catastrophe, Late Style — a Conference at Cornell University, 10-13 September 2020.” Thanks also to Maynard Brandt for sending information to correct a broken link.

Graham Robertson, a retired English Rolls-Royce enthusiast living in Brazil, came upon information about early life of Sir Henry Royce (1863-1933) and discovered some interesting information about a pub originally called the Rising Sun, and requests anyone with additional information to contact the webmaster.

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t's time for a tribute to George Monteiro, a wonderful scholar who died this month. George, Professor of English and Portuguese Studies at Brown University, shared his brilliant essays on Robert Browning with readers of the Victorian Web many years ago. Although first known as an expert and editor of Henry James, W. D. Howells, and John Hay (America's first modern Secretary of State and an author fine short stories), this Americanist drew upon his Portuguese heritage after a Fulbright to Brazil. A founder of Brown's Department of Portuguese Studies, he translated many books as well as wrote critical works on major poets like Pessoa. More striking than his extraordinarily wide range and continuing productivity in old age was his unflagging ability to notice apparently minor details in a text that provide a way into their techniques and meaning. In other words, he combined the best of the new criticism (or explication du texte) with reader response theory and textual editing. In his “The Apostasy and Death of St. Praxed's Bishop” George pointed out what should have been obvious to a century of Browning’s readers — that all the materials that the speaker of this deathbed monologue mentions refer to biblical symbols of heaven. Reading George's essay, one realized that the kind of details we readers usually pass by actually form a complex semiotic structure that makes the poem much richer, understandable, and important. And he did this all without jargon. I mention this essay because it proved important to my own examinations of biblical symbolism, but I have to acknowledge yet another debt to him: George was also responsible for the textual editing I and my students have done, and that in turn — it's another story — led eventually to my books on hypermedia, critical theory, and, of course, the Victorian Web. George’s witty, often acerbic lunchtime conversations at Brown’s then-pretty dreadful cafeteria — the often saw through the Emperor's new clothes of the university’s administration and departments that had spun off from English — proved a crash course in how to do scholarly criticism.

November began with your webmaster creating a section for Heywood Sumner in stained glass and transcribing his illustrated “Sgraffito as a Method of Wall Decoration” from the 1902 Art Journal. He also created a section on the illustrations of Althea Gyles, which included Willam Butler Yeats's essay about her in The Dome. Paging through Herbert Spencer’s writings on education and society, Landow found several worthy of adding to the site and then seeking to find places to which they should connect, one example being ““Parents are not good enough”: Children, Human Nature, and the Relation of Education to a Flawed Humanity and Its Flawed Society.” Others include “The Tyranny of Petty Social Restraints, “The Necessary Obnoxiousness of Reform and Reformers” “The Folly of Victorian Formal Dinners,” and “All Institutions Eventually Become Oppressive.”

Going through notebooks and folders assembled three decades ago, Landow found images and information added to our section on painting, including Richard Ansdell’s Taking a Rest, another half dozen by John Brett, Charles West Cope’s Shylock and Jessica, ten book illustrations by Arthur Hughes, and four works by Solomon J. Solomon. These notebooks also prompted the creation of a homepage for the many British paintings of contemplative women in their various forms — daydreaming, reading, and falling into reveries. Scanning in Art-Journal reviews of Frith’s Derby Day and The Railway Station from the old notebooks, he added them to our presentations of those paintings. Mining these notebooks led in turn to Landow’s transcribing W. P. Frith’s essay settling old scores as the painter fought a battle four decades old — “Crazes in Art: ‘Pre-Raphaelitism’ and ‘Impressionism.’”

At the beginning of the month, Jackie Banerjee completed a review of the National Portrait Gallery's exhibition, "Pre-Raphaelite Sisters." In the process, she opened new sections on Joanna Boyce Wells and Marie Spartali Stillman, with (so far) just a few examples of their work, such as Wells's sensitive portrait of Jamaican-born Fanny Eaton. She also added other works from the show, including two lovely medallions by Maria Zambaco (one is of Stillman), and an embroidered evening bag by Jane Morris. Other paintings added include Millais's Effie with Foxgloves in Her hair. It was truly an inspiring show. Continuing to work with Colin Price as well, JB put online the magnificent Hardman east window at Motherwell Cathedral, N. Lanarkshire, with a brief piece about the Cathedral itself. After this came a new section on the artist, copyist and co-founder of the Art Fund, Christiana Herringham, with a biographical introduction, and an account of how she copied the Ajanta Cave frescoes in India.

Many thanks to Jill R. Armitage for her discussion of one of Edward Armitage's major (but controversial) untraced paintings, Hymn of the Last Supper and Lucy Paquette, for her account of the Artists Rifles, which so many painters, sculptors, illustrators, photographers and designers joined, and which sustained many tragic losses in the twentieth century. Nick von Behr also sent in an excerpt from his new book, Building Passions: Brunel, Barry and "Modern" Victorian Architecture. Later, Gary Britland sent in a photograph of the beautiful chancel of St James' Church, Hyndburn, Lancs.. Colin Price's latest have been the Loughborough Carillon Tower, and another unusual war memorial by William Goscombe John in Hereford Cathedral.

Philip V. Allingham continues his work on Dickens, Phiz, Thomas Nast, and illustration.

Robert Freidus, one of our regular contributing photographers who sent in a series of images of the stained glass of Harry Clarke, also contributed many others of gargoyles and grotesques on St. Fin Barre’s Cathedral in Cork, Ireland, sculpture on the west front of the cathedral as well as its stained glass (for which Jackie Banerjee wrote a fine essay), floor mosaics, and paintings of the Stations of the Cross. Freidus also contributed photographs of the Cork’s Butter 1845 Exchange and its Shannon Theatre.

Thanks to David O’Shaughnessy from Trinity College Dublin, who sent in an announcement of a useful website, The Censorship of British Theatre, 1737-1843. And thanks to Anne Willis BSc MA, Independent Research Historian, for contributing a bibliography of materials about the Victorian High Church. Thanks also to Brian K. Schønberg, Pastor of the Ledøje-Smørum Church in Copenhagen, who sent along a photograph of the English-style Catholic Apostolic Church [Katolsk Apostolisk Kirke].

Landow color-corrected and formatted photographs of the following works contributed by a collector who wishes to remain anonymous: Gilbert Bayes’s The Scales of Time, the bronze, reduced0size version of Sir Thomas Brock’s Eve, William Goscombe John’s untitled brass bas relief of a crouching nude, and two terracotta works by George Tinworth: Peter Paying the Tribute Money, and And the Lord Looked upon Peter. The same collector also sent photographs of a silver table clock designed by Katie Harris and the following works by medallists: Frank Bowcher’s Edward Prince of Wale Home Coming medal and Queen Victoria Diamond Commerce medal , Sydney William Carline’s George Reginald Carline 1911, Alfred Drury’s William Shakespeare, Emile Fuchs’s Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White, Robert James Richardson’s Five medals on wooden frame (1907), Albert Toft’s M.S.M.E. Exhibition medal 1924 .

Thanks to Jim Spates for pointing out an error in one of our Victorian texts, and thanks too for the fine detective work of Lenna Winther-Saxe, retired part-time faculty member in the Photography Department of Fresno City College, California, who identified Ludgate House (later known as The Cooks Tours Building) in our architectural sculpture section.

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ctober began with Ruth Richardson, author of important books on Dickens, the history of science, and Victorian poverty, sharing an interesting brief essay about the Authorship Gray’s Anatomy. Your webmaster then wrote “Three Works of Unorthodox Scholarship,” which examines self-published books created outside the academy on Edward Bulwer-Lytton, William Hogarth, and eighteenth- and nineteenth-century writings about vampires. Just before heading to Budapest and points east, Landow added “Mr. Punch on the polluted Victorian environment” and several Punch cartoons about Victorian railways, including ones about their dangers, rapid expansion, and enforcing class structure and class separation.

During Landow’s two weeks travelling down the Danube from Budapest to Bucharest via Belgrade, he took many photographs of Eastern European architecture, leading to entirely new material, such as the Budapest’s Dohány Synagogue, its Central Market, and the Name of Mary Church in Novi Sad, Serbia, as well as additions to documents created more than a decade ago; these include Budapest’s Parliament House and St. Matthias Church (which was under reconstruction during his earlier visit). Another result of voyaging eastward on the Danube was “Romanesque Revival Elements in Eastern European Architecture.”

During your webmaster's absence, Philip V. Allingham wrote a long review of Catherine Golden's Serials to Graphic Novels: The Evolution of the Victorian Illustrated Book, covering some different ground from Simon Cooke in his earlier review of the same book. Allingham also updated and extended our bibliography of commentaries on the Victorian illustrated book, and sent in an interesting piece of contemporary journalism about one of the young Dickens's haunts, the Red Lion pub in Westminster.

This month Jackie Banerjee has continued working with Colin Price's excellent photographs, including Stephen Adam's west window at St Luke's Greek Orthodox Cathedral (on which she found some contemporary material), and  the ceramic version of Burne-Jones's The Days of Creation. She then extended the discussion of the original painted version. Thanks to information from Jill R. Armitage, a relative of the artist Edward Armitage, RA, she also corrected and made some changes to our section on Armitage, and to a discussion of Marylebone Church, for which Armitage had produced a series of murals. Naturally, she then went on to review Jill Armitage's very helpful book on her relative. That was followed by another review, this time of Roger Bowdler's latest book, in the British Heritage series: War Memorials. Among other additions here and there, she added Millais's striking Esther and (again with a photograph sent in by Colin Price) the Indian Mutiny Memorial Window in Newcastle's Cathedral Church of St Nicholas.

Deborah Hickey contributed “Millais’s Vale of Rest and the Victorian Crisis of Faith,” and B. N. Barr sent in the first of a scheduled series of essays on the late-Victorian artist, Maude Goodman. Several of Béatrice Laurent’s students at the Université Bordeaux-Montaigne have contributed essays: Juliette Pochelu sent in “Lilith, from Talmudic Demoness to Victorian Dissident” and Jeanne Barangé, Sarah Baudouin, Pauline Montigné teamed up to write “Gloves and the Victorians: They Go Hand in Hand.” Pochelu’s essay led to the creation of a new section for the symbolist artist Althea Gyles and the transcription from The Dome of an article about her by William Butler Yeats.

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eptember began with Stephen Basdeo sharing “King Coal — Industrial and Domestic Air Pollution and the Reaction against it” from his blog and Philip V. Allingham continuing his comparative essays on Anglo-American illustration of Dickens and other Victorian authors. He has now completed the first ten essays on Thomas Nast’s illustrations of Dickens Pickwick Papers and a dozen of Phiz’s illustrations for Charles Lever’s Davenport Dunn. Allingham first wrote on Lever nineteen years ago when he contributed a discussion of the novelist’s Barrington. He has now added brief essays on swindlers and the new divorce law in Davenport Dunn.

Responding to a reader's inquiry, and working with Jackie Banerjee during your webmaster's absence, Philip Allingham also added a very welcome new section on Charles Dickens's family, discussing the lives of his wife, Catherine, and their ten children. Allingham has also placed online images and accompanying commentaries for more than 100 Dickens illustrations by Thomas Nast.

Near the end of the month your webmaster crossed the Atlantic, catching the Victoria and Albert show on food and food waste before heading to a conference in Marlborough, Wiltshire, where he delivered the closing keynote on the double vision of Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites and took some photographs of this secondary school and its chapel designed by Thomas Garner & George Frederick Bodley from which five of the current seven Anglican bishops have graduated.

This month, still looking back to her visit to Wales, Jackie Banerjee opened a new section on the work of the painter Sir George Clausen, with his In the Fields in June which she saw in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff — though her favourite so far is The Gleaners Returning. Thank you to Sarah Bilston for her input in one of these, via Twitter. Our other editors came back from trips with photographs too. Working with some taken by Simon Cooke, she introduced and wrote about the work of busy Carlisle architect C. J. Ferguson — just two churches so far: the railway church at Tebay and another Cumbrian church, St Bridget at Bridekirk. Colin Price's photographic souvenir was a set of great pictures of Glasgow's Victorian bridges, in a fine mix of styles, from the Albert Bridge (yet another tribute to the Prince Consort) to the City Union Railway Bridge, with several wonders in between.

Later on, JB added a commentary to Sir Richard Westmacott's The Progress of Civilisation pedimental sculpture over the British Museum, and, with some extra photographs kindly contributed by Philip Pankhurst, extended the entry on J. P. Seddon's lovely St Catherine's Church, Hoarwithy. She also opened a section on Robert J. Newbery, a prolific stained glass craftsman working mainly in Wales, hoping to have more photographs to put in it soon (only one so far!).

This month, too, Simon Cooke sent along more photographs of Ruskin's home in the Lake District, Brantwood, including one of his study there, as it is today. In addition he created a section on the illustrator and book designer Fred Mason.

At Simon’s invitation, Nancy Henry, Nancy Moore Goslee Professor of English, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, send in “How I came to George Eliot

Many thanks to Amitav Banerjee for his review of Stuart Flinders's Cult of a Dark Hero: Nicholson of Delhi.

Janelle Pötzsch, of the Institute of Human Sciences at Paderborn University in Germany created material for a new section on Harriet Taylor Mill, including a discussion of her relationship with John Stuart Mill, Taylor Mill’s “The Enfranchisement of Women,” her views of Gender Equality and Social Progress, and “Domestic Violence and British Law.”

Laurence Roussillon-Constanty, Professeur des Universités HDR, University of Pau et de Pays L’ardour, France, contributed her “How I came to Ruskin,” as did Béatrice Laurent, Lecturer at the University of Bordeaux.

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ugust began with your webmaster continuing work with Simon Cooke on a new section on advertisements and book design, after which the added material on Jeremy Bentham.

Thanks to photographs contributed by Laurence Cooke, and information from Simon Cooke, Jackie Banerjee started the month by writing about London Road Cemetery, Coventry, laid out by Joseph Paxton. She made a new index for Paxton in the architecture section, and added photographs of various monuments, including an elaborate one for Paxton himself, and a simpler but touching headstone for the metalworker Francis Skidmore. She then greatly enjoyed reviewing the new Alfred Russel Wallace Companion, edited by Charles H. Smith, James T. Costa and David Collard. She also added a local church, St Mary Magdalene, Littleton, Surrey, mainly because she noticed that some of its windows (e.g. a two-light one of the Nativity and Mary Magdalene, were designed by a "Mrs Theodore Bouwens." She has found out a little about her, and hopes to find out more. Even closer to home, and with the help of contributing photographer John Salmon, she improved on an earlier account of St George's, Esher, with its associations with the young Princess Victoria.

Later on, she reviewed the latest brilliant single-artist exhibition at the Compton Gallery in Surrey, "John Frederick Lewis: Facing Fame," adding several new pictures to our section on Lewis, and (back to Wales!) considerably extended our account of W. D. Caroe's main building of Cardiff University, adding a number of other Cardiff buildings and artworks, such as Sir Thomas Brock's William Menelaus (Menelaus was both Managing Partner of the Dowlais Steelworks, and an art collector). Perhaps her favourite addition so far from the National Museum and Art Gallery in Cardiff has been Edward Lear's Mount Kanchenjunga from Darjeeling.

Many thanks also to Professor Richard Scully of the University of New England, in New South Wales, for allowing us to include several excerpts of his article, "A Comic Empire: The Global Expansion of Punch as a Model Publication, 1841-1936."

Thanks to Andrew Hill, Associate Editor of The Financial Times for contributing his “How I came to Ruskin.” Remembering that George Eliot, like John Ruskin, has a bicentenary in 2019, Simon therefore suggested that we invite readers to tell their stories of “How I came to George Eliot” to match the 40 Ruskinian encounters that have arrived thus far. In addition to Simon’s, we have ones by Rosemary Ashton, Emeritus Quain Professor of English Language and Literature and Honorary Fellow of UCL, University College, London, and Linda Mayne, Chairman of the George Eliot 2019 Bicentenary Committee, The George Eliot Fellowship.

Thanks to Thomas Prasch, Professor and Chairman, Department of History, Washburn University, for sharing with readers of the Victorian Web his “Alfred Russel Wallace on the Evolutionary Origins of Morality.”

July 2019

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imon Cooke and your webmaster created a new section on Victorian paratextuality that examines ways in which parts of printed books not considered part of the main text, such as their covers, frontispieces, title-pages, bookplates, book-prize plates, and illustrations, affect that text’s meanings. This new work provides an interesting way into work that Philip Allingham has done over the past nineteen years and Simon has done since became editor for book illustration and design.

Landow also added selections from Suzanne K. Langer’s Philosophy in a New Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art (1941), including “The Origins of Philosophy,” “Symbol and Signs,” and “Physics, Sense Perception and ‘the Real World.’” In addition he added “Utilitarianism’s Fundamental Problems” and “Aristotle on Character and Characterization in Drama.”He also reviewed York Art Gallery’s Ruskin, Turner & the Storm Cloud.

Philip V. Allingham continues his detailed illustration projects with Arthur Burdett Frost’s 40 illustrations of American Notes and Sketches by Boz. His new project involves writing an introduction and critic essays about Charles Lever’s Davenport Dunn: A Man of Our Day and Phiz’s illustrations for it.

Early in the month, Jackie Banerjee finished writing about Mortimer Menpes's record of his visit to Japan, categorising his hundred paintings there (for example, those of children, workers, sunsets, etc.), and picking out topics that were relevant to British art and design, especially craftsmanship and the aesthetic movement. In formatting Lucy Paquette's welcome essay, "On Holiday with James Tissot and Kathleen Newton," she added a dozen new paintings and drawings to the section on Tissot, including Room Overlooking the Harbour and his fine etching, The Trafalgar Tavern, Greenwich.

On returning from Wales, where she gave a talk on Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt in Monmouthshire in aid of a restoration fund, she added some new material on the Wyatts, for example, about Cefn Tilla (the venue for the talk), and Usk's beautifully restored Session House. More to follow! But most of the last week was spent on the photographer Oscar Rejlander, who now has a new section with about a dozen examples of his work, including her favourite, Happy Days.

Thanks, as so often, to Professor Antoine Capet, reviews editor of the online journal Cercles, and to Professor Yann Theloniat, for sharing with us the latter's review of Anna Barton's Nineteenth-Century Poetry and Liberal Thought: Forms of Freedom. The review is in French, but JB added a headnote in English, as well as the usual illustrations, captions and links (thanks to Professor Capet for helping with the captions!). The same procedure was followed, with the same kind of help, with Professor Capet's detailed review of the Rejlander exhibition catalogue. Thanks also to Paul Goldman, for his equally thorough and authoritative review of Mary Elizabeth Leighton and Lisa Surridge's recent study, The Plot Thickens – Illustrated Victorian Serial Fiction from Dickens to Du Maurier. Finally, thanks to Colin Price for contributing some extra and very useful photographs to an entry on Hadrian's Wall. He too made a useful correction to a caption.

Diane Josefowicz wrote an in-depth review of Michael Tondre’s The Physics of Possibility: Victorian Fiction, Science, and Gender.

Pascal Debout, Faculté de Droit, Université de Strasbourg, added his “How I came to Ruskin,” as did Arjun Jain, Proprietor of the John Ruskin Manufactory, New Delhi, India. Alan Cole contributed “How Ruskin came to Me.” Selby Whittingham, who recurited Cole, sent his Ruskininan encounter plus a long, detailed review of the York Art Gallery’s recent Ruskin, Turner and the Storm Cloud. Zachary Bullock contributed “From Labor to Value: Marx, Ruskin, and the Critique of Capitalism.”

Michael Williams contributed “The Rouncewell Brothers in Bleak House: Dickens on Men of the Old Social Order and the New.” Rebecca Nevset contributed images and commentaries for Phiz’s illustrations for James Malcolm Rymer’s A Mystery in Scarlet. Monika Mazurek, Associate Professor, Pedagogical University of Cracow, contributed “Anglican Baptism, Christening, and Churching.”

June 2019

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une began with your webmaster working on new photographs of sculpture in private collections on both sides of the Atlantic, including Gilbert Bayes’s The Derelict and Baby with fish, our sixth version of Aimé-Jules Dalou’s The Truth Revealed and his Peasant Sharpening a Scythe, Alfred Drury’s terra cotta head of a girl, Sir George Frampton’s pair of maquettes for Queen Mary’s dollhouse, L. Goyeau’s Piping Hot, Christine Gregory’s The Spirit of Mischief, Charles Hartwell’s A Flower Seller, A. Joliveaux’s The Angler, Andrea Luccesi’s The Seasons Greetings, Mary Morton’s Baby Holding A Fish, A. Bertram Pegram’s Untitled [Young Girl with Scarf], Emile Louis Picault’s Work and Post Pugnam (After the Fight) Christine Stockdale’s untitled nude that was an Art Union prize in 1912, Albert Toft’s Spring, and L. Gwendolen Williams’s Sitting Child and works by Victorian mededallists, including C. F. Carter’s Inigo Jones, A. Halliday’s George V Coronation and Queen Mary Coronation medal, Thomas Stirling Lee’s untitled portrait of a woman, Lilian Hamilton’s Lord Gort, three by Alphonse Legros (Don Juan Heredia, Pierre Gregoire, and Orlando Martorelli), and A. B. Wyon’s C. R. Leslie.

One of Landow’s continuing projects has been the creation of revolving or rotatable image of sculpture that permit our readers to see all sides of each work. Using newly purchased BoxshotVR along wiht GIMP and Mac Photos, he has created a half dozen of such images for major works, perhaps his two favorites being Alfred Drury’s Elsie Doncaster and Frederick James Halnon’s Peace. Turning to work in a more static vein, he added F. W. W. Topham’s The Story of Ruth and Boaz, which depicts a father reading the biblical tale to his son as they sit together in a hayfield at harvest time. In addition, he added a brief illustrated Illustrated London News review of the theatrical adaptation of A Christmas Carol and Fun’s parody of stays at picturesque old inns plus a dozen or so editorial cartoons about Gladstone and Disraeli from Victorian periodicals, such as Fun and Punch (We now have more than 60 Disraeli cartoons from Fun alone.) He also added material on John Stuart Mill, including his attack on “Social Rights” (or what today is termed “Micro-Aggression”), the conservatives as the “stupid party,” and the political dangers of intuitionism and a priori justifications.

The beginning of the month saw Jackie Banerjee completing two current projects. One was with Liz Hallett, on the stained glass at Romsey Abbey. This included ten windows by James Powell & Sons, one of which has a surprising detail — knitting needles in a ball of wool! The glass at the Abbey by Alexander Gibbs inspired a new section on him, and Colin Price kindly sent in some additions for it, notably the magnificent West Window at All Saints' Margaret Street. The other project she completed was in the new philanthropy section: a piece on Philanthropy and the Workhouse, extended from a short article published earlier in the Dickens Magazine. Later in month she reviewed the very informative exhibition, "Young Wellington in India" at Apsley House, completely rewriting her brief earlier account of Apsley House itself, and discussing Antonio Canova's colossal statue of Napolean there. Many thanks to English Heritage for sending so many great photographs for these items. Still only halfway through at the end of the month was a new project, looking at Sir Mortimer Menpes' many watercolours of Japan, the result of his visit there in 1888. He was bowled over by the Japanese aesthetic sensibility and his paintings reflect and help to explain the "Cult of Japan" in late Victorian Britain.

Continuing his series of essays on the subject, Simon Cooke has written his twenty-fifth essay — “Selwyn Image as a Book Cover Designer.”

Paul Sawyer, Professor of English & Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow, Cornell University, shared his “How I came to Ruskin” with readers of the Victorian Web, as did James S. Dearden, Founder of the Ruskin Association, Former Master of the Guild of St. George, and Former Keeper of the Ruskin Galleries at the Bembridge School, Ann Gagné, Lecturer at the University of Toronto Scarborough, and William McKeown, Associate Professor of Art History, University of Memphis.

Thanks to Bob Freidus, one of our contributing photographers, for sending along photos of old London pubs, including Old Blue Last, The Rising Sun, Dog & Duck, and Masons Arms. Thanks also to Maynard Brandt for corrected an error of dating.

Thanks to Catherine Golden for contributing “The Caricature Tradition and Victorian Illustration, 1830-1900,” which prompted the creation of a new section about caricature, and to Jackie Banerjee for sending along am excerpt from Grant Wright’s 1904 book on the subject.

Thanks to Catherine Layton, who sent in material on Ouida, the Victorian sensation novelist, from which Landow created an introduction, biography, and a bibliography of secondary sources and to which he added portraits and other images from a biography and from the National Portrait Gallery and images some title-pages of her novels from the Hathi Digital Trust. He also added a link to Ernest Gillick’s memorial to the novelist.

Many thanks also to Antoine Capet, reviews editor of the online journal Cercles, and to reviewer Pat Thane, for sharing a review of a new book from Bloomsbury: Sarah Roddy, Julie-Marie Strange and Bertrand Taithe's The Charity Market and Humanitarianism in Britain, 1870-1912.

As of the twenty-fourth the site had 104,845 documents and images.

May 2019

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ay began with Alfred Alan Taylor writing in to identify his uncle Robert James Bird as the model for Sir Thomas Brock’s figure of Progress on the Victoria Memorial before Buckingham Palace.

Your webmaster’s invitations to readers of Ruskin to share their stories of how they encountered the Victorian sage have now produced twenty-three brief autobiographical essays with almost that many promised. In May atories of encountering Ruskin arrived from Alan Davis, who edited the Ruskin Review and Bulletin for a decade, from Ray Haslam, artist and Ruskin scholar, Tim Holton, picture framer, and from Julian Spalding, former Master of the Guild of St George and former Director of Sheffield, Manchester, and Glasgow Museums, and Sharon Aronofsky Weltman, William E. “Bud” Davis Alumni Professorship, Louisiana State University. An old friend and particularly distinguished Ruskin scholar, Elizabeth K. Helsinger, the John Matthews Manly Distinguished Service Professor of English and Art History at the University of Chicago, next sent in hers. Thanks as ever to James Spates, who seems to know everyone who ever read Ruskin, for sending along names and e-mails. As part of the Ruskin 200 activities, Landow enlarged the section containing reviews of Ruskin scholarship, adding half a dozen, some written decades ago.

Landow created a section and homepage for transatlantic relations, after which, using the Project Gutenberg online copy of the 1852 edition of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations, he organized our material on the great philosopher and economist, adding a sitemap (or homepage), “A Short Account of the Life and Writings of Dr. Adam Smith,” and Smith’s definition of value and his discussions of productivity and the division of labor, the crucial importance of roads and canals, the need to educate the working classes, and the evil done by the East India Company and other monopolies, and his one use of the term the “invisible hand.” Trawling through his collection of screenshots of the Illustrated London News, prompted the creation of a new section on the paintings of John Philip after he came upon a biography of the artist, and the same periodical produced C. Calhtrop’s Job Praying for His Friends and Sir Richard Westmacott’s sculptures on the pediment of the Royal Exchange, a biography and portrait of Sir Alfred David Sassoon, C.S.I., and Lord John Russell’s translation of Dante’s lines on Paolo and Francesca. Meanwhile The Magazine of Art provided an engraving of Edward Onslow Ford’s Henry Irving as Hamlet, Rosenthal’s Elaine, T. Jackson’s The New Front of Brasenose College to High Street, and Marion H. Speilman’s essay “The National Statue to General Gordon.” Fun contributed cartoons on a wide range of subjects — from sermons and the difficulties of clergymen to the effects of telegrams on daily life, poverty, and comments on Disraeli and Lord Derby

Philip Allingham has completed another major project, which involved making new, higher quality scans of Phiz’s 41 illustrations for Dickens’s Martin Chuzzlewit plus providing extensive commentaries on the plates as well as providing comparisons with the work of later illustrators.

Early in the month, Jackie Banerjee completed the section on Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) in Kerala, where public buildings like the Secretariat, University College and the State Library played a central role in creating the modern state, and where religious diversity was expressed in a variety of houses of worship, like the The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (the "World-reflecting Mosque") and the Syrian Christians' St George's Cathedral. Never has it been clearer that architecture tells the story of its times. Returning to more familiar territory, JB updated a 2006 webpage about Adrian Jones's massive sculpture of The Angel of Peace Descending on the Chariot of War, on the top of the Wellington Arch, and added a telling cartoon by Gerald du Maurier on the American Exhibition of 1887. At the end of the month she opened a new section on philanthropy, to bring together some of the names that we already have, and to include the important philanthropist, George Peabody, who did so much for housing the "respectable poor." She also added a number of new types of Victorian postboxes (including a very early one, and one with a suffragette connection — and an Edwardian one! She is currently working with parish historian Liz Hallett, who has contributed photographs and information about the beautiful stained glass windows of Romsey Abbey: her favourite so far has been Henry Holiday's The Pool at Bethesda."

Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology at Leeds and our editor for music and popular entertainment, contributed his audio file of My Sweetheart When a Boy (1870) — his forty-fifth performance of Victorian popular music on the site!

Many thanks to Antoine Capet for sharing his review of the Thomas Annan exhibition at the Getty Museum in 2017, and its catalogue — an opportunity to explore further the contrasts in Annan's work, and consider whether there was anything at all optimistic about his photographs of Glasgow's slums. The review is in French, but has an English abstract, and the illustrations need no translation! Thanks to Professor Capet too for allowing us to reprint an illustrated version of Jackie Banerjee's review of Lee Jackson's Palaces of Pleasure: From Music Hall to the Seaside to Football, How the Victorians Invented Mass Entertainmentreview, originally written for Cercles

Simon Cooke's new review, of Hallie Rubenhold’s The Five: The Untold Stories of the Women Killed by Jack the Ripper, ends on an indignant note, as he asks whether the Ripper would have escaped detection had his victims been higher up the social scale.

Thanks to Louise Hope for correcting some spelling errors.

On the twenty-seventh the site had 104,077 documents and images.

April 2019

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our webmaster added “Caricature and Theatricality in Early Victorian Book Illustration,” an excerpt from Catherine Golden’s Serials to Graphic Novels, and “To what degree did Hardy stack the deck against Jude??” Walking through Chelsea and Kensington, he took photos that he added to our galleries of late-Victorian chimneys and pinnacles. A trip to York on a bright sunny Spring day produced photographs of George Walker Milburn’s statue of William Etty, a York native, before the York Gallery of Art, York Minster, the ruins of St Mary's Abbey, the Guildhall and the River Ouse, and flowers and blossoming trees on a April Day. Coming up: photographs from the National Railway Museum and a review of Ruskin, Turner, and the Storm Cloud.

Philip Allingham contributed “Dickens and the Parish Beadle” and in a continuing effort to improve the images in our section on book illustration, some of which are now twenty years old, Simon Cooke has been making scans from better original copies and Allingham has been adjusting the htmls. Together they have begun to improved George Cruikshank’s illustrations of Oliver Twist and Martin Chuzzlewit.

Another visit to the Picture Gallery at Royal Holloway, University of London, prompted Jackie Banerjee to update our descriptions of the sculptures in its two quadrangles by Count Gleichen, especially that of Thomas and Jane Holloway, which has been splendidly restored. She then added a few more paintings by Arthur Hughes: Springtime (Cornwall), The Heavenly Stair, Home from Work, and The Woodman's Child. Afterwards she opened a new section on ornithology in the science section, with works by the ornithologist John Gould, who became especially famous for his work on hummingbirds.

Not having visited India this spring, JB went there just in spirit, and opened a new section on Robert Fellowes Chisholm, another of those architects who changed the skyline of Indian cities (in this case Madras, or Chennai as it is called now) but are almost unrecognised here. Chisholm's Senate House there is a magnificent building. She also added the Victoria Jubilee Town Hall, Trivandrum. There are more from S. India to come. Nearer home she added to the story of the Red Lion pub in Parliament Street, which has an interesting connection with Dickens!

Many thanks to Professor Antoine Capet, review editor of the online journal Cercles, for sharing with us Professor Laurent Bury's review of Sarah Bilson's The Promise of the Suburbs: A Victorian

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor from Poland, contributed “The Genesis, Early Publication History, and Reception of Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure.”

Simon Cooke created a six-part essay entitled “Social Commentary and Victorian Illustration: The Representation of Working Class Life, 1837–1880.” On a jaunt to Wales, he took photographs of the North Wales landscape, Dinorwic Quarry, The Victoria Dock in Caernarfon, and Dolbadarn and Beaumaris Castles. After formatting Simon’s photos, Landow recalled he had some from a visit to South Wales and added 4 photos of Fishguard.

Robert Brownell contributed his Ruskin encounter as did Stuart Eagles.

Professor Charles DePaolo, a frequent contributor sent in “Darwin's Demiurge: Natural Selection & Rhetorical Paradox.”

Françoise Baillet, Professor of British History and Culture, Université Caen Normandie, sent in an announcement of a one-day conference on the subject of Lines of Labour: Representing the Labouring body in Victorian graphic art. Bethan Carney similarly posted a call for papers on Victoria for “Dickens and Bodies” — a One-Day Conference (Saturday 19 October 2019) at the Senate House, University of London.

Stuart Eagles contributed additional photographs to a pub with Dickens connections.

On the twenty-ninth the site had 103,794 documents and images.

March 2019

Decorated initial M arch began with plenty of snow on the ground here in Providence, Rhode Island, at the same time that Jackie Banerjee complains of heat in London. Having completed a hypertextual version of Ruskin’s Unto This Last, Landow worked two weeks creating one for the companion work, Munera Pulveris. He also created a homepage for Thackeray’s Vanity Fair. During a visit to New York, he visited the Future of Storytelling (FOST) installation, the highlight of which was a virtual reality adaptation of Dickens’s A Christmas Carol, which he reviewed for the Victorian Web.

Philip Allingham continues his large project of improving the image scans and commentaries he created for Phiz’s illustrations for Dickens’s Martin Chuzzlewit. He also created an essay on Mark Tapley for the Dicken’s section on that novel.

As Colin Price, one of our Contributing Photographers, continues to send in superb images of stained-glass windows, whose beauty is so difficult to capture, Dr. Banerjee sizes and formats them. A fine example of this work would be the Faith, Hope, and Charity windows by William Wailes for Lichfield Cathedral. She also greatly expanded our materials on the painter William Gale, adding James Dafforne’s biography and several paintings, including Sick, and in Prison, Blind Bartimeus, and The Confidante. In addition, she enjoyed revisiting Royal Holloway's Picture Gallery with its fabulous collection of well-known Victorian paintings. This led her to update her 2006 account of Royal Holloway's Founder's Building (where the gallery is housed) and to bring in many of the paintings there, including Millais's The Princes in the Tower, Edwin Long's The Babylonian Marriage Market, John Brett's Carthillon Cliffs and Briton Riviere's An Anxious Moment. Thanks to Dr Helen Wilson, who sent in some great photos of it, she could also write a short piece about E. S. Prior's Holy Trinity (New) Church, Bothenhampton, a church that Pevsner himself thought should be more widely known.

Towards the end of the month, she opened new sections on the Scottish artist Peter Graham and the painter/illustrator Frederick Richard Pickersgill with introductions and several of their paintings, and added to the section on Abraham Solomon with a biography written in the nineteenth century, and paintings including his fine Departure of the Diligence at Biarritz.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “The Genesis, Early Publication History, and Reception of Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure,’

James A. W. Heffernan, Professor of English Emeritus, Dartmouth College, both reported on his first encounter with Ruskin and shared with our readers his essay on Peter Milton’s Tsunami and its representations of Ruskin, Turner, and Constable. Pritika Pradhan, who is a PhD candidate at Rutgers shared first encounter with Ruskin as did Mark Frost, Senior Lecturer in English Literature at the University of Portsmouth, and Sara Atwood, PhD, North American Development Director, Guild of St George, and Simon Cooke, our Assistant Editor for Book Illustration and Design, Tom Rawson, and Michael Wheeler, founding Director of the Ruskin Centre and Ruskin Collection Project at Lancaster University.

Mike Williams, a frequent contributor, sent in “Kingsley’s ‘True’ Fairy Tale<,” a study of that author’s anti-fairytale, Madam How and Lady Why, that builds upon Siobahm Lam’s 2007 essays. D. E. Latané contributed “Edward Bulwer Lytton’s committal of his wife Rosina to a private mental asylum in 1858

On the eighteenth the site had 103,505 documents and images.

February 2019

Decorated initial Cs the month began, your webmaster found himself shuttling back and forth between London and southern France. After delivering lectures on Ruskin and Tennyson to the English faculty at the Université de Bordeaux-Montaigne and another talk on biblical imagery to a graduate student seminar, headed north first to Paris and then to London to see the magnificent Burne-Jones exhibition at the Tate and a beautifully designed (if far less interesting) Dior show at the V&A. Landow then headed back down south to the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Ardour where he gave the keynote at the French Victorian Society (or SFEVE) and a talk and a workshop on digital humanities to postgraduate students who hope to create a project that will appear on this site.

To occupy some of the hours on the trains and planes, Landow began to experiment more with linking complete texts of English authors in both English and French, something made possible by Project Gutenberg. He’s put up more than 50 of Oscar Wilde’s poems in French translation and will begin to interlink them with their English originals as time permits. Drawing upon the riches of Project Gutenberg, Landow formatted 18 of Wilde’s essays in the original English and four in French, perhaps the most interesting of which is Wilde’s long essay on the greatness of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, which also contains a history of English women poets.

This being the year of Ruskin and his bi-centenary, your webmaster has been adding to the Ruskin section and improving the linking of its documents within the section itself and adding materials. Since Unto This Last remains one of his most important works, Landow has created a web version of it based on the University of Lancaster’s wonderful online edition of the Cook and Wedderburn Library Edition text. (Back in 1994, he was British Academy Visiting Professor at Bowland College, University of Lancaster, where he spent six weeks creating a proof-of-concept hypertext version of part of Modern Painters.) As one of the first projects, Lancaster’s Ruskin Library created an online translation of the entire Library Edition — an essential resource — but since they quite properly tried to reproduce the original pages, we still need a hypertext version that both makes many of the cross references far easier to use and also adds additional material. The first draft of the hypertext Unto This Last is now online, but we expect it will continue to grow and change. We now also have a homepage (or sitemap) for Unto This Last that contains links to topics, authors mentioned, and biblical quotations in it as well as discussions of it by twentieth- and twenty-first-century scholars.

The Internet Archive online version of the Illustrated London News provided a portrait of the artist William Edward Frost, a picture of John Gibson’s Theseus Killing the Robber, an image and description of Alexander Munro’s Gillie and Hound, and a drawing of artists waiting to see if their work had been accepted for the annual Royal Academy exhibition. The Library of Congress (via the Internet Archive) provided 28 drawings, etchings, and collotypes of Edinburgh by Hanslip Fletcher, which will be interlinked with our materials on that city.

Philip Allingham contributed Honoré Daumier’s The Sickroom Nurse (La Garde-Malade), Henry Walker’s portrait of Samuel Palmer. and “Samuel Palmer and Dickens's Pictures from Italy.”

This month found Jackie Banerjee back in Gibraltar (at least, in spirit), writing about this Overseas Territory's Anglican Cathedral, Trinity Lighthouse at Europa Point, Garrison Library, Trafalgar Cemetery, and so on, and adding Thackeray's account of it after his visit there. She hopes that others will contribute to this new section on the Rock. Her next port of call was Two Temple Place, to review its exhibition, another celebration of Ruskin's Bicentenary: "John Ruskin: The Power of Seeing." This prompted her to put a number of new paintings online, including Ruskin's own Kapellbrücke, Lucerne, John Brett's Mount Etna from Taormina, William Parrott's J.M.W. Turner on Varnishing Day and one of Edward Lear's brilliant bird-studies, of a macaw. It was interesting to see another version of Benjamin Creswick's Blacksmith's Forge, this time in terracotta.

By the end of the month, JB had also reviewed Adrian Barlow's two recent books on the stained glass studio of Charles Eamer Kempe, and in the process added a number of new windows to the section on Kempe, from Lichfield and Southwark cathedrals. Only a few of the photographs used were her own: most came, with permission, from contributing photographer Colin Price's wonderful compendium of cathedral stained glass. Outstanding examples are the Tree of the Church window at Lichfield, and the Chaucer window at Southwark. At Southwark too is a striking East Window by Ninian Comper, and an interesting Ward and Hughes lancet on the theme of resurrection.

Simon Cooke's well-informed and informative review of Catherine Golden's Serials to Graphic Novels: The Evolution of the Victorian Illustrated Book is the first contribution to a new section of reviews about studies of illustration. Thanks also to Colin Price, for sending in a series of new and improved images of the majestic Burne-Jones windows at Birmingham Cathedral, and to Lucy Paquette for adding some interesting new research findings to her chronology of James Tissot.

We now have over 8000 followers on Twitter. They come from all over the world, some helpfully translating our tweets into their own languages for others to follow. "Academic twitter," as one follower termed it, is a very useful source of information about what's happening in Victorian studies. For instance, earlier this month we stay-at-homes could see tweets about our webmaster's presentations on Ruskin in France. You can see them too, by clicking on the twitter logo on the homepage, but you need to scroll down a bit now!

Andrzej Diniejko contributed a series of essays and a chronology for Mona Caird, one of the New Woman novelists and campaigners against vivisection.

James L. Spates, Professor of Sociology Emeritus, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, has contributed an important monograph in time for the celebration of the Ruskin bi-centenary: Ruskin’s Sexuality: Correcting Decades of Misperceptipn and Mislabeling.

Dr. Cynthia Gamble, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Exeter, contributed “How I came to Ruskin” to our collection of narratives of first encounters with Ruskin’s works, and the writer and broadcaster Rob Cowan sent in “How I first encountered Ruskin.”

Thanks to Joachim Dagg, who contributed “The need to distinguish between the two Patrick Matthews,” which differentiates the arborist who coined a phrase close to Darwin’s “natural selection” and his namesake, a physician in the service of the East India Company. Thanks also to Dr Stephen Basdeo of the American International University in Leeds for sharing information about the cost of attending the great Public Schools, Eton and Harrow and Nigel Ogilvie for correcting two typos, one a particularly egregious blunder.

On the twenty-fifth the site had 103,278 documents and images.

January 2019

Decorated initial Continuing to work on a series of networked documents and images about British India, chiefly before the traumatic 18567 Mutiny, your webmaster created a new section for Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence, which includes his justification of British Rule in South Asia, despite his abhorrence of the East India Company's piratical conquests, and his argument that “No place or office should be absolutely barred to the native soldier.”

After Christmas, Jackie Banerjee finished some new work on Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, especially enjoying Youth and the Lady, and Walter Shaw Sparrow's contemporary discussion of some of her watercolours. She then reviewed two recent books on dress reform: one by Don Chapman (Wearing the Trousers) and one by Kat Jungnickel (Bikes and Bloomers), and (another swift change of subject!) opened a new section on Gibraltar. She started with its history, and a lively account of Victorian Gibraltar by an American visitor, but then broke off to visit the Watts Gallery in Compton, Surrey, and review its most enjoyable and illuminating exhibition about Christina Rossetti.

Thanks to Alec Hamilton for writing in about Heywood Sumner's contribution to St Mary the Virgin, Great Warley, and his subsequent correspondence about the website and its pros and cons (for those unfamiliar with its navigation tools).

We're grateful again to the online journal Cercles and to Professor Laurent Bury for sharing his review of the book accompanying the current Burne-Jones exhibition at the Tate, Christina Rossetti: Poetry in Art.

Many thanks to a new contributor, Rita Wood, for her knowledgeable and well-illustrated 4-part essay in the architecture section on Victorian Architects and the Romanesque, and to Simon Cooke who strayed out of book design and illustration to review Michael Palin's Erebus: The Story of a Ship, about one of the ships at long last discovered on the seabed, after the lost Franklin Expedition of 1845.

We are very sad to report that one of our contributors, the artist and writer Michael Blaker, who wrote (for example) about "The Revival of the Artist-Etcher in the Victorian Period," passed away at the end of last November. We send our deepest condolences to his widow Catriona and all those who are having to come to terms with his loss.

Beverley Park Rilett, Research Assistant Professor and Lecturer in English at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, contributed two essays related to the author of Middlemarch: “Victorian Sexual Politics and the Unsettling Case of George Eliot’s Response to Walt Whitman” and “George Henry Lewes, the Real Man of Science: Behind George Eliot’s Fictional Pedants.”

Thanks to Matthew Poland, Assistant Editor, Modern Language Quarterly, for pointing out a nonfunctioning link to a non-existent document, which lead to creating the missing bibliography. Thanks also to Calvin McCarter for reporting a broken link and to Louise Hope for suggesting corrections for two formatting errors!

Thanks to the Fine Art Society, London, which reports that it is leaving New Bond Street after 142 years, for sharing images from what may be its final catalogue: Gilbert Bayes’ The Challenger, Richard Garbe’s The Red Shawl, and Francis Derwent Wood’s Nude Torso plus a Pugin settle and a “Sunray” Fireplace Fender by Thomas Jekyll and Frank Brangwyn’s A Mediterranean Port.

As the twenty-eighth the site had 102,926 documents and images.

December 2018

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ritish India occupied the closing days of last month and the first ones of December as your webmaster realized that Blackie’s Imperial Gazetteer’s material on South Asia provided a valuable means of enriching and organizing our already abundant collection of photographs, paintings, Victorian essays, and modern commentaries. Thus far Landow had created sections with sitemaps (homepages) for individual cities, including, Agra, Benares, Bombay, Calcutta, Jeypore, Lucknow, Madras, Mysore, and Trevandrum. Before adding some obviously missing cities, such as Delhi, your webmaster next adapted the long Imperial Gazetteer entries on both India and Hindustan. All this material, which comes from volumes whose title-pages bear the date of 1856, has particular importance because it immediately precedes the 1857 Mutiny!

After formatting The Imperial Gazetteer’s brief mentions of South Asian architecture and religion, your webmaster realized that material available both online and on his own bookshelves would enable an efficient means of organizing our already abundant materials on these subjects. His out-of-copyright 1905 edition of Bannister Fletcher’s History of Architecture on the Comparative Method provided definitions, discussions, and illustrations of the subcontinent's architectural styles, including the Buddhist, Jaina, The Northern Hindu (or Brahman) style as well as the Hindu Chalukyan and Dravidian modes, and the Muslim Saracenic and Mogul styles. This new information, photographs and detailed drawings permitted the creation of sitemaps (or homepages) for these subjects that functioned as centers for both Victorian materials and modern photographs.

After visiting the the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, Landow wrote “Questions Hidden in Plain Sight, a review of ‘Empresses of China’s Forbidden City.’”

Jackie Banerjee opened the month by reviewing the new exhibition at the Guildhall Art Gallery, "Seen & Heard: Victorian Children in the Frame", and made a new entry for the genre painter, Thomas Webster, including his biography and such well-known paintings as The Smile and The Frown. She also wrote about two great paintings by Turner: War. The Exile and and the Rock Limpet and Peace: Burial at Sea. Then (inspired by last month's holiday reading of Martin Chuzzlewit), she wrote an essay entitled "Seth Pecksniff, Architect." This was followed by a new section for the Royal Mint engraver, William Wyon, with his silver one-rupee coin for India; and a new section for the Lancaster architects, Paley and Austin, with their work on Lancaster Cathedral, including some lovely stained glass there, like Hardman's west window, Christ in Glory. All the Lancaster pictures were kindly supplied by our skilful contributing photographer, Colin Price. At the end of the month, JB wrote a short piece about Falmouth Art Gallery in Cornwall, and opened a new section for the water-colourist Edith Martineau. It includes a striking view of Hampstead Heath in December and her deservedly popular Touching the Strings.

Many thanks to reviews editor Professor Antoine Capet and his authors at the online journal Cercles for sharing with us: Antoinette Burton's review of Miles Taylor's Empress: Queen Victoria and India; Iain Hampsher-Monk's review of Edmund Burke and the Invention of Modern Conservatism, 1830-1914: An Intellectual History; and Gilbert Bonifas's particularly detailed review of William Morris's Utopianism: Propaganda, Politics and Prefiguration.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed a detailed chronology for the slum novelist and social reformer Margaret Haskell.

Thanks to Aline Gay, Fanny Guilbaud, and Damien Lenoir from Université Bordeaux-Montaigne, France, for contributing “Britannia as the embodiment of Great Britain.” Thanks also to Maynard Brandt for sending along information about the artist Sophie Anderson.

As December and 2018 came to a close the site had 102,644jj documents and images.

November 2018

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s the month began, your webmaster continued working with Robert Freidus’s contributions on the twenty-fifth (!) DVD he has sent across the Atlantic, formatting three memorials in Salisbury Cathedral — John Flaxman’s for William Long, Thomas Nicholl’s for Bishop Moberly, and Sir George Frampton’s for John Wordsworth (the Bishop of Salisbury). Correcting the perspective and color on photographs of works by Frampton, prompted Landow to finally get around to formatting scans of other works by the last sculptor featured in The Studio, including, Industry, Maternity, Recumbent effigy of Lady Isobel Wilson, Tablet at the Glasgow School of Art in Honour of Sir James Fleming, Truth and Beauty , and three monuments (for a Lieutenant McClaren, for R. J. Seddon, Prime Minister of New Zealand, and for Sir. E. J. Reed). Working away on a backlog of material about sculpture, led to the creation of a new section on Ada Freeman Gell.

Intrigued by the riches of the four-volume Blackie Imperial Gazetteer, which is essentially an encyclopedia with entries not only for Great Britain and its colonies as of 1850 but also cities and countries throughout the world, Landow began to transcribe, format, and link material on Cawnpoor, India, and the following English cities: Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, and Liverpool.

At the beginning of the month, Jackie Banerjee reviewed the brilliant Burne-Jones exhibition at Tate Britain, and added some of the works there that came from British galleries, including the Tate itself: Ladies and Death, the Annunciation and the Adoration of the Magi, Love and the Pilgrim, The Wine of Circe, the stained glass panels The Good Shepherd, The Calling of St Peter, and Ezekiel, and the wonderful tapestry, Adoration of the Magi. Then, with the arrival of the first Bewick's Swan, heralding winter, she added Victorian ornithologist F. O. Morris's entry on it in his six-volume history of British birds.

On returning from a late holiday in the warmer climes of the Mediterranean, she added a discussion of Burne-Jones's anti-Semitic caricatures, and balanced it out a bit by including Oscar Wilde's glowing tribute to the young Anglo-Jewish writer Amy Levy. She also wrote a short biography and assessment of the late Victorian/early modern architect, Aston Webb. Thanks to photographer Philip Pankhurst, she could add some lovely recent images of cottages designed by Ernest Newton in Worcester, Dormay Cottages and Park Lodge.

Mark Stocker, Curator Historical International Art, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, contributed “Educating Jonathan Jones: Seven things you need to know about Burne-Jones.”

Many thanks to Simon Cooke for providing new, and much improved, scans of John Franklin’s illustrations and to Maynard Brandt for correcting the birthdate of Henry Syacey Marks in a several documents.

Thanks to Anthony Bernbaum, who obtained permission from the owner of photographs of Florence Harriet Steele and her fellow women sculptors to share it with readers of the Victorian Web. If you can identify any of Steele’s fellow students, please contact the webmaster.

On the twenty-sixth the site had 102,195 documents and images.

October 2018

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fter editing and formatting Lionel Gossman’s monograph on Scottish and English publishers and the effect that their publishing inexpensive editions of both major literary works and reference books, your webmaster found some wonderful material by them that began to fill important gaps in the Victorian Web. Drawing upon the Chambers Gazetteer of Scotland, Landow first created a section on Glasgow, which included “The Geography and Situation of Glasgow,” a chart of its population 1500-1838,the history of the city “Roman Times to the Reformation,” “From the Reformation to the Restoration,” and “From the Restoration to the Accession of Victoria.” In addition, Gazetteer provided information on Glasgow’s “government,” “manufacturing and commerce,” “educational institutions ,” and churches.” Next, the Gazetteer of Scotland and other references works available on the Internet Archive and the Hathitrust Digital Library permitted Landow to create a similar, much-needed section on Edinburgh, which included the city’s history from the middle ages to the accession of Victoria plus its “institutions,” “educational institutions ,” and creation of the New Town.” Continuing to explore various online archives for material to add to our growing section on Scotland, Landow drew upon the beautiful drawings of Robert William Billings to create a section on Scottish castles.

Another collaboration with Michael Williams led to the discovery of J. Hassell’s dozen engravings of the Grand Junction Canal and the country through which it flowed. Williams then wrote “John Hassell on Leisure, Work, and the Grand Junction Canal.” After a private collector contributed nine photographs of Thomas Thornycroft’s equestrian statue of the young Queen Victoria, Landow color-corrected, sized, and formatted the material. Additional contributions included two bas reliefs by Conrad Dressler (Portrait of a Young Man and Isota di Rimini), and A. Bertram Pegram’s untitled bronze of a laborer and his family.

Landow reviewed Reeve, Richard. The Sexual Imperative in the Novels of Sir Henry Rider Haggard.

Philip Allingham completed work on more than 65 Victorian illustrations to Laurence Sterne’s A Sentimental Journey by Tony Johannot that complements his essays on Sterne.

New work online from Jackie Banerjee includes a review of Victorian Poets: A Critical Reader, edited by Valentine Cunningham, and a new section on the popular Victorian animal painter, Briton Riviere, with six of his paintings, such as his dramatic The Miracle of the Gaderene Swine. She also put online a contemporary article about Queen Victoria's Hindustani Journal, with some sample entries in the diary; and examples of the ceramics on view at the Sandringham Museum, such as Edith Hoad's circular plaque of Girl reading a book. Still at Sandringham, she looked at Sir Noel Paton's triptych in the museum there, including his famous Man of Sorrows, and the lovely little church of St Mary Magdalene on the Sandringham estate, the interior of which also turned out to be full of treasures. This prompted a new section on the silversmiths, Barkentin & Krall. It also offered another version of Alfred Gilbert's celebrated sculpture of St George. In general, Norfolk has much to offer, including the impressive railway station at Norwich, and other smaller stations like the one at Sheringham now being restored or even rebuilt to meet the growing demand for heritage train trips.

Simon Cooke contributed “Gleeson White as a Book Cover Designer” — the twenty-third in his series of essays on book design!

Robert Freidus continued his series of photographs of British architecture and architectural sculpture with images of an anonymous portrait of Lord Derby, William Reid Dick’s figures on what is now the Burberry’s store on London’s Regent Street, Frederick William Pomeroy’s four panels on making gin for the Booth Gin Co., plus his plaque for Thomas Gray and H. A. Peto and Sir E. George’s 52 Cadogan Square. and three bas reliefs of nude swimmers on the façade of the Westminster public baths by then eighteenth-year-old Henry Poole. He also contributed the following free-standing works of sculpture: three bas reliefs by Gilbert Bayes (The Woman and the Genii, Woman Bathing, and The Goal) plus Hebe and Aesculapius on the Royal Masonic Hospital in Hammersmith, Sir Francis Chantrey’s James Northcote Monument, Alfred Drury’s Richard Hooker Monument in the Exeter Cathedral Close and his Sleeping Child, Henry Alfred Pegram’s memorial for George Wyndham Hamilton Knight Bruce, Thomas Thornycroft’s equestrian statue of Queen Victoria, and two works by Arthur George Walker: Louise Aldrich-Blake and Madonna and Child.

On the twenty-ninth the site had 101,882 documents and images.

September 2018

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eptember began with your webmaster entering his 79th year. After birthday celebrations (always important in his family) he wrote “Poetry, Public Monuments, and Postcards — a review of Tom Mole’s What the Victorians Made of Romanticism” to which he linked several excerpts and commentaries, including “The Victorian Invention of Modernity,” “Timothy Mole on Victorian Attempts to Create a National Pantheon,” ““Bite-sized chunks of culture”: How Anthologies reshaped Victorian ideas of Romantic poetry,” “Secularization and Victorian Religion,” and “Changes in the Technology of Book production, 1770-1910.”

Discovering the Hathi Trust’s online version of The Railway Times, Landow created a new section for this periodical and added a variety of documents from 1842, including a long debate about the superiority of four- vs, six-wheeled Engines and “Mr. Robert Stephenson’s New Locomotive,” plus various articles on miscellaneous subjects, including announcement of fund-raising for a testimonial to Brunel, Esq., “Railway Offences and Offenders,” an advertisement for A Manual of the Steam Engine,” and the advertised schedule for the Northern and Eastern Railway. Continuing the search through this magazine, Landow found and added examples of advertisements for stock and bond offerings as well as photographs of half a dozen immediately post-Victorian locomotives, including the The London and North Western 1911 Coronation Engine.

Mike Williams and Landow collaborated on another essay, “William “Strata” Smith (1769-1839): Geology and Coal” and this led to Landow adding “The History of the Idea of Geological Strata before William Smith’s Formulation and Map” from John Philip’s 1841 memoir of his uncle, after which he created a section for English counties as they were delimited in Victorian days to Smith’s which he added “A County-by-County Geological Description of England’s Landscapes” drawn from Smith’s Memoir, after which he created a separate document for each county containing links to Smith’s description and to the site’s images of cities, towns, landscapes, and relevant essays. Returning from Skidmore College, where Landow delivered the annual Fox-Adler Lecture (“What Does It Mean ‘to Illustrate a Book’?”), he added “Death Becomes Her — A notice of an exhibition at Saratoga Springs History Museum.”

Following our webmaster's lead (as ever!), Jackie Banerjee added several paintings to his new section on Richard Ansdell, including  The Drover's Halt, especially interesting for the light it throws on the lives of cattle drovers in the Highlands. She also added to the newly enlarged Dublin section, picking up among others Barnardo Furriers on Grafton Street with its connection to Dr Barnardo, who established the well-known children's charity. A look at Ireland's fine late-Victorian National Library followed. With a new batch of pictures from contributing photographer John Salmon, she then wrote about St Jude and St Paul's, Islington, N. London. Catriona Blaker had kindly sent in a scan of the original fund-raiser for this church, a concert of psalms — fascinating! This church provided a second window by Charles Gibbs, who turned out to be a more important stained glass supplier than previously thought, so she opened a new section on him.

Later in the month she opened another new section, this time for paintings and studies by the first ever Jewish Royal Academician, Solomon Alexander Hart; added two works by Alexander Munro (busts of a the young Mary Isabella Matheson and her brother James); and wrote about Turner's house in Twickenham, which only recently opened to the public. Thanks to Colin and Eleanor Price for our first photo of the stained glass at Chichester Cathedral: St Nicholas and St Richard of Chichester. At the end of the month, she added Solomon Hart's anecdotal accounts of Turner, Daniel Maclise and William Etty, and reviewed Anita Anand's Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary.

Simon Cooke reviewed “Beyond Ophelia: A Celebration of Lizzie Siddal, Artist and Poet,” an exhibition at Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton.

Elena Navarro contributed translations of the following material about Charlotte Brontë into Spanish, which Xiana Sotelo revised and edited: “The Brontë Pseudonyms: A Woman's Image — The Writer and Her Public,” “Charlotte Brontë: A Modern Woman,” and “The Book of Common Prayer and Jane Eyre.” Elena Navarro contributed a translation of Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s biography edited by Anna Abril, who also edited and revised Kiara Zelada’s Spanish translations of Jackie Banerjee’s essay, “The Wheels of Chance, H. G. Wells's Cycling Romance” and material about his portrait. (Links take you to the Spanish translations.)

Thanks to Jim Spates for once again sharing one of his wonderful essays from his Ruskin Today blog, this one “A Boy’s View of Warwick Castle.”

Lionel Gossman, the M. Taylor Pyne Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages at  Princeton, contributed another book-length project: Scottish Publishers and English Literature, which includes “Scottish Publishers, London Booksellers, and Copyright Law” plus essays on fifteen publishers ranging from William Strahan, whose firm dates from 1738, to major firms that are still extant, such as Macmillan, which begin in Victorian days (1843). The project also includes a bibliography of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British Copyright Law. Landow formatted the project, adding page images from the Internet Archive.

Thanks to Louise Hope for reporting a problem with fonts in one of the documents in the Trollope section. Special thanks also to Andrew Deuchar for pointing out a mistake in talking about the monument to Dean (not Bishop) Close in Carlisle Cathedral. We're always grateful when people take the trouble to e-mail us about mistakes!

On the twenty-fourth the site had 101,261 documents and images.

August 2018

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ugust began with your webmaster pulling his copy of Hilary Beck’s wonderful 1973 Victorian Engraving off his library shelves and using it as the basis of a series of documents on nineteenth-century uses of engraving, mezzotint, and lithographs to reproduce and popularize paintings, including a list of graphic artists and a sample of the works they reproduced plus discussions of “Economic Factors in Engraving” and of the way steel and mixed mezzotint drove out line engraving. The material in Beck then led to creating a new section on the painter, Richard Ansdell.

After coming upon “The Great Disaster on the Thames: Collision between the Princess Alice and the Bywell Castle, near Woolwich” in the 1878 Illustrated London News, Landow created a homepage for it in our section in shipwrecks. This disaster in which 600 people, many of them children, lost their lives provides an example of the ways newspapers and magazines covered important events, events to which cartoons in Punch and Fun also alluded. Searching through one of the few issues of The Graphic available online, Landow came upon a long illustrated article about Dublin, which provided many images of the city plus descriptions and histories of its buildings and people. The material in The Graphic prompted Landow to include photographs of Dublin’s St. Patrick’s Cathedral, its military monuments, and tributes to Swift, and Trinity College Library taken during a 2016 trip.

Collaborating with Mike Williams on “Anna Seward and Erasmus Darwin: Two Poets Confront the Industrial Revolution” prompted Landow to create a section on Seward, which thus far includes 18 of her sonnets, a discussion of her relationship with Darwin’s grandfather, and her contribution to The Botanic Garden.

Philip V. Allingham created a Laurence Sterne chronology and another for Fanny Burney as well as a discussion of Evelina.

Jackie Banerjee added two new paintings by Henry Moore: Cattle Fording a Stream and Near Harlech, and revised and updated one of our older entries, an introduction to Punch. After that she looked at two philanthropists who advanced the cause of women while working among the poor in South London. One was the housing reformer Octavia Hill, whose housing projects like the Red Cross Cottages can still be found in Southwark. The other was Deaconess Isabella Gilmore, whose brother, William Morris, helped her decorate the deaconess houses in Clapham. Both helped pave the way for new (paid) careers for women. Gilmore's memorial by A. G. Walker and Ninian Comper is in Southwark Cathedral. JB also opened a new section on James Silvester Sparrow's stained glass, which includes the much-admired crucifixion window, which he made to Frank Brangwyn's design in St Mary the Virgin, Bucklebury, Berks. Many thanks to Octavia Housing and Holy Well Glass for their help.

Later in the month, she reviewed Geoffrey Finch's novel about Dr Johnson and his manservant, Francis Barber: Sam's Boy is highly recommended, not only for the central relationship but also for its glimpses into the lives of the many slaves and ex-slaves in late eighteenth-century England. A visit to Southwark Cathedral brought much more material on it, such as angel tapestries thought to be by G. F. Bodley, and the wonderful west (Creation) window by Henry Holiday (that one required Colin Price's photographic contribution!). A visit to Bradford on Avon also brought new material, so far, on its rare "Brunel-type" railway station and Holy Trinity Church's lovely east window by Michael O'Connor.

We now have over 7000 followers on Twitter!

Mike Williams contributed “The Industrial Revolution Celebrated — Sir Andrew Baines and Andrew Ure.”

Thanks to Gabriel Lombard, Professeur de piano à Pantin et Paris, for writing to point out broken links in some of material about Ruskin in French.

The site had 100,811 documents and images on the twenty-seventh.

July 2018

Decorated initial As July arrived, bringing fearsome heat, our robot document counter e-mailed your webmaster that the site had reached a milestone — 100,000 documents and images (100,013 to be exact).

Landow contributed a review of Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and a long essay, “Hogarth and the Victorians.” Now that Tate Britain generously shares images of works in its collection, we has the opportunity to add interesting material to VW and include details of paintings one discusses, such as John Everett Millais’s The North-West Passage and Christ in the House of His Parents.

While traveling to Vancouver, Canada, and then to Alaska and the Yukon Territories, Landow prepared a series of 18 excerpts from Thomas Babbington Macaulay’s The History of England from the Accession of James II and various essays interlinking them to one another and to materials in the Victorian Web. Some, such as “Improvements in Agriculture” and “The Development in British Cities since the Restoration” appear as simple excerpts, whereas others have added subtitles. Thus, “The Terrible Condition of Britain’s Navy in the Late Seventeenth Century” divides into sections on “Everything in disorder and in miserable condition,” “Poor, Inexperienced Naval Commanders,” and “Lack of Discipline,” and “Changes in the Landed Classes since the Restoration” divides into “The Country Gentleman of the Seventeenth Century Compared to His Victorian Counterpart,” “Isolation and Provincialism of the Seventeenth-Century Country Gentleman,” and “Political Attitudes and Allegiances.”

Philip Allingham and Landow have been working together on sections of works by Frederick Walker in painting, graphics, and illustration, perhaps the most interesting parts of which compare illustrations and the oil paintings derived from them, such as The Lost Path and The Vagrants. This last work has particular interest because it first appeared as an wood-engraving illustration in Good Words, after which Walker removed and added figures, changing emphasis upon the surrounding landscape in the oil painting, which then was reproduced in a steel engraving!

Allingham wrote extensive commentaries about twenty of William Harrison Ainsworth’s Guy Fawkes and its illustrations.

Despite the prolonged energy-sapping heatwave here, Jackie Banerjee has put some new items online, as well as doing some updating and making some corrections. The new ones are: a six-part essay on "Becoming Heroines: Protest and Paradigm in Victorian Fiction," looking at female characters and their development in a range of novels; a biography of the late-Victorian/Edwardian artist, Sigismund Goetze, with a few of his works, such as his huge The Crown offered to Richard III at Baynard's Castle at the Royal Exchange; a famous watercolour from the Tate, Turner's Tintern Abbey; and another from the Tate, Solomon J. Solomon's affectionate painting of A Family Group: The Artist's Wife and Children ("Papa Painting").

Amitav Banerjee contributed a review of Margaret Macmillan's Women of the Raj, which brought in an evocative new sketch, Goodbye to England by Leonard Raven-Hill, of a woman on board a ship bound for India.

Simon Cooke contribute “Charles Ricketts as a Book Cover Designer,” his twenty-third essay on book designers.

David Wilson, who contributed a biography of Hall Caine back in 1999, when your webmaster was on leave from Brown University to head a new honors program in Singapore, just wrote with changes to one of his paragraphs. — that’s almost two decades between contact!

Thanks to Linda Thorsen for sending along Padraig Lawlor’s review of Joshua King’s Imagined Spiritual Communities in Britain’s Age of Print, which HNet has shared with a Creative Commons permission.

Thanks to Arthur Bond for notifying us about typos in the Sydney Paget section.

On the fifteenth the site had 100,365 documents and images.

June 2018

Decorated initial June began with your webmaster continuing to work on a series of London scenes from the late-nineteenth-century humor magazine Fun. These include cartoons with long commentaries by naive fictional visitors to the Cremone pleasure garden, the British Museum, and the National Gallery (which the character believes is called the Natural Gallery). Another set of commentaries by fictional speakers include rather bitterly satirical ones about miseries of the working poor and working at the stock exchange. Others satirize American visitors and survivors of Regency England.

Reading G.M. Young’s brilliant Portrait of an Age inspired Landow to add “G. M. Young on the creation of the Board of Health,” “G. M. Young on the Factory Act of ’47, as the turning-point of the age,” and “Too Rich and Too Poor” — G. M. Young on the Economic and Social Status of Anglican Minsters.” Continuing to reread classics of Victorian scholarship from the beginning of his academic career, he added Owen Chadwick on the Earl of Shaftsbury, “The Political Effects of Kingsley’s Sermon on the Church and the Working Classes,” “Politics for the People, the Christian Socialist Paper,” “Owen Chadwick on Pusey’s Inability to Lead the Oxford Movement,” Chadwick on the Founding of the Working Men’s College, and Goldwin Smith’s 1881 review of a Keble biography. Turning to Cardinal Newman, he wrote “John Henry Newman's attitude toward religious conversions” and drawing upon Project Gutenberg texts, he added three of his sermons: “The Unity of the Church,” “ The Duty of Self-Denial,” and “Sudden Conversions” and an essay, “The Narrator’s Sympathetic Understanding of Pagan Characters in Newman’s Callista.” Project Gutenberg also provided material inspiration for a set of essays about Charles Kingsley and excerpts from his work, including “Against Centralization — the Example of Pre- and Post-Revolutionary France ,” “Byron and Shelley,” “A Feminist Critique of Fenlon’s Télémaque,” ““That purifying fire was needed”,” “Anglo-American shopkeepers & farmers compared to those living under the Bureaucratic Regimes of the Continent,” “Frederick Denison Maurice: In Memoriam,” “Kingsley’s Defence of Rousseau and the Philosophes,” “‘Very unpicturesque, no doubt, is wealth and progress,’” “The Eighteenth Century Was the Source of Nineteenth-Century Progress,” and “Why England never had an Ancien Régime.” Next, again drawing upon Project Gutenberg, Landow added George MacDonald’s “The Fantastic Imagination” and “The Imagination: Its Functions and Its Culture” and linked them to sitemaps for literary relations and themes.

Philip Allingham added George Cruishank’s four illustrations of Smollett’s Humphrey Clinker plus a Smollett timeline and brief discussion of the novelists Victorian reputation. Next, he began a series of Cruikshank’s illustrations to William Harrison Ainsworth’s The Miser for which he wrote a series of brief essays on eighteenth-century architecture that appears in the novel, including “The Eigheenth-Century Taste for Architectural Follies” and “William Harrison Ainsworth on the Pleasure Gardens at Ranelagh, Chelsea.”

Jackie Banerjee started the month by putting up a pair of heartbreaking paintings by Frank Holl, Hush! and Hushed, as well as one on a similar theme by H. H. La Thangue: The Man with the Scythe. She then opened a new section on the paintings of Arthur Boyd Houghton, already well represented as an illustrator, with works like Mother and Child Reading, and the touching watercolour, Head of a Woman and Child. Next came another new section, this time on the Jewish architect, David Mocatta, for whom she wrote a short biography. After rewriting some earlier work, she added his first big commission, the Montefiore Synagogue in Ramsgate, and his collaboration on the splendid Ouse Valley Viaduct on the Brighton-London railway line. Many thanks to contributing photographer Colin Price for his inspiring photographs of the viaduct!

At the end of the month, JB completed a series about G. F. Bodley's important early church, All Saints, Selsley, Gloucestershire. Many thanks to Philip Pankhurst for the photographs of the church itself, and to Jim Cheshire for a batch of lovely photographs of the stained glass scheme by Morris & Co. Personal favourites among these are Morris's own The Annunciation, and Ford Madox Brown's The Nativity. She also added Baron Marochetti's Angel of the Last Judgement on the church of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois, Paris, and, with photographs from contributing photographer Colin Price, another viaduct, the Loughor Viaduct near Swansea, with its preserved section of Brunel's original structure. Finally, at the very end of the month, she reviewed an unusual and moving exhibition at the Watts Gallery, Compton, about James Henry Pullen: Inmate — Inventor — Genius.

Thanks also to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who sent in a marvellous four-part essay, fully illustrated with some hard-to-acquire photographs, on "Polychromy in the work of Baron Carlo Marochetti." This covers some of his most controversial works, which provoked keen debate in the Victorian period, and influenced the New Sculpture.

Andrzej Diniejko and Landow collaborated on “Benjamin Disraeli’s Sibyl, or How to Reconnect the Two Nations.”

Jessye Bloomfield, Assistant Curator at Tate Modern, Assistant Curator at Tate Modern, contributed a video introduction to Elizabeth Siddal. Frederick Roden contributed four essays that greatly enrich our section on Victorian religion: “British Liberal Judaism: Montefiore, Montagu, and Reforming Reform,” “The Mission of Judaism: Proselytism and Conversion at the Turn of the Century,” “Reuben Sachs and the crisis of Jewish assimilation,” and “Israel Zangwill’s Ambivalent Jewishness.” Stephen Foster completed his series of essays on the man who claimed to have anticipated Darwin with “Was Patrick Matthew Obscure?” and Michael Williams continued his series of essays about reactions to the Industrial Revolution with “Pillars of Flame and Smoke at Ironbridge.”

Thanks to Sarah Colegrave Fine Art for sharing images and information for the following works: Henry Barlow Carter’s View of New London Bridge in June 1827. John Rennie, Esq., Engineer , Sir Hubert von Herkomer’s Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, George Elgar Hicks’s Portrait of a Young Gentleman, Alfred William Hunt’s A Rocky Shore, Alfred William Hunt’s Windsor Castle — Morning, Benjamin Leader’s On the Llugwy near Bettwys-y-Coed, Summer, John Roderick Demster Mackenzie’s Afghan Soldier in the Karakoram Mountains, Hindu Kush, 1901, Arthur Severn’s Ice on the Thames, Chelsea in Winter — by Cheyne Walk, Henry Scott Tuke’s At Anchor,

Thanks to Paul Kelly from Local News in Dublin for pointing out an egregious typo.

On the twenty-fifth the site had 99,960 documents and images.

May 2018

Decorated initial may began with your webmaster working on political cartoons from the humor magazines Fun and Punch, including a set on the Prime Minsters Lord John Russell, Lord Salisbury, and others. The site now has 60 cartoons with commentary on the Irish Question. Drawing upon biographies of William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli, your webmaster added commentaries to cartoons alluding to the Reform Bill of 1867, such as Punch’s Mistaken Kindness and works of class-based humor, such as Fun’s A Shaving Shop Sketch. He also created a set of cartoons on the controversial adding “Empress” to Queen Victoria’s titles. In addition, he added links to cartoons and other documents to older documents about political and social history, such as David Cody’s “Child Labor” (which dates from 1988), thus turning them into mini-homepages for specific subjects. Jackie Banerjee and Landow collaborated on the Punch cartoon Capital and Labour, and after she came upon Owen Jones’s Gray’s Elegy, an example of the influence of medieval book illumination and imitation of it in print, Landow added a selection of its pages to the section on book design.

Stimulated by a contributor’s proposed series of essays on reactions to the Industrial Revolution, Landow added “J. Kitson Clark on the Industrial Revolution,” “What kind of life did the Industrial Revolution offer to contemporary men and women?,” “Raphael Samuel on the many forms of industrialized labor,” ““Extraordinarily Lop-sided in its effects” — Mechanization & Victorian Work,” “Girls and Women at Work in Victorian Mines, Quarries, and Brickworks,” “Victorian Brickworks,” and “Merfyn Jones on Work in the Slate Quarries of North Wales.” He also added a series of cartoons from the Victorian magazine, Fun, about workers and class-based humor, including A Shaving Shop Sketch, Labour’s Wrongs, and A Broad Hint for a Broad-Head plus a poem, “The Daily Governess’s Trials.”

Philip Allingham has completed his massive “illustrations of Robinson Crusoe” project with Wal Paget’s 118 plates. He next added images and commentaries for all 25 plates for George Cruikshank’s The Bachelor’s Own Book; Or, The Progress Of Mr. Lambkin, In The Pursuit Of Pleasure And Amusement.

At the end of April/beginning of this month, Jacqueline Banerjee reviewed Paul Dobraszczyk's very enjoyable book on Art, Ornament and Architecture in Victorian Britain, and (inspired by that) added some material to much earlier pieces on Brighton Palace Pier and West Pier, and added some new work, including Brighton seafront structures, the pioneering Volks Electric Railway, and Brighton Aquarium. She also added G. F. Watts's portrait of Lord Shaftesbury, Lutyens's war memorial in Hove, and "Little Ben," the cast-iron scale model of Big Ben close to Victoria Station. Later in the month she added a short essay on the Imperial Federation League; Owen Jones's Crystal Palace Bazaar; and St James's Hall in London's West End, and a four-part essay on Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey and Henry James's The Turn of the Screw (revised from an earlier version published in the journal English Studies). Having started a new section for South and Mid-Wales, she also added a short piece on Cardiff's Roath Park. A recent visit to the Guildhall Art Gallery then inspired a new look at the Scottish artist, Thomas Faed, with a biography and several new paintings, including one of his best-loved works, Highland Mary. This was followed by a review of Sublime Symmetry, an exhibition at the Guildhall of William De Morgan's ceramics, focusing most revealingly on the mathematical side of his designs.

Derek Scott contributed two essays — “British Musical Comedy in the 1890s: Modernity without Modernism” and “Music Hall: Regulations and Behaviour in a British Cultural Institution” as well as two performances of Victorian parlor songs — Shells of Ocean and In the Gloaming.

Simon Cooke contributed “‘Metaphysical Medicine’: de Boismont, Le Fanu and a Source for ‘Green Tea’.”

Thank you to Amitav Banerjee, whose review of Helen Smith's The Uncommon Reader: A Life of Edward Garnett brings out Garnett's role as "enabler" to some major authors in the late-Victorian and Edwardian periods.

As the month ended, Inés Cardoso Albarracin translated all eight chapters of Sally Mitchell’s Dinah Mulock Craik, which Asun López-Varela Azcárate edited and revised after which Landow did the final formatting and linking. Elena Sevilla Alonso also contributed “La Novela Sensacionalista Victoriana, 1860-1880 — ‘predicando el descaro en lugar del juicio,’” her translation of Allingham’s introduction to the sensation novel, and “Ferrocarriles y literatura victoriana: una introducción,” her translation of Landow’s discussion of railways and Victorian literature.

Thanks to the Fine Art Society for sharing images and information about works in the gallery, including William Joseph J.C. Bond’s Cattle Grazing with Sefton Church Beyond, John William Inchbold’s Trait, Montreux, Lake Geneva, Cecil Gordon Lawson’s Shepherd and his Flock, in a River Meadow and Barden Towers, Wharfedale, Yorkshire, and James McBey’s Dunkirk, Pas de Calais plus George Bernard O'Neill’s two etchings, The Barber and The Welcome.

Thanks also to the Maas Gallery for sharing images and information about works in the gallery, including Barbara Bodichon’s Ventnor, Isle of Wight, Alfred William Hunt’s Snowdon after an April Hailstorm/span>, three paintings by Edwin Longsden Long (An Egyptian Girl with a Sistrum, Nouzhatoul-aouadat - A Study, and The Mandolin Player), two by Henry Moore (Across Shipload Bay to Lundy Island, North Devon. and Sunset on the Coast), two by Sir Edward John Poynter (The Knot and Reading). and Sir Hubert Herkomer’s drawing, Hagar and Alexander Munro’s bas relief portrait, Pauline, Lady Trevelyan.

Thanks also to a private collector who shared images and information about the following works of sculpture: Robert Anning Bell’s Sleeping Child Flanked by Angels, Robert Cooper’s Britannia, and Henry Weigall’s John Flaxman.

As of the twenty-eight the site had 99,617 documents and images.


April 2018

Decorated initial April began with your webmaster in London, where he met four of our editors and regular contributors in the first few days. While trying to get over jetlag, Landow transcribed one of the most important sermons of Henry Melville, the favorite preacher of Ruskin, Gladstone, and Burne-Jones — “The First Prophecy.” Next, Landow examined arguments against Judaism in “Henry Melvill on the “Infidelity of the Jews”.” He also added photographs of furniture Pugin designed for the House of Lords as well as a cabinet for his own use. In addition, a photograph of E. H. Godwin's beautiful display cabinet in the Victoria & Albert Museum complemented another version of this furniture added to the Victorian Web seventeen years ago. During one of several visits to Trafalgar Square, he photographed and wrote “Another Bullgod Arrives in London — Michael Rakowitz’s Trafalgar Square Sculpture,” comparing Rakowitz’s tin-can recreation of Lamassu, a winged deity that guarded the entrance to the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh to Rossetti’s poem about a similar one.

After Bill Henry lent GPL a copy of Roy Jenkins’s biography of Gladstone, he added a few brief essays (“What was at stake and what was reformed in the 1867 Reform Act?” and “That “sad farce” — the Ecclesiastical Titles Act”) and a brief excerpt from Jenkins (“Robert Peel as Gladstone’s Mentor”).

Philip Allingham has created the first sixty (!) Cassell illustrations of Robinson Crusoe with substantial commentaries, and as part of his project to create material on Victorian illustrations of canonical works, he has just created sections on Henry Fielding and Oliver Goldsmith.

Thanks to Adrian Powter, a new contributor who sent in about two hundred photographs of G. F. Bodley's All Saints, Jesus Lane, Cambridge, Jacqueline Banerjee was able to put online new work by Bodley, who designed the church and many of its fittings, and William Morris and Charles Eamer Kempe, who were responsible for much of the interior decoration. The east window alone was a project, with figures by Edward Burne-Jones and Ford Madox Brown (including his St Peter, which looks rather like him), as well as Morris himself. Then there were Kempe's windows, such as one featuring a splendid dragon, and Ward and Hughes's windows, including some Good Shepherd lights, and Douglas Strachan's later Womanhood window. Among much else is a magnificent chancel-arch mural by Wyndham Hope Hughes, and last but not least came the eye-catching sanctuary tiles by the Godwin firm in Herefordshire.

Later, JB added three more paintings by John Callcott Horsley, including his portrait of Richard Norman Shaw, and wrote about Norman Shaw's first important domestic commission, to remodel Horsley's house in Cranbrook, Kent — Willesley. In the sculpture section, she wrote a short piece about a typical piece of street furniture, a cattle trough and drinking fountain, now a raised flower-bed! She also put online two new reviews: many thanks to Cercles and its reviewers for sharing with us Laurent Bury's review of Jenny Uglow's biography of Edward Lear (complementing Simon Cooke's on the same book); and Elizabeth Helsinger's review of Wendy Graham's Critics, Coteries, and Pre-Raphaelite Celebrity.

Simon Cooke has contributed an essay, 'This Queer Corner of the World': Tourism, Colonialism, and Le Fanu’s Writing of Wales and a biography of Thomas Robert Macquoidb and essays on his work as an illustrator and book cover Designer. In addition he photographed Caerphilly Castle, South Glamorgan, Wales.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed three pieces — one on the grave of Jane Austin’s brother in what is now Sri Lanka, another an 1843 memorial for victims of cholera in Sri Lanka, and an official list of the dead civilians and members of the military.

Robert Freidus, one of our Contributing Photographers, sent in a fine set of photographs of Newbury Abbot Trent’s memorial in Bath for King Edward VII, which is also known as The Peacekeeper, for which Landow created an HTML document and made perspective and color corrections.

Catherine Layton sent in an essay on the relation of a scandal involving the Duchess of Sutherland to Wilde’s plays and a second entitled “When Divorce was Out of the Question: the Case of the 3rd Duke of Sutherland and His Lover,” after which she and GPL team dup to write “The Origins of Victorian Divorce Law.” Thanks also to Lucy Paquette for her new piece on a topic of great interest: "French Painter James Tissot's British Clients: Rising Industrialists." Heidi Renée Aijala contributed “Sentimentalism in Victorian Reform Literature.” Robert H. Ellison shared with us “A Rhetorical Comparison of Spurgeon, Newman, and MacDonald.”

A collector who wishes to remain anonymous has contributed photographs of medals and sculpture. Thus far your webmaster has formatted and put online the following works: The Bromsgrove Guild ’s Joan of Arc, Edward Onslow Ford’s Folly, Emmeline Halse’s Can't You Talk?, Violet Harris’s Pan, William Goscombe John’s Bernhard Steinhart, Edouard Lanteri’s Sleeping Mother & Child, Sir W. Hamo Thornycroft’s A Soldier of the 129th Baluchis, George Tinworth’s The Queen of Sheba’s Visit to Solomon, and Albert Toft’s terracotta untitled bas relief male portrait. The same collector shared photographs of six medals by Frank Bowcher plus C. J. Allen’s Felicia Dorothea Hemans medal for Lyrical Poetry and the Mary Kingsley medal for the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, E. Ortner's Thomas Gainsborough, Edward W. Wyon’s May Morning. In addition he contributed photographs of Katie Harris’s art nouveau mirror.

On the thirtieth the site had 98,963 documents and images.

March 2018

Decorated initial A review of Stewart Dippel and Jeffrey F. Champlin’s Redeemed at Countless Cost": The Recovery of Iconographic Theology and Religious Experience from 1850 to 2000 — a book which ranges from seventeenth-century theology to Norman Rockwell, Russian icons, Quo Vadis, and Tolstoy — occupied the first days of the month along with editing Stephen Foster’s multiple essays on Patrick Matthew, a fascinating Scottish anticipator of Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

This month, Jacqueline Banerjee added a short biography of artist William Holman Hunt, and some works by George Wittet, one of the last architects of the Raj in India — whose most famous work is the Gateway of India in Mumbai. She then wrote about Charles Barry's remodelling of Kingston Lacy, with its listed stable and coach house block by Thomas Henry Wyatt. The house has a loggia displaying some of Baron Carlo Marochetti's major works: King Charles I, Sir John Bankes and his heroic wife Lady Mary Bankes. These were the expiatory monuments which preceded the one discussed at length by Caroline Hedengren-Dillon (see below). Amusingly, there are also images of the bronze tortoises that Marochetti modelled for the terrace at Kingston Lacy! At the end of the month, JB added two previously published reviews, both now illustrated and slightly extended. One is of Lucinda Hawksley's Bitten by Witch-Fever: Wallpaper & Arsenic in the Victorian Home, and the other is of William Hughes's That Devil's Trick: Hypnotism and the Victorian Imagination.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “From an Age of Ruins to an Age of Hope in Benjamin Disraeli’s Coningsby” and a brief introductions to parodies of Disraeli’s novels plus material on his Pro-Semitism.

Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, one of our contributors from France, has contributed a fascinating photo essay on a Victorian queen’s commission of a monument for a seventeenth-century Stuart princess that includes the search for a beautiful model for the monument. See Baron Marochetti’s Monument to Princess Elizabeth.

Penelope Harris reviewed of Liz Davenport's Woodchester: A Gothic Vision: The Story of William Leigh, Benjamin Bucknall and the Building of Woodchester Mansion. Felix Henry Santos e-mailed from Spain with an engraving of an English naval officer leading an army regiment in battle in what seems to be India. Tim Willasey-Wilsey, Assistant Editor for Military and Colonial History, immediately identified the naval commander as William Peel, the son of the Prime Minister..

Thanks to Ruth Richardson for sharing a delightful Victorian parody of sensation fiction and to Dr. J. F. Derry of Edinburgh for correcting some typos.

On the twenty-sixth the site has 98,221 documents and images.

February 2018

Decorated initial February began with your webmaster collaborating with Philip Allingham on a project involving illustrations to Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, a book about which he wrote a chapter in Images of Crisis published way back in 1982 and is available on the site. Landow created a section for Thomas Stothard’s paintings as a companion to the one in illustration created in 2004 and to which Allingham added four illustrations to Defoe’s novel. Together they cobbled together a brief biography of Stothard and a section on Defoe, emphasizing the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century editions and illustrations of his famous novel. Landow then added ten of his illustrations to Samuel Roger’s Italy and created a section on Robinson Crusoe in the illustration section.

Landow also reviewed Marilyn Palmer and Ian West’s “Technology in the Country House” and also created a home page for Victorian spiritualism to which he added Punch’s satirical commentary on the subject. This is a good place to mention a few items omitted from last month’s “What’s New,” such as Walter Crane’s two-part essay “Needlework as a Mode of Artistic Expression.”

Philip Allingham completed work on another mammoth illustration project, scanning all 91 of William Alfred Delamotte’s images of Windsor Castle, identifying and adding the texts they illustrate, and providing commentaries. Continuing with the Crusoe project, Allingham then added a dozen images from adaptations of the novel for children plus seven illustrations of the novel by Phiz and nine by Sir John Gilbert.

Before setting off for a short trip to India, Jacqueline Banerjee reviewed the EY Exhibition: Impressionists in London, at Tate Britain, and added several commentaries on Whistler to the paintings section, including one on his Nocturne: Blue and Silver — Chelsea; also one on Gustave Doré's powerful Sister of Charity Saving a Child, Episode in the Siege of Paris. (Both of these were in the exhibition.) On her return, she opened a new section on Eyre Crowe, the artist who accompanied Thackeray on his tour of America. This includes some of his paintings, such as his A Slave Market, Richmond, Va, and several of his sketches, including one of Thackeray lecturing in New York. Another new painting for the website was William Dyce's David in the Wilderness. Lastly, she put online the Watts Gallery's press release about an upcoming (exciting!) Pre-Raphaelite exhibition.

Andrzej Diniejko has contributed two essays on Disraeli —  “Endymion — Benjamin Disraeli’s Nostalgic Dream of Bygone Years” and “Race and the Jewish Question in Endymion.”

Simon Cooke contributed “Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway as Book Cover Designers” plus half a dozen images to accompany his essay.

Thanks to the Fine Art Society for sharing paintings in their collection and information about them — William Ewart Lockhart’s  Portrait of Alice Mary Robson, Lady Rowallan in White, Frank Miles’s  Brown Study [Eveleen Myers (née Tennant)] , and Frederic Sandy’s Marie Meredith (the novelist’s daughter).

Thanks once again also to the Maas Gallery for sharing images and information about individual Victorian paintings, including John Brett’s Study for Chagford (a Moorland Scene) and Longships, George H. Broughton’s The Leaf and The Flower, William Etty’s Bathing Nude, Thomas Faed’s Sir Luke Fildes’s Norah and The Green Shawl, Thomas Faed’s West Highland Cottage Interior, Edward Reginald Frampton’s A Meadow beneath Mountains, Thomas Cooper Gotch’s Little Boo, Keeley Halswelle’s Gibraltar, from the Spanish Shore, East Anglian Marsh, and Skye, James Thomas Linnell’s Mother Meldrum's Cave, Benjamin Williams Leader’s Moel Siabod — in the Valley of the Lledr, Study of a Cottage Interior, and A View of Frog Lane, Henry Moore’s Glen Orchy, Storm coming on and Near Margate — Evening, Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s The Hummingbird, James Smetham’s Dante and Virgil in Vallombrosa, and William Cave Thomas’s Hope Cherishing the Drooping.

Colette Keaveny contributed a biography and bibliography for Talwin Morris, the Glasgow School designer. Graham Lupp sent in another of his “Postcards from Oz,” this latest taking the form of an excerpt from his recent book on Australian architecture — “The Mount Pleasant Estate, Ophir Road, Bathurst.” Jim Spates added “The Ruskin Compendia,” a bibliographical list of selections from Ruskin’s works.

Priti Agarwal translated Credits: Who Created The Victorian Web? into Hindi.

Susanna Plummer write to share the news that the Watts Gallery’s latest exhibition, “A Pre-Raphaelite Collection Unveiled: The Cecil French Bequest,” will open on 6 March 2018 and run to 3 June 2018.

Thanks to Philip Bentley, who e-mailed from Sussex to point out a bad link and to Nick Hide from the Clan David Association, who wrote to correct an error in the statue of Flora Macdonald by Andrew Davidson.

On the twenty-sixth the site had 97,871 documents and images.

January 2018

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he new year began with your webmaster adding more than two dozen of the Martin Brothers ceramic works shared with us by AD Antiques to the various galleries for birds and grotesques, people (and faces), and both tall vases and wide objects. A typical bit of teamwork between Landow and Jackie Banerjee started when she created detailed photo essays on sgraffito work by Heywood Sumner: while paging through the Hathi Trust Digital Library’s online version of a copy of International Studio in the University of Minnesota Library, Landow came upon an article on Sumner that credited Francis Wollaston Thomas Moody with both reviving the technique and using it to decorate what is now the Victoria & Albert Museum. Your webmaster had in fact photographed a series of such panels but had not known who designed them. With this information in hand he created a homepage for Moody that contains links to both the photographs and Moody’s drawings found in an article in the Magazine of Art suggested by Banerjee, who also pointed out that the mosaics on the Museum of Childhood that Landow had photographed some years ago were also Moody’s.

Philip Allingham brought to a close another of his large projects — a set of commentaries on the complete set of George Cruikshank’s illustrations for Windsor Castle by William Harrison Ainsworth. As the month ended, he began to add the work of the Sandhurst drawing-master Alfred Delamotte, who provided almost 100 line-drawings of the castle and grounds as they appeared 170 years ago.

Still up in the Highlands (so to speak) Jacqueline Banerjee wrote about some more buildings designed by Alexander Ross, including one of his many Free Church of Scotland churches, the parish church at Invergordon, his Rose Street Iron Foundry, Inverness, and Lerwick Town Hall in the Shetlands. The partnerships entered into by James Matthews also produced some striking works, like the former Caledonian Bank in Inverness. William Burn was another important architect, who designed the Sheriff Court in Inverness, part of the castle there. She then looked at Highland Railway and Aviemore Station, and the Strathspey Railway that runs from there. Turning to something very different, she enjoyed looking at John Frederick Lewis's famous painting of A Frank Encampment in the Desert of Mount Sinai.

Later in the month she added Colin Price's lovely photographs of nearly all the John Hardman & Co. stained glass windows in Inverness Cathedral, added a six-part article on Pain in Charlotte Brontë's Novels, and Its Critical Reception updated from one she had previously published in the Victorian Newsletter, and added several paintings by James Tissot, including his well-known The Ball on Shipboard.

Andrzej Diniejko continued his studies of Disraeli’s works with “Romance, Religion and Politics in Benjamin Disraeli’s Lothair.”

Simon Cooke wrote an “An Introduction to the Guild of Women Binders” with numerous examples of its members’ leather book bindings. He next contributed “Walter Crane as a Book Cover Designer,” an authoritative study of its subject to which he added, at month’s end, a dozen color plates.

After Jackie Banerjee sent the URL for the special issue of the 1898 Art Journal devoted to Crane, Landow added several dozen images to the sections containing that artist’s ceramics, illustrations, paintings, sculpture, stained glass, and textiles, and wallpaper. Mining the 1898 Art Journal, Landow also added Crane’s own autobiographical remarks on his childhood and early influences, history of his work with ceramics and textiles as well as his early painting. Two wonderful online resources, the Hathi Trust Digital Library and the Internet Archive, provided the material for all this material on Crane, the Internet Archive in this case providing superior images and the Hathi Digital Library Trust providing more accurate text that became the basis of Landow’s transcriptions. This same source provided additional material for Frank Bowcher (The Cope and Nichol School of Painting medal, Royal College of Music Medal), and Medal Struck by the Rajah Supendo Mohum Tagore in Honour of the Duke of York’s Wedding) and Alfred Drury (James Isham, Esq. and The Sacrifice of Isaac).

Giedrius Sadauskas translated “Auguste Comte, Positivism, and the Religion of Humanity” into Lithuanian as “Auguste Comte, Pozityvizmas ir Žmonijos Religija.”

Dr. Oindrila Ghosh, Associate Professor & Head of the Department of English at Diamond Harbour Women's University in West Bengal, India, contributed “Bollywood’s Long Love Affair with Thomas Hardy’s Novels: Adaptations and Cultural Appropriations.” Colette Keaveny, MA, a new contributor, wrote “The Glasgow Style: A Brief Introduction,” “Ann Macbeth,” and “Margaret Gilmour.” Landow added a dozen images of Macbeth’s works from the 1902 Studio.

Thanks to Bob McEachern for pointing out an error in the caption of one of John Collier’s illustrations.

On the twenty-ninth the site had 97,222 documents and images.


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he last month of the year begins, and drawing upon material from Peter Galison’s Einstein’s Clocks, The Illustrated London News, and Fun, you webmaster added “The Atlantic Telegraph Cable Breaks and Is Later Recovered,” which includes a discussion of the economic, political, and scientific contexts of undersea telegraphy. Another section of Galison’s book led to “Why blow up the Greenwich Observatory?.”

Landow has also continued to add interesting political and other cartoons from Punch and Fun. Examples include one about the Deceased Wife’s Sister Act, which forbid a widower from marrying his late wife’s sister, and The Last Legacy of the Old Year, Fun’s comment on the Tay Bridge Disaster of 1879. Thanks to Peyton Skipwith and Liss Llewellyn Fine Art for sharing with us late Victorian paintings, including Richard Anning Bell’s Sabina, Walter Crane’s Boats in an Italian Harbour, Charles Haselwood Shannon ’s Woman at a Table, and three by William Strang — The Opera Cloak, Barbara Horder, and The Listener.

This month Jacqueline Banerjee added short photo-essays on Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight, which Philip Hardwick worked on in the Victorian period, and the St Nicholas chapel, which was rebuilt by the prolific and aptly named Isle of Wight architect, Percy Stone. She also added a brief comment on Tennyson at Freshwater, and a dedicatory poem he wrote there. Then made a gallery for the Brontë sisters, with more than twenty pictures, mostly historic ones, of important people and places associated with them, and a few illustrations of their novels (but there is room for many more!). She also added her five-part previously published essay, "Sources and Outcomes of Adolescent Crises in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.

She then turned to Scotland, starting new sections on the Highlands and Islands, and the prolific Scottish architect, Alexander Ross — which so far includes only a few of his hundreds of buildings. The most important is Inverness Cathedral, which has a fine tympanum by Thomas Earp, and also some work by the Scottish sculptor Andrew Davidson. But the new section on Davidson starts outside the cathedral, with his well-known statue of Flora Macdonald on Castle Hill opposite.

Thanks to the Fine Art Society for sharing images and information of numerous important works, including Edward Duncan’s Seaforth House, Simonstown, Thomas Faed’s Mill on the Fleet, Gatehouse of Fleet, John Linnell’s A View Near Hampstead, David Roberts’s Interior of San Giovanni e San Paolo, James Baker Pyne’s The Vales Of Ennerdale And Buttermere, George Richmond’s Study of Soldiers, William Simpson’s The Sakrah, The Sacred Rock, Jerusalem, James Ward’s The Bunch of Grapes Tavern, and James Dawson Watson’s Fireside Thoughts.

Thanks also to Monika Brown, Professor of English, University of North Carolina Pembroke, for sharing her two bibliographies with our readers: “Theoretical Discussions of Historical Fiction in English Criticism, 1830-70” and “Historical Novels Noted in the British Press, 1830-70.” Landow scanned page images from the microfilm copy of the dissertation Professor Brown provided, used software to convert them to text, proof-read them for scanning errors, and finally formatted them in HTMl for the site. Once the 800 or so titles were available on the Victorian Web, Landow then created a dozen bibliographies of titles of works set in specific periods, such as the Ancient World: Egypt, Greece, and Rome, British India and South Asia, and Pirates, Buccaneers, and Privateers. Later, Landow added “Recent Books on Historical Fiction” and an examination why the style G. P. R. James, a once widely popular writer of historical novels, is so unappealing to twenty-first century readers.

On the twenty-fifth the site had 96,554 documents and images.


Decorated initial The month began with your webmaster in the second week of a ship voyage down the Rhine and Mosel rivers having moved from Switzerland and France to Germany, the Netherlands, and finally Belgium. The trip has provided interesting comparative examples of Romanesque Revival, Gothic Revival architecture in Germany as well as photographs of windmills, such as those used to drain the fens, and examples of some of the inspirations for Pont Street Dutch. Finally, Antwerp’s Cathedral of our Lady provided an example of the brazen serpent in ecclesiastical art.

Philip Allingham, who has almost completed his commentaries on each of George Cruikshank’s hundred illustrations for W. H. Ainsworth’s The Tower of London, announces that Palgrave Macmillan has just published his “A Production of Two Cities and of Four Illustrators” in Dickens and the Virtual City: Urban Perception and the Production of Social Space, which Estelle Murail and Sara Thornton edited.

The Christmas season is a busy one for publishers, and Jacqueline Banerjee reviewed two new books: Kathryn Sutherland's edition of essays, Jane Austen: Novelist in the World and Mimi Matthews's The Pug Who Bit Napoleon. Returning to the Isle of Wight again, she wrote about three historic piers: Yarmouth, Ryde and Sandown. With photographs sent in by Simon Cooke, she also wrote about Henry Wilson's unique Brithdir Church in Wales, Lincoln Cathedral, and G. F. Watts's statue of Tennyson outside the latter. Special thanks to Simon's son Laurence for his contribution here. She added several new paintings, including Ford Madox Brown's Take Your Son, Sir!; Henry Treffry Dunn's watercolours of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's Bedroom at Tudor House, Cheyne Walk, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti; Theodore Watts-Dunton in Rossetti's drawing room; Millais's Mariana, which we only had a small version of before; William Orpen's The Mirror and John Phillip's Partial Copy of "Las Meninas" [by Velásquez]. She also added sketches of the Ghent altarpiece by Sir Edward Burne-Jones.

Towards the end of the month, JB added another review — of "Death in the Ice," the exhibition about the lost Franklin expedition at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, as well as the book by Gillian Hutchinson, Sir John Franklin's Erebus and Terror Expedition. She also put in Prince Frederick's Barge at the same museum; the Town Church, Guernsey (to help bring some memorial sculpture together); St James's Church, Yarmouth; and some other interesting buildings on the Isle of Wight, such as the old pumping station in Ventnor. Another contribution was a new section on the stained glass firm of Ward and Hughes, which is already filling up thanks to some batches of lovely photos from contributing photographer Colin Price — lots more to come here!

Many thanks to Amitav Banerjee for reviewing William Dalrymple and Anita Anand's Ko-hi-Noor about the famous and contentious diamond, and Madeleine Emerald Thiele for her review of the current National Gallery exhibition, "Reflections: Van Eyck and the Pre-Raphaelites."

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor from Poland, contributed “Oscar Wilde’s Vision of Aesthetic Socialism.”

Simon Cooke reviewed of Jenny Uglow's Mr Lear: A Life of Art and Nonsense and later in the month contributed “Richard Doyle and the Great Sea-Serpent.” As the month ended he added three book bindings by William Ralston.

Tony Schwab contributed “The Value of Goodness: On Re-reading Oliver Twist.” Colette Keaveny has written an introduction to the Glasgow Style and an brief essay on Ann Macbeth.

Artur Weber translated Diane Greco Josefowicz’s "The Wave Theory of Light” into Portuguese.

Thanks to James Snyder for pointing out a gaff on one of the essays on Wilde.

On the twenty-seventh the site had 96,197 documents and images.

October 2017

Decorated initial As the month began your webmaster added three more sculptors to the sculpture section —  J. Delahunt, Thomas Tyrell, and Charles Palmer — plus works by several others, including Charles de Sousy Ricketts (Salome in the Lap of Herodias and Centaur and Baby Faun), Ruby Levick (Seaweed), Edith C. Maryon (The Messenger of Death), and William Reynolds-Stephens (MacDonald, Colossal Bronze Frog, and The Scout at War), In addition Landow added C. Lewis Hind’s illustrated article about Ricketts from The Studio and a brief biography of William Calder Marshall from the Annual Report of the Royal Scottish Academy. Still looking without success for examples of work by the sculptor Crook, encountered enough material to create sections on the painter Anna Airy (of whom Crook did a portrait bust), James McBey, and Arthur J. Gaskin. He also added photograph and description of a London men’s club named after Thomas Carlyle.

After idly pulling H. L. Mencken’s Smart Set criticism off one of his book shelves, your webmaster added “‘Human life is a seeking without a finding’: Conrads’s philosophy of life” and “Mencken on Joseph Conrads’s dark humor” to our section on that author.

After Robert Freidus sent along a DVD packed with his photographs of architecture and sculpture, your webmaster opened a section on Draper’s Hall with links thus far to fifteen works of architectural sculpture by Edward Wyon, four by John Francis, a version of John Gibson’s Tinted Venus, and six paintings by Herbert J. Draper. After Landow returns from cruising down the Rhine and Moselle, the project will continue.

Still on the Isle of Wight (in mind, at least), Jacqueline Banerjee wrote about the unique royal church of St Mildred's — the estate church for Osborne, which Prince Albert played a large part in designing. Its interior is full of memories of the royal family. She also wrote about the stained glass in its transepts by John Hardman, and (realising we hadn't included it yet) Sir Alfred Gilbert's statue of Queen Victoria in Winchester Castle — as well as Harry Furniss's irreverent cartoon about it! Looking up Queen Victoria's life, she included some new episodes from it, such as the laying of the foundation stone of the Royal Albert Hall. She also added Millais's well-known painting, Hearts are Trumps, before moving on to Scotland, where her autumn trip provided material for the Glenfinnan Viaduct, and for a new section bringing together older as well as fresh work on Scottish railways (not yet complete).

Recently we included Viveka Hansen's interesting piece, "Jet and Dressed in Black," about the use of jet beads for mourning costumes.

Thanks to Ian McCormick of Leeds University for providing a bibliography, which has been added to our material on prostitution and to Richard Griffiths, who provided information about one of Arthur George Walker’s funerary sculptures. Thanks to Wayne Kavanagh, an undergraduate at the Open University, for notifying us about a typo. Thanks also to Namdev Ravkale for providing information about The Victoria Terminus, Bombay (now Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) and correcting an error.

Announcements: Marty Gould, Marie Curie Fellow, Brunel University, announces a symposium, “Dickens Adapting, Dickens Adapted.” Professor Cian Duffy of the Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Sweden announces a conference on Wilde, Beardsley, and the Fin de Siècle.

On the twenty-third the site had 95,752 documents, images, and sound files.

September 2017

Decorated initial Your webmaster began the month by adding a cartoon from Fun on the subject of the way the pollution in late-Victorian England destroyed sculpture and architecture. Punch provided John Tenniel’s Wilberforce Secundus, whose commentary on Sunday schools combines allusions to Dickens's Bumble and to William Wilberforce, a prominent leader of the antislavery movement. Still drawing on wonderful internet resources provided by the Internet Archive and the Hathi Digital Library Trust, Landow created a section of more than twenty cartoons from Punch and commentary about the campaign for the Second Reform Bill of 1867.

After Katherine Harris contacted us about her grandfather, the father Thomas Mewburn Crook, Landow created a section on the sculptor, made a timeline based on the information in Harris’s site, and added a portrait of Crook from the National Portrait Gallery and thirty examples of his work. Looking through online versions of The Academy and Architecture Review for more of his work, Landow hasn't found any thus far but he did come across and add images of two works by William Reid Dick (Silence and The Kelpie), three by Richard Garbe (Mother and Child, Adolescence, and Mask in Black Marble) and another three by Charles Hartwell (The Kilpin of the Burn, V.C. Le Caleau, 1914, and The Last of Dee). In addition, he added two drawings of Claude W. Ferrie’s the Western Synagogue in London.

In the course of creating commentaries for Cruikshank’s two Hogarthian temperance series, The Bottle and The Drunkard’s Children, Philip Allingham contributed a brief discussion of bawdy Victorian songs. He next created a material on Matthew “Monk” Lewis for the Previctorian section of the site.

Returning to the Isle of Wight, Jacqueline Banerjee added several new pictures to an earlier piece on the exterior of Osborne House, and wrote about several of Baron Marochetti's sculptures there, Princess Victoire, Duchesse of Nemours, Princess Gouramma of Coorg and Maharajah Duleep Singh. Coming across Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm's rather unflattering bust of Henry Cole at the National Portrait Gallery, she also added that, and at Art UK she found William McTaggart's lovely painting, Dora. Then she went back to Osborne, writing about the interiors of the Pavilion, Main Wing and Durbar wing, and the house's magnificent terraces, its walled garden, the royal children's Swiss Cottage, museum and Victoria Fort and Albert Barracks there, as well as the Queen's bathing machine at Osborne beach. She also added some buildings by John Johnson, including Bootle Town Hall and the Gravesend Clock Tower. At the end of the month the online journal Cercles shared with us her review of Benjamin Dabby's Women as Public Moralists in Britain: From the Bluestockings to Virginia Woolf.

Many thanks to Ellen Moody for her very positive review of Nick Holland's In Search of Anne Brontē, and to new contributor Madeleine Emerald Thiele for an equally appreciative review of the current Leighton House Exhibition, "At Home in Antiquity" (evidently a must-see). Thank you also to Samantha Ellis for writing in to correct a couple of "errors or misunderstandings" in references to her own recent biography of Anne Brontë, Take Courage: Anne Bronte and the Art of Life. It is great to see this author getting her due at last.

Andrzej Diniejko continued his critical discussions of Benjamin Disraeli’s novels with Tancred as an Imperial Utopia.

Simon Cooke introduced a new illustrator — Warwick Goble — sending in documents and images for seven of his illustrations for H. G. Well’s War of the Worlds.

Thanks to Andy Rose of the Madelely Town Council for sharing photographs and captions for the Anstice Memorial Workmen’s Club and Institute by John Johnson. Dr. Divya Athmanathan, Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, contributed, “The ‘secret of the bedstead’: Unraveling the domestic machinery in Wilkie “A Collins’s Terribly Strange Bed” (1852).” Charles DePaolo, a frequent contributor, contributed “Joseph Lister, James Syme, and Victorian Medical Education.” Brook Chalmers of Asgard Secure Steel Storage in Bradford shared a timeline of passenger service in Bradford and images of the former trolley barn/

Lynly Loh’s team at Down To Five translated David Cody’s’s “Child Labor” as “Buruh Kanak-Kanak.

On the twenty-fifth the site had 95,096 documents, images, and sound files.

August 2017

Decorated initial Ms the month began, your webmaster transcribed three of Punch’s parodies —  “So from the Castle Gate,” a send-up of William Morris, “On Margate Sands,” a parody of Matthew Arnold’s “Dover Beach,” and “Margate Sands,” supposedly W. E. Henley's version of the same subject. Landow next added fifteen works by Leonard Raven-Hill that demonstrate the wide range of his Punch illustrations, after which he created a section on the fairy and fantasy illustrations of Thomas Maybank.

Returning after many years to the Great Exhibition of 1852, Landow drew upon The Illustrated London News for Joseph Paxton’s lecture explaining his experiments with glass architecture that provided the basis of the Crystal Palace. The same periodical provided twenty illustrations for a new section on the building’s construction. Near the end of the month Landow again drew upon the The Illustrated London News for images and comments on two works of sculpture — John Bell’s Eve and

Philip V. Allingham contributed a biography of the humorist Douglas Jerrold, and Landow added four portraits of the author from the collection of the National Portrait Gallery. Allingham then wrote detailed essays on each of George Cruikshank’s Hogarthian nine-part temperance series, The Bottle. Beginning with the first plate. The Bottle is brought out for the first time: The husband induces his wife "Just to take a drop". As part of this large project he also wrote “Charles Dickens, His Illustrators, and Representing Violence toward Women.” His next project: Cruikshank’s multi-part series The Drunkard. Allingham next wrote similar commentaries containing critical analyses by him and other scholars for Cruikshank’s eight-part sequel, The Drunkard's Children, ending with one of the artist’s most famous illustrations, which depicts the daughter’s suicide. This second Cruikshank project also produced “Transportation as Judicial Punishment in Nineteenth-Century Britain” and “‘Transported for Life’ in Cruikshank and Dickens.”

Early in the month, Jacqueline Banerjee went to the Isle of Wight. It was a kind of busman's holiday, as there is so much of Victorian interest there. On returning, she first wrote about its railways, including their history, the notable nineteenth-century locomotives still running on the island's heritage line, like the Freshwater, their coaching stock and so forth. Taking a break from the IOW she added a local historic passenger boat, the Yarmouth Belle, and Richard Dadd's portrait of one of his physicians, Sir Alexander Morison, together with another unusual pastoral scene, Wandering Musicians. Later she looked at a new (for us) sculptor, John Francis, who worked with Prince Albert on a couple of projects, one of which was a sculpture of his favourite greyhound, Eos. Then she wrote about Guglielmo Marconi, and the beginning of wireless telegraphy at the very end of the Victorian period.

Dr. B, who run sour Twitter feed, points that that we now have 5,100+ followers on Twitter.

Simon Cooke created a section the graphics section on the great Victorian wood-engraver, Joseph Swain, contributing a biography, critical essay, including a bibliography of primary and secondary sources, and a list of museum holdings of Swain’s proofs, prints, and wood-blocks, after which he wrote a biography of William Harcourt Hooper, one of Swain’s staff.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed a photo essay on the Memorial for Brigadier Malcolm McNeill in St Mary’s Madras (Chennai) and photographs of the church, which is not only the earliest Anglican church in India but claims to be the first east of Suez, built in 1680.

Dominic Crawford Collins has contributed an introduction to My Secret Life plus other materials, including bibliographies of its publishing history and recent criticism.

John Lehman, founder of the Coat of Arms Database, commissioned Jack Turton to write for us “The Social and Cultural Significance of Victorian Heraldry” and then shared severa; detailed explanations of individual coats of arms.

Thank for Diane L. Ritter for correcting scanning errors in the science section.

On the twenty-eighth the site had 94,751 documents and images.

July 2017

Decorated initial Ms the month began, your webmaster created new sections for two illustrators — Bernard Partridge and Georgina Bowers. The next two weeks were devoted to the writings and drawing of J. J. Stevenson, one of the most famous practitioners of Norman Shaw’s so-called Pont Street Dutch style for blocks of flats and large homes. In addition to transcribing and editing Stevenson’s chapter on architecture in Renaissance England from House Architecture, he added more than thirty of H. W. Brewer’s beautiful illustrations for that book and a dozen of Stevenson's own.

Philip V. Allingham completed work on Cruikshank’s fairy tale illustrations and his adaptations of fairy tales after which he added a transcription of the artist’s response to Dickens’s criticism of his literary work.

Battling the unusual heat in the London area (and with your webmaster's encouragement), Jacqueline Banerjee wrote about three North Wales train companies with Victorian beginnings: the Ffestiniog Railway, the Llangollen Railway and the Welsh Highland Railway, all now running "Heritage" train services. Then, after receiving some new batches of photographs from contributing photographer John Salmon, she introduced the architect Edward Monson (an ardent Freemason), and two of his firm's churches: St Martin's, West Acton, and St Alban's, Acton Green. Both of these have an array of stained glass windows, including a whole series in St Martin's by C. E. Moore and some by Goddard & Gibbs (earlier Walter Gibbs & Sons); and four in St Alban's by designer and author F. Hamilton Jackson — so these needed to be introduced as well. But perhaps the most striking window was an Edward VII memorial window in St Alban's, by the familiar firm of Clayton & Bell. As usual, John's photograph does it full justice.

Another welcome contribution was Mary Shannon's piece about Wellington Street in London, where Dickens, Reynolds and Mayhew all rubbed shoulders in Victorian times — the subject of her award-winning book. We also brought in and wrote about more paintings from the Tate and Manchester City Art Gallery, now released on the Creative Commons license. These included four by Ford Madox Brown: The Traveller, Carrying Corn, The Hayfield, and Geoffrey Chaucer Reading....

Johanne Teerink translated Jacqueline Banerjee’s homepage of the sculptor William Behnes, which she published on her online diary. Stevelyne Dhommée-Marie, who earlier wrote to volunteer her services as a translator, contributed “Le Déisme” and “Arguments éthiques contre la Religion dans l'Angleterre Victorienne.”

Mike Hickox, a frequent contributor, has sent in “Henry Wallis’s The Death of Chatterton Decoded.”

George Robinson writes from Edinburgh to invite readers of this site to inform our readers that Dr Bruce Vickery will deliver an illustrated talk on the history of the Royal Observatory on the Calton Hill between the years 1822 and 1896.

Thanks to Ellen Clark for sending a link to material about Barbara Bodichon’s involvement with Girton College that replaced a dead link. Thanks also to Dvora Negbi for correcting an error about Eliot's funderal.

On the thirty-first the site had 94,389 documents and images.

June 2017

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he month began with your webmaster continuing work on material related to related to the celebrations of Edward VII’s accession to the throne that began with paintings of those in India. Punch expectedly provided both respectful tributes to the new King-Emperor and allegorical celebrations of empire as well as more characteristically humorous glances at the sea voyage to India and the Durbar, to which it gave fairly short shrift, making an interesting contrast to the work of Menpes.

Philip Allingham created sets of commentaries on Cruikshank’s illustrations of Memoir of Grimaldi and individual tales in his Fairy Tales, such as “Hop o My Thumb,” Cinderella, and Jack and the Beanstalk.

Too late to include for last month, Jacqueline Banerjee completed a piece about the features of later-Victorian Queen Anne Revival domestic architecture, added a commentary on Kate Greenaway's house in this style, and wrote about quite a different kind of building, Canada House on Trafalgar Square. After that she formatted a biography of the sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, and included many pictures of his work, which she wrote about separately. These ranged from his symbolic figures on Nobel House at Millbank, like Chemistry, to his spontaneous likeness of a Maker of Modelling Tools. She went on to write a fuller account of St. Saviour's Church, Knightsbridge, which your webmaster had visited a year or two ago, because John Salmon kindly sent in many new photographs of it, including its stained glass. She would like to thank to her husband for reviewing Mark Ford's Thomas Hardy: Half a Londoner, and Michael Pearce, Church Manager, for suggesting a couple of corrections to her account of St Raphael's Church in Kingston-upon-Thames.

Simon Cooke created a new section for the book illustrator(s) and designer (s) Alfred Crowquill — the name under which the Forrester brothers, Charles Robert (1803–50) and Alfred Henry (1804–72) published. His essays, the most detailed and authoritative avalable, cover “Crowquill”’s general illustrations, those for Dickens's, style, and work as a designer of book covers.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed to the materials on the Durbar by providing photographs of Maiden's Metropolitan Hotel in Delhi, perhaps the only remaining building associated with that event.

Dr.​ Gareth Cordery, former senior adjunct fellow, School of Humanities and Creative Arts, Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand, contributed “‘Your Country Needs You’: Charles Dickens Called Up for National Service”. Carroll Clayton Savant sent along a second essay, “Felix Mendelssohn and the Nineteenth-Century Musical Scene in Victorian England.” Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Distinguished Professor of Humanities, College of the Holy Cross shared a description of her website, Style, Status, and Religion: America’s Pictorial Windows. George Robinson contributed his essay on the British League Cadets, “John Hope’s Water Rats.” Thanks to Marie-France Le Fel, who shared with us an unpublished drawing by Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon on the effects of tight lacing.

On the twenty-sixth the site consisted of 93,930 documents and images.

May 2017

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ay begins with your webmaster creating the HTML documents for a lovely set of photographs of Mackay Hugh Baille Scott’s Waterlow Court in Hampstead Garden Suburb sent in by Robert Freidus, one of our contributing photographers. Jacqueline Banerjee then wrote text to accompany the images. Landow also created a new section for David Cox, adding a chronology, A. J. Finberg’s biography, commentary from Martin Hardie, and seven paintings and forty-five drawings and sketches — all drawn from museums that grant Creative Commons permissions and from material on the Internet Archive.

During the remainder of the month two projects occupied your webmaster. First, he created a typical Victorian Web network of interlinked documents and images on the 1878 Afghanistan crisis from online materials found in The Illustrated London News, Punch, and Fun. While looking for more material about the 1878 crisis and its relation to the disasters of 1842, Landow came upon Mortimer Menpes’s wonderful volume of 100 watercolors devoted to the people and cultures he encountered at the 1902 Durbar, the amazing, enormous ceremonial celebration in Delhi of the accession of Edward the VII. Mining the text of the artist’s book, Landow added commentaries about “the Political Importance of the 1903 Durbar,” “Shame at English behavior at the Durbar,” “Lord Curzon’s Attempts to Change English Racist Attitudes,” ,“The state of Indian Art at the death of Victoria,” and a tribute to “J. W. M. Turner.”

Philip V. Allinghgam completed his enormous project that involved creating interlinked commentaries for illustrations of Dickens’s Sketches by Boz by Frank Barnard, George Cruikshank, Sol Eytinge, and Harry Furniss. Each of these dozens of substantial essays consists of scanned images, the passages illustrated, and comparative material, and bibliographical information.

This month, Jackie Banerjee has looked at the beautiful Savoy Chapel on Savoy Hill, restored by Sydney Smirke and with a lovely font by Edward Blore, stained glass by Clayton and Bell and the D'Oyly Carte Memorial Window by Edward Jenkin Prest, as well as a richly embroidered altar frontal by the Royal School of Needlework. The chapel also has a drawing of St Philip by Edward Burne-Jones, all that is left of a window lost in war. She then added a four-part essay on Matthew Arnold, adapted and extended from previously published material. This now includes his portrait by G. F. Watts and a teasing caricature by Tissot. Later, she discussed the collaboration between Sir Charles Barry and Pugin over the Palace of Westminster, and added a brief biography of Barry.

Many thanks to Robert Galea-Naudi, great-great-grandson of the Maltese architect Emanuele Galizia, who prepared a short biography of him accompanied by a list of his works and a number of photographs, which were added throughout our section on him, and included some new works like his philanthropic Istituto Tecnico Bugeja.

Simon cook contributed “Illustrating Thackeray: Richard Doyle and Rebecca and Rowena” and a dozen of Doyle’s Thackeray illustrations.

A collector who wishes to retain his anonymity generously contributed photographs and caption material for medallists, including Frank Bowcher’s Captain A.E. Haynes, R.E. medal, George T. Morgan’s David Cox David Roberts and The Letter Writer, and Leonard Charles Wyon’s Sir Richard Westmacott and Charity and works by various sculptors, including Adrian Jones’s Chariot with Two Horses, Andrea Carlo Lucchesi’s Mask, a female bust by Horace Montford, George Tinworth’s two terracotta religious bas reliefs — Simon, a Cyrenian, with the Christ and Then the King was Exceeding Sorry [The Distress of Herod] and Albert Toft’s bust of an unidentified man and bas relief Henry Irving.

Bob Muscutt contributed an introduction to G. H. Lewes’s The Life and Works of Goethe plus a list of suggested chapters or long chapters from the book, which included Weimar in the Eighteenth Century, Karl August and Goethe, Christiane Vulpius, Goethe’s lover, mother of his child, and wife at last, and Goethe and Schiller. Stephen Foster sent in a biography of the pioneering geologist and fossil hunter Hugh Miller.

In 2015 Astrid Rioust de Largentaye of DDA Architects asked for information about the Villa ‘Les Mauriciens’ at Wimereux, which John Belcher designed. On the 29th, Dr. J. F. Geddes e-mailed to explain that in 1914 it was taken over by a group of Englishwomen, the Women’s Hospital Corps. Thanks!

On the twenty-ninth the site had 93,543 documents and images.

April 2017

Decorated initial Dpril began with your webmaster heading across the water to London, editing essays along the way. Re-reading G. Kitson Clark’s The Making of Victorian England (1962) while in London, led to placing several excerpt from this brilliant work on the site — “Was Arnold right about the Evangelicals?,” “Jane Austen’s prescient idea of the gentleman,” “William Ewart Gladstone — the right man at the right time,” and “The golden age of the MP and the ineffectual Parliament at mid century.” Prompted by a promise of contributions about George Henry Lewes, Landow created a section for him, and mining the Internet Archive, added Lewes’s comments on a Victorian actor (Macready) and his discussions of the French Revolution, including the influence of Rousseau, other conditions that led to the revolution, isolation of kings, Robespierre. With this new material on hand, Landow next created a new homepage for the French Revolution.

Landow reviewed Cathie Pilkington RA’s “Anatomy of a Doll” (1-14 April 2017), a pop-up show in the Royal Academy’s old room for life drawing, and Tate Britain’s Queer British Art.

Jackie Banerjee added an assortment of new items, including: a different type of old city postbox; a medallion of Joseph, Lord Lister by Margaret Giles; a painting entitled Daily Bread for Thomas Benjamin Kennington, and another by John Singer Sargent — his wonderful portrait of Vernon Lee (aka Violet Paget). JB also reviewed Kimberly J. Stern's The Social Life of Criticism: Gender, Critical Writing, and the Politics of Belonging, primarily for the online journal, Cercles, with which we have a reciprocal arrangement. This involved adding two etchings by Daniel Maclise, depicting contrasting groups of male and female writers for Fraser's Magazine.  Later in the month she added several pictures of Henry James and his house in Rye, to help illustrate David Cooke's excellent new essay, "Was Henry James a Victorian?", and wrote a short piece herself on Henri de Triqueti's relief of Sir Thomas More and his family.

Many thanks to Sue Derbyshire for sending in images of, and information about, an embroidered and appliquéd panel of the Cawnpore Memorial Well in India. Thanks also to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon for adding some material to the Marochetti section, especially about La Bimba Dormiente.

Simon Cooke added to the site three essays on William Makepeace Thackeray: Thackeray and His Illustrators,” “Illustrating Thackeray: Richard Doyle and The Newcomes,” “Doyle and Thackeray: the Struggle for Dominance.”

Andrzej Diniejko continued his critical survey of Disraeli’s career as a novelist with “Benjamin Disraeli’s Venetia as a Byronic roman-à-clef.”

Continuing his series of essays on Victorian pharmacology, Charles DePaolo sent in “The Trial & Reinventions of Dr. John Pattison, “Dr. John Pattison's Caustic Temperament, and “Campbell De Morgan, M.D. & the Mixed Mode of Operation.” Michael A. Williams contributed “Ruskin in the 1840s and ’50s: Art and Political Economy.” Hamilton Beck updated the bibliography for the essay on Mark Twain and the Crimean Way that he contributed in 2005. Jim Cheshire PhD, Reader, the College of Arts, University of Lincoln shared “Print & Stereotyping: Tennyson’s Poetical Works as Published by Ticknor and Fields” and “The old and the new: Tennyson, Photography and Portraiture” from his 2016 book Tennyson and Mid-Victorian Publishing (2016). Joe Pilling, one of our regular reviewers, reviewed Kathy Chamberlain's Jane Welsh Carlyle and Her Victorian World: A Story of Love, Work, Marriage, and Friendship.

One of our longtime contributors, a collector who wishes to remain anonymous, sent in photographs and caption material for two works of sculpture, S. Nicholson Babb’s The Chinese Robe and William Calder Marshall’s Dancing Girl Reposing.

Thanks to Adrian Stevenson, who writes from Dublin, Ireland, to point out that Marianne Farningham’s 'Just as I am' is an imitation of Charlotte Elliott's poem of the same name. Thanks to David Ward for notifying us that Marjie Bloy’s biography of Canning included the Parliament Square statue of another PM!

On the seventeenth the site had 92,879 documents and images.

March 2017

Decorated initial Derek B. Scott, our Editor for Music and Popular Entertainment, shared with us “The Music-Hall Cockney: Flesh and Blood, or Replicant?” plus reviews of two books —  Regina B. Oost’s Gilbert and Sullivan: Class and the Savoy Tradition, 1875-1896 and Ian Bradley’s Oh Joy! Oh Rapture! The Enduring Phenomenon of Gilbert and Sullivan. Upon linking to some of Derek’s performances of the music he discusses, your webmaster was horrified to discover that the sound files no longer functioned properly. Fortunately, the internet quickly provided the information about the new code required, and after a bit of tedious copying and pasting, all works again! (Now to fix the problem with some of our rotating and rotatable images of sculpture!)

After formatting these contributions and addong links to them, your webmaster returned to mining Internet Archive versions of periodicals that contain photographs of sculpture, adding Jules Blanchard’s Young Woman Interrogating the Sphinx, F. V. Blundstone’s Egypt, Clovis Delacour’s Andromeda, Leonard Jennings’s Paolo and Francesca, G. D. Macdougald’s Hagar and Ishmael, Florence H. Steele’s puzzlingly titled Trophy for Buffs, in Memory of the South African War, and S. M. Wien’s Perdita.

The March wind blew in Jackie Banerjee's new section on genre painting, which includes Sir Frederick Wedmore's introduction to it, published in 1880. This was mainly inspired by getting to know the work of Thomas Benjamin Kennington, who painted the well-known Orphans — although he also painted a fine portrait of Queen Victoria. Others will be added as galleries give us permission to reproduce them. She also wrote a short piece on Brinsley Headstocks, Nottinghamshire, in the technology section. The journal Cercles permitted her to include Hugh Clout's review of Technology in the Country House, by Marilyn Palmer and Ian West, and Ramachandran Venkatesh kindly contributed his own photographs and a commentary on the High Court in Mumbai. A new set of lovely photographs by John Salmon enabled her to write about William Butterfield's St Matthews, Ashford in Surrey, and its full complement of Victorian and early twentieth-century stained glass by important firms. In particular, she opened a new section on William Aikman, who designed eight of the windows here. She also formatted, illustrated and commented on Paul Waterhouse's life of Butterfield (1901). At the end of the month she enjoyed reviewing Michael Fisher's new book on A W N Pugin's only pupil, and perhaps his most loyal disciple: Guarding the Pugin Flame: John Hardman Powell, 1827-1895.

A new set of lovely photographs by John Salmon enabled her to write about William Butterfield's St Matthews, Ashford in Surrey, and its full complement of Victorian and early twentieth-century stained glass by important firms. In particular, she opened a new  section on William Aikman, who designed eight of the windows here. She also formatted, illustrated and commented on Paul Waterhouse's life of Butterfield (1901).

Before traveling to Paris and Grenoble to continue research on her book on Champollion, the translator of Egyptian hieroglyphics, Diane Greco Josefowicz, our Science and Technology Editor, added another half dozen brief biographies of pioneering bacteriologists to Ray Dyer’s chronology.'

Continuing his series of essays on Victorian pharmacology, Charles DePaolo sent in “Dr. Fell's Investigation Under Scrutiny” and “Escharotic Medicine, 1805-1889.” Stephen Foster continued work on his nine-part study of Robert Chambers’s Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.

Catherine J. Golden, Professor of English and Tisch Chair in Arts and Letters, Skidmore College, created a section on Lewis Carroll as illustrator with an introduction and several plates.

Peter J. Capuano, Associate Professor of English, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, shared “Injured and Maimed at the Factory — Some Readings” plus two passages from his 2015 book, Changing Hands: Industry, Evolution, and the Reconfiguration of the Victorian Body: “Losing one’s hand to the machine, or maimed at the factory” and “Industrial accidents & Sir Charles Bell’s treatise on the human hand.” Thanks again to Jim Spates for sharing material from his blog, Why Ruskin? — “Leslie Stephen, G. K. Chesterton, and Marcel Proust on Ruskin” and “Ruskin and Gandhi.”

Michael Williams contributed a second essay on John Ruskin — “John Ruskin’s Modern Painters I — Quantification, Multiplicity, and Unity in Aesthetic Response.” Stephen Foster contributed a multi-part study of Robert Chambers’s Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.

Cristina Salcedo provided a Spanish translation of Jackie Banerjee's essay on Emma Marshall, which Ana González-Rivas Fernández edited and formatted.

As of the twenty-seventh the site had 92,755 documents and images.

February 2017

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s the month opened your webmaster worked with new contributors, editing and formatting their essays. Lucy Paquette improved our materials on James Tissot, adding a biography and detailed chronology. Next due: her essay on Tissot during the Commune. . Michael Williams contributed “Sir Charles Bell and John Ruskin — Victorian Aesthetics and Natural Philosophy.”

Working his way through xeroxed pages of The Studio and the Architectural Review, Landow used the resources of the Internet Archive online versions of periodicals to improve older documents on sculpture and add some new works and even artists to the site. Examples of newly added works include C. J. Allen’s “The Woman that Thou gavest to be with me”, Abraham Broadbent’s Water-Nymph, William Reid Dick’s The Frog, Alfred Drury’s Relief over the entrance to the Grand Trunk Railway Offices Richard Louis Garbe’s Man and the Masks, The Mark of Cain, and Solitude, Ernest Gillick’s Memorial to “Ouida,” with the statues of Courage and Sympathy, Health, and Education, Charles Leonard Hartwell’s The Victor and The Gleaner, Adrian Jones’s Meditation, Edith C. Maryon’s The passing of Winter — Miss Maude Allen as Spring, Priestess of Isis, and The Priest, Frank Ransom’s A Broken Idol, Frederick Roslyn’s The Struggle, and W. Grant Stevenson’s Governor-General Simcoe. Sections have been created for the following sculptors: Alfred Buxton, Augustus Lukeman and Mary I. Pownall (Madame Fromet).

Philip V. Allingham created a section for the illustrations of Henry Macbeth-Raeburn, which includes an introduction to the artist and two dozen of his depictions of scenes from Hardy’s Wessex novels, and after which he contributed both “William Harrison Ainsworth's Rookwood, A Romance” and a bibliographical history of the novel and its illustrations.

At the beginning of the month, Jacqueline Banerjee finished a project on John Lockwood Kipling, inspired by a visit to the V&A's splendid exhibition about his work, and the arts and crafts of the Punjab. He now has new sections in sculpture, design, and illustration, with many examples of his work. She also reviewed the exhibition and its accompanying book edited by Julius Bryant and Susan Weber. Another review (which was written originally for the journal Cercles) followed, of Patrick C. Fleming's The Legacy of the Moral Tale: Children's Literature and the English Novel, 1744-1859. After a trip to India mid-month, she added two other brief photo-essays, on the Working-Men's Conservative Club, and Goscombe John's monument to David Lloyd George, both in Caernarfon, N. Wales. The former was useful for illustrating another piece that Cercles kindly shared with us: Emily Jones's review of Jörg Neuheiser's Crown, Church and Constitution: Popular Conservatism in England, 1815-1867.

By the end of the month, we had over 4000 followers on Twitter. It has proved to be a great way of sharing information about the Victorian period!

Derek B. Scott shared with us three of his previously published essays —  “Sex and and Gender in Gilbert & Sullivan,” “Comic Style and Character Psychology in the Music of Arthur Sullivan ,” and “Irish Nationalism, British Imperialism, and Popular Song.”

Simon Cooke contributed “From George Du Maurier to Hugh Thomson: Illustrating the Work of Elizabeth Gaskell.”

Diane Josefowicz, our science and technology editor, contributed more than two dozen biographies of pioneering bacteriologists, which she linked to Ray Dyer’s chronology.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed two photo-essays about military funerary monuments in India — John Bacon’s Captain George Hardinge, the San Fiorenzo and the memorial sculpture in Bombay Cathedral” and Charles Peart’s Memorial to Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell (1753-1784).

Tony Schwab, a regular contributor, sent in “‘How they Shone!’ Tracing the Change in English Thought and Feeling, 1850-1900,” and Lucy Paquette enriched our section on James Tissot with her chronology and biography. Charles DePaolo continues his series of essays on Victorian pharmacology with “Jesse Weldon Fell, M.D., Zinc Chloride & Furtive Medicine.”

Thanks to Mimi Matthews for sharing “Nineteenth Century Fortune-Telling: From the Drawing Room to the Court Room” from her blog.

Alan Doyle, who has shared an photograph of Victorian policeman taken by A. P. Chambers of Clapham, writes to ask if anyone can provide information about the uniform and the likely date of the photograph. If you have information contact the webmaster.

On the twenty-seventh the site had 92,510 documents and images.

January 2017

Decorated initial A he year begins with 91,923 documents and images on the site.

Philip Allingham extensive contributions included revising the list of illustrators into British and American artists. In addition he provided an introduction to William Harrison Ainsworth’s Jack Sheppard and completed his extended project of commrnytaries on the illustrations for The Moonstone, 1868-1944. He also wrote “J. B. Handelsman’s parody of “Please, sir, I want some more.’” and obtained permission — that is, paid for — permission to publish the New Yorker cartoon.

Jacqueline Banerjee's first piece for the New Year was on Hampton Court Palace. Tim Willasey-Wilsey's contributions on the sculptor Edward Richardson (see below) then inspired her to write about several more pieces of his work, including his memorial to the 16th Queen's Lancers in Canterbury Cathedral, and his restoration of the Arundel Tomb in Chichester Cathedral. She then added two of her recent reviews for the TLS, one of Simon Cooke and Paul Goldman's fine collection of essays on George Du Maurier, and the other on Daniel Bivona and Marlene Tromp's collection, Culture & Money in the Nineteenth Century. These were followed by a piece on Lewis Carroll in Guildford.

Many thanks to the online journal Cercles, for sharing three reviews with us: Michel Pharand's review of David Casarini's book on Disraeli (our second review of it); Vince Cable's review of Joseph Chamberlain: International Statesman, National Leader, Local Icon, edited by Ian Cawood and Chris Upton; Robert D. Richardson's review of The Man Behind the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam: The Life and Letters of Edward FitzGerald, edited by William H. Martin and Sandra Mason; and Keir Waddington's review of Cholera: The Victorian Plague, by Amanda J. Thomas. Thanks also to Michael Critchlow, for sending in photographs of a naturalistic stone lioness with her cubs at Thornbridge Hall, Derbyshire, sculpted by John Thomas; and Colin Price for his brilliant long-distance shot of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.

We welcomed a new contributor, David Cooke, who sent in an interesting piece on Robert Browning: "What Happens in 'Caliban upon Setebos'?"

Andrzej Diniejko continues his discussions of Disraeli novels with “Benjamin Disraeli’s The Rise of Iskander as a Philhellenic Tale of Chivalry and Love.”

Simon Cooke contributed seven illustrations by Hugh Thomson and a dozen by George DuMaurier for his essay, “From George Du Maurier to Hugh Thomson: Illustrating the Work of Elizabeth Gaskell.”

Tim Willasey-Wilsey, our Assistant Editor for Military and Colonial History, contributed three photo-essays on the subjects of funerary monuments in Madras Cathedral: Edward Richardson’s for George Broadfoot, Thomas Banks’s for Charles, Marquess Cornwallis, and Sir John Steell’s for Lieutenant Colonel Robert Gordon of the Madras Army.

Ray Dyer contributed “Cholera and the Komma Bacillus of Robert Koch.”

Stephen Foster has written a fascinating study of what really happened at the famous Oxford debate about Darwin’s theory of evolution, separating what he terms evolutionary hagiography from what Wilberforce and Darwin actually said. He followed this with a series of essays on Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, which includes discussions of Lamarck and evolutionary theory, the political imnplications of his works, and his legacy.

Charles de Paolo contributed the first four of a planned series of essays on Victorian pharmacology, including “The Discovery & Early Use of Zinc Chloride in Medicine” and “Zinc Chloride Enters the British Dispensary.

Fijavan Brenk, a student at Leiden University, translated Jaqueline Banerjee’s biography of the sculptor William Behne, which appears on her blog, and Jimmy Anastasovski translated into Macedonian Jacqueline Banerjee’s photo-essay on T. R. Spence’s mosaics. Sherali Jalolov translated Elizabeth Lee's “Victorian Theories of Sex and Sexuality” into Tajik.

As of the twenty-third the site has 92,051 documents & images.


Decorated initial A he month began with Philip V. Allingham taking his patented approach to the complete illustrations of a single novel, and again moving beyond Dickens, he has scanned George Cruikshank’s illustrations for Harrison Ainsworth’s Jack Shepppard and is locating the text realized and creating commentaries for each one.

Many thanks to Neil Holland, curator at the University of Aberystwyth's School of Art, for giving us permission, at the end of last month, to use an image of their portrait of architect and designer John Pollard Seddon for a new section on him, starting with his very special Byzantine-Revival church, St Catherine's Hoarwithy. Simon Cooke and John Salmon both helped by contributing photographs of this.

This month, Jacqueline Banerjee contributed entries on the City Churches in Dundee, especially St Mary's, the Parish Church, which has some lovely Burne-Jones windows, including the great east window. Another window here, depicting the Resurrection, led her to open a new section on the important Scottish stained glass designer Daniel Cottier. Still in Dundee, she wrote short pieces on the Howff Cemetery, the former General Post Office, the Clydesdale Bank, and the Mercantile bar in Commercial Road. Later she looked at a shop nearer home, which still has its original Victorian Doulton tiling. Later in the month, she opened another new section, this time on the ornithologist, naturalist and anti-Darwinist Francis Orpen Morris, with material about his life, and excerpts from some of his writings, most importantly (and entertainingly) his attack on the theory of evolution.

This month also included a private view of Leighton House Museum's latest exhibition, "Flaming June: The Making of an Icon," which continues until 2 April 2017. Highly recommended for those in need of some sunshine! Their installation shots brought us some valuable new material on Flaming June itself, and Leighton's other paintings of 1895: Lachrymae, The Maid with Golden Hair, Twixt Hope and Fear, and Candida.

Andzej Diniejko created a section Isaac D’Israeli, father of the Prime Minister and novelist, contributing a biographical introduction, chronology of his works, and discussion of his religion. Your webmaster chimed in and drawing upon Project Gutenberg added the complete texts of his essays on religion, including “The Talmud” and “The Jews of York,” and on book collectors (“Bibliomania”) and paratextual matters — “Prefaces,” “Dedications,” and “Titles of Books.”

Ray Dyer contributed a long, detailed bacteriology timeline and he and your webmaster have thus far created twenty-two brief biographies of the pioneering scientists, such as Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, mentioned in the chronology. Ray has also begun a section on major diseases, thus far contributing ones for anthrax and typhus.

Stephen Foster created our new section on Erasmus Darwin, beginning with a biography, introduction to his poetry, ideas of evolution, and his radical politics, after which he added a series of characteristic excerpts from the scientific poems and Darwin's extensive explanatory notes on such topics as the adaptations of plants and their insect polinators, the sensitivity of plants, and their medical uses. Other excerpts concern Darwin’s use of classical mythology in his scientific poems and the discovery of the electrical Nature of lightning.

On the twenty-sixth the site had 91,854 documents and images.

November 2016

Decorated initial As the month begins, your webmaster has recreated most of the old diamond-shaped for the home screen and for many authors before formatting and linking Lionel Gossmann’s latest project, an essay on a famous Scottish photographer Thomas Annan: “Clyde-built: Thomas Annan’s The Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow”.

After the generous collector who has shared many photographs of sculptural works and information about them provided another batch of images, Landow added to the site works by Gilbert Bayes (Sea Nymphs Riding Stallions] and Head of a Warrior (or Athena)), Frank Bowcher’s Edward VII-Worcester County medal, Sir Thomas Brock’s Bust of a man (possibly Sir Henry Harben), Benjamin Creswick’s Female Nude and Crawford Biscuit Box, three works by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Journée remplie, Femme cousant , and Édouard Lindeneher), Richard Garbe’s Alfreda, Tilting Knights, Knight and Lady, and Classical Woman, Sir Alfred Gilbert’s Victory, Ernest George Gillick’s Inner Temple World War I medal, Edouard Lanteri’s Sir Squire Bancroft, Ruby Levick’s Bust of a Man, Thomas Macleans’s Ione, Phoebe Gertrude Stabler’s three works (Picardy Peasant, Picardy Peasant Woman, and Baby on a Cushion), and Albert Toft’s Hagar.

The same generous collector also provided images and information about sculpture-related metalwork, such as Bertha Lillian Goff’s silver and leather book cover, Katie Harris’s Silver box decorated with a bas relief and a silver prayer book cover, and Florence Harriet Steele’s Silver Tazza.

Philip B. Allingham created a section for William Sharp's illustrations for The Moonstone, which consists of 51 images and detailed discussions!. Continuing these large projects, he next added George Cruikshank’s eleven illustrations of William Harrison Ainsworth’s Jack Sheppard. A Romance. At present he is revising the 74 documents containing William Jewett’s illustrations of The Moonstone in Harper’s Magazine/

The summer holidays seem far away now, but Jacqueline Banerjee finally found time to write about the McManus, Dundee, with its fabulous Albert Hall and Victoria Gallery, which she so much enjoyed visiting. This George Gilbert Scott building has stained glass by Clayton and Bell, Burne-Jones, and William Aikman, all celebrating Scottish history (Aikman's window tells the story of the extraordinary Scottish missionary, Mary Slessor) and has paintings by Rossetti, Landseer, Sir Frank Brangwyn, Sir John Lavery and others. A special favourite was William McTaggart, on whom she opened a new section, with several paintings, including his lyrically impressionist And All the Choral Waters Sang. Many thanks to the McManus for their permission to use photographs, also to the librarian of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh, and photographer Andrew Lee, for supplementing them.

Lionel Gossman kindly sent in some more photographs of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's work in Berlin and Potsdam, showing more about his career and his links with English architects. Thanks also to Joe Pilling, for a review of David Cesarani's new book, Disraeli: The Novel Politician, and to John Salmon for another series of splendid church photographs, this time of George Gilbert Scott's St Matthias, Richmond, both its exterior and its interior, and its many fine stained glass windows by major Victorian firms, including William Wailes's beautiful west wheel window. Sir Arthur Blomfield's chancel screen here led JB to look at this architect's work at Eton College, which in turn caused her to write an introduction to the architect Henry Woodyer, an Old Etonian whose "burning bush" lamp standard there is a well-known landmark.

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor for Poland, has written “Benjamin Disraeli’s Silver Fork Novels. A Brief Introduction.”

Simon Cooke, continuing his work on Victorian book design, sent in examples by Albert Henry Warren, John Sliegh, and Robert Dudley.

Ray Dyer contributed “The Higher Critics: An Annotated Chronology, 1710-1917,” and regular contributor Tony Schwab reviewed Emma Griffin’s Liberty’s Dawn: A People’s History of the Industrial Revolution.

Thanks to the Bedford Fine Art Gallery for sharing several paintings with us: Christiana Patterson Ross’s The Pedlars on the Road to Edinburgh, James Lobley’s Remember the Poor, and William Sidney Cooper’s Sheep. Thanks, too, for Stephen Basedo for sharing “Medievalism in Victorian Fiction — A Brief Bibliography” with our readers.

Jordan Silaen has translated Diane Greco Josefowicz’s “The Wave Theory of Light” into Indonesian.

Verity Burke from the University of Reading, who is Associate Editor of the Wilkie Collins Journal, kindly shared a description of this new online journal.

Thanks to Bob McEachern for pointing out a bad link in the homepage of Phiz’s illustrations to David Copperfield and to Geneviève Lipietz for correcting a spelling error in the caption for Drury’s statue of Reynolds.

On the twenty-eighth the site had 91,658 documents and images.

October 2016

Decorated initial the leaves began to turn as the nights became much colder, and your webmaster changed the visually boring list version of homepage (or sitemap) for the site to a better, text-based version of the old diamond shapes one. Mark Bernstein tells us that eventually we'll be able to have both the more interesting one intended for those reading on large tablets and computers and the list needed for reading on smart phones. Thus far only the homepages for John Ruskin and George W. M. Reynolds have the diamond-shaped design. More will come as time permits.

Landow has created a new section in “authors” for Reynolds, adding thirty excerpts from and brief essays about his The Mysteries of London — an extraordinarily long novel by the man who was almost certainly the most widely read Victorian novelist. (He and Dickens despised each other.) Reynolds, a radical through and through, attacked capital punishment, imprisonment for debt, government spying on private letters, child labor in Lancashire coal mines, prostituting twelve-year old girls, adulteration and contamination of food, and the three "Laws" by which he argued the rich kept down the poor — the Game, Corn, and Poor Laws. He makes Queen Victoria a character in the novel, and he also explains the fine points of bodysnatching. Landow also added more than 70 illustrations of the novel by the unfortunately named Stiff.

After Jackie Banerjee introduced him to a special issue of The Studio devoted to bookplates, GPL created a folder for them in the decorative arts and design section of the site and added more than seventy-five examples.

Early in the month, Jacqueline Banerjee opened two new sections, one on the artist H. H. Lathangue, which includes his controversial Leaving Home, and the other on the stained glass designer E. J. Prest, whose windows can be seen in St Augustine of Canterbury Church, Highgate — John Salmon sent in many splendid photographs of this church, which also has a fine window by Nathaniel Westlake, amongst others. She added a distinctive sequence of windows by Rossetti and Morris, The Sermon on the Mount as well, this time sent in by Colin Price. Colin Price also sent in a beautiful war memorial window in St John's, Cardiff. Other additions included a notice of three useful reprints by Cambridge University Press, of contemporary works on the Great Exhibition, more information about the reliefs on the façade of the Oxford and Cambridge Club in Pall Mall, some commentary on Alfred Conquest's Surrey Landscape, and (with photographs from Tim Willasey-Wilsey) an account of the former Army and Navy Stores in Mumbai.

Later in the month, John Salmon sent in three more batches of wonderful photographs of the (former) Ark of the Covenant, in Upper Clapton, London; St Andrew's Church, Stockwell Green, London, now sadly under threat; and the particularly lovely chapel of the Hospital of St John and St Elizabeth, in St John's Wood, London. In connection with the first of these (the Ark of the Covenant) JB wrote an introduction to the unusual and notorious Agapemonite sect, and added some work on the brilliant windows there, by Walter Crane. She also opened a new section on the stained glass makers, Shrigley & Hunt, and (on quite a different topic) wrote about the connection of the major Prussian architect, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, with England.

We now have well over 3000 followers on Twitter, many of whom interact with us and make us feel a useful part of the academic community!

Simon Cooke contributed material on book illustration, cover design, and photography, one Glaswegian working in all these areas — William Ralston for whom Simon wrote introductions for his work as a photographer, illustrator, and book cover designer. In addition, he added “Owen Jones as a book cover designer” with examples of his work.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed ““The loss of the steamship Cleopatra with Indian convicts bound for Singapore” and “Mumbai’s Neoclassical Town Hall and the Bombay Engineers who designed and built it.”

Ray Dyer contributed detailed chronologies for Lewis Carroll and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Tony Schwab sent in “How to be smart: Reflections on Thomas Carlyle.”

Thanks to Ann Kennedy Smith for correcting a date in the Amy Levy chronology.

On the last day of the month the site had 90,910 documents and images.

September 2016

Decorated initial As August ended and September began, your webmaster arrived in London, met with Jackie Banerjee, and set off on a cruise around the coast of England with detours to Dublin and the Isle of Man. In London he discovered Thomas Telford’s St. Katherine Dock project, and added photographs of his lock connecting the Thames with Philip Hardwick’s Warehouse. Stopping in Salisbury, he photographed some of the cathedral’s medieval and Victorian sculpture, which included eight thirteenth-century bas reliefs in the Chapter House (which houses a contemporary copy of the Magna Carta) plus R. C. Lucas’s Sir. R. Colt Hoare and Margaret Thomas’s Memorial to Richard Jefferies. In Wales Landow photographed St. David’s Cathedral and its ceilings restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott and encaustic tiles and their medieval sources.

St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin, Ireland, brought photographs of war memorials related to materials in our section the British Empire — those for members of the 18th Royal Irish Regiment lost in the Burma War, 1852-53, the King’s Royal Irish Hussars, the First Royal Irish Regimen (China War, 1840-42) plus the regimental flags of British army units hanging in the choir and John Henry Foley’s statue of Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness outside the cathedral.

Landing on the Isle of Man, which some say is Thomas-the-tank-engine’s Isle of Sodor, produced photographs of the island’s locomotives and rolling stock and of the station at Port Erin. Belfast, the next stop on your webmaster’s travels, produced additional photographs of Thomas Brock’s Queen Victoria and Titanic Memorial and four bronze allegorical figures on Sydney March’s Boer War Memorial.

Arriving on the Scottish mainland allowed your webmaster to return to old haunts and obtain photographs of some new buildings and sculpture and additional views of ones already on the site. Glasgow, for example, featured a lovely department store interior in a Grade A British Listed Building and the Argyll Arcade to go with all out London arcades. Glasgow Cathedral contained a memorial to the men of the Seventh Highland Light Infantry lost in a battle on the North-west frontier of India — a battle that, as Tim Willasey-Wilsey helpfully pointed out, had been discussed in one of his recent essays. Edinburgh, where the trip ended, produced additional images, including a detail of the Scott Monument and a new pictures of the Wellington equestrian monument on Princes Street.

Apart from an important meeting at the beginning of the month (with your webmaster!) Jackie Banerjee enjoyed spending a week looking at a single Arts and Crafts church, St Martin's, Low Marple, working with over fifty photographs kindly sent in by Michael Critchlow. This lovely church has work by Henry Wilson and Christopher Whall as well as Sedding, and stained glass by William Morris, Christopher Whall, Herbert Bryans and others, all linked from the the bottom of the three main webpages about it. This project involved saying more about Sedding himself, and opening new sections on Whall and the stained glass designer, Herbert Bryans. She also illustrated and formatted a contemporary account of George Meredith, and a new review kindly shared by the journal Cercles, of Annie Ramel's The Madder Stain: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Thomas Hardy, by Stéphanie Bernard. In between, she added recent pictures of Oscar Wilde's childhood home in Dublin as well, and two famous old shops on Jermyn Street: Harvie & Hudson's because of its Pugin tiling, and Floris because of its connection with Florence Nightingale.

Towards the end of the month, JB added reviews of Linda Stratmann's The Secret Poisoner: A Century of Murder, and the exhibition, Victorians Decoded: Art and Telegraphy, at the Guildhall Art Gallery, along with several illustrations for each, including John Brett's lovely Echoes of a Far-Off Storm and James Clarke Hook's dramatic, in-your-face Deep Sea Fishing. Another addition was Michael Faraday's home at Hampton Court.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed ““A Scrimmage in a Border Station” — The death of William Cameron in the Sudan.”

Colin Price joins the team as one of our wonderful Contributing Photographers.

Ray Dyer contributed four essays on Lewis Carroll’s Sylvie and Bruno. After Landow added 15 of Frank Furniss’s illustrations, Dyer sent in commentaries for them.

On the twenty-sixth, the site had 90,130 documents and images.

August 2016

Decorated initial A ugust has seen your webmaster occupied with two large projects, the first involving the redesign of the site so it can be read pleasurably on both smart phones and devices with larger screens, such as computers and larger tablets. Mark Bernstein, Assistant Editor for Web technology and Design, is president and chief scientist at Eastgate Systems, which created (and sells) Storyspace (the software on which the pre-WWW version of the Victorian Web resided) and Tinderbox, software widely used by journalists and writers of nonfiction. Mark, who previously made our basic essay stylesheet work on smartphones, wrote a program to find any html errors that might prevent new stylesheets from functioning properly, and he e-mailed the program’s output, which came to a 46-page single-spaced list. Fortunately, about a third of these reported problems turned out to involve intentionally unformatted offline materials or groups of documents easily fixed with global find-and-replace. Still, many hours have been spent looking for that missing >, ", or backslash!

The other major project involved creating a web version of Lionel Gossman’s monograph, Unwilling Moderns: The Nazarene Painters of the Nineteenth Century and its 100 illustrations. Julie Codell, Professor of Art at Arizona State University, contributed previously published several essays, for the first of which, “Photographic Interventions and Identities: Colonising and Decolonising the Royal Body,” Landow created a web version.

Phillip V. Allingham has reformatted two-dozen of Fred Barnard’s illustrations of Martin Chuzzlewit and then moved on to those for David Copperfield, after which he created a new section for Alfred S. Pearse whose illustrations for Wilkie Collins’s The Moonstone he added along with detailed commentaries of each image. Continuing with illustrations for Collins’s famous novel, Allingham next added illustrations and extensive commentaries for work by F. A. Fraser and John French Sloan.

Jackie Banerjee started the month by working with Colin Price's new photographs of the lovely Rossetti triptych at Llandaff Cathedral. Then she completed a long overdue piece about London's Tube, before turning to sculpture, with an account of Sir John Steell's statue of Robert Burns in Dundee, and several new sculptures and drawings by Henri de Triqueti, such as his splendid statue of Pierre Lescot on the Louvre, his finely detailed drawing of an angel at a church in Padua, and his preparatory study for the Marmor Homericum at University College London. JB also added a piece from the Internet Archive on Queen Victoria's funeral. Many thanks to Cercles for sharing with us Marianne Drugeon's review of Emily Eells's recent edition of Wilde in Earnest, which is now illustrated with some photographs of the 1895 production of the play. Cercles also sent us Helena Ifill's thoughtful review of Kirby-Jane Hallum's Aestheticism and the Marriage Market in Victorian Popular Fiction: The Art of Female Beauty. At the end of the month, JB added an introduction to the distinguished Scottish portrait-painter Sir Francis Grant, and some beautiful photographs of stained glass in Winchester Cathedral sent in by Colin Price, including the Jane Austen memorial window there and the windows by Edward Burne-Jones and John Dearle in the Epiphany Chapel, starting with Burne-Jones's Annunciation window. These last were formatted with the new style sheet, on which so much work is currently being done!

Simon Cooke formatted “‘Handsomely bound in cloth’: UK Book Cover Designs 1840-1880,” which Edmund M. B. King contributed.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed ““‘One of the basest, foulest murders that ever stained the page of history’? The brutal death of Sir William Macnaghten.”

Ray Dyer of the Royal Institute of Chemistry contributed Chemistry Time-Line, 1755-1901: Victorian Chemistry in ContextMesmerism. Ancient and Modern,” “Glossary of Terms Used for Mental Illness, with Chronological Synopsis,” “Theories of mental illness in the nineteenth-century ‘Bedlam’ Asylum Era, 1815-1898.,” “The ‘Lingua franca’ of Nineteenth-century Medical Psychology,” and “Child Study in the Nineteenth Century.” Tony Schwab reviewed Stephanie Barczewski’s Heroic Failure and the British.

Adrian S. Wisnicki of Department of English and Center for Digital Research in the Humanities at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln writes to announce that Livingstone Online has now been published. “Livingstone Online is a digital museum and library that enables users to encounter the written and visual legacy of famous Victorian explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873). The site challenges reigning iconic representations of Livingstone by restoring one of the British Empire's most important figures to the many global contexts in which he worked, traveled, and is remembered.”

Thanks to Alexandra Whittaker and Fellows, the Birmingham and London auction house, for sharing a lovely Arts and Crafts brooch attributed to Arthur and Georgie Gaskin.

On the twenty-second the site had 89,554 documents and images.

July 2016

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ormatting Lionel Gossman’s monograph on the history of the Victorian stained glass revival with special reference to the Glaswegian Stephen Adam led your webmaster through several byways to the beautiful Bible in Pictures by the wonderfully named Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. Thus far we have 125 of his illustrations, many of which have commentaries and are interlinked. Landow also added “William Holman Hunt's Egyptian-style furniture.” In working with issues available online The Reader, an interesting, unfortunately short-lived intellectual magazine of the 1860s, GPL encountered and transcribed a range of interesting material on literature, philosophy, religion, and the visual arts, including reviews of works by M. E. Braddon, Frances Power Cobbe, Mrs. Henry Wood, George MacDonald, John Everett Millais, Coventry Patmore plus essays on the political implications of the sensation novel, periodicals in British India, spiritualism and on John Stuart Mill as the leading philosopher of the age.

Before going off on holiday, Jackie Banerjee continued working with Ramachandran Venkatesh on Mumbai's great heritage of "Bombay Gothic" buildings, with F. W. Stevens's poignant Mulji Jetha Fountain, and the (Former) Churchgate Terminus. Special thanks to Venkatesh for his piece on Stevens's Standard Chartered Bank, including information about banking history in Mumbai, and sculpture here by Roscoe Mullins. Thanks also to Martin Cook, for sending in some useful information about the cost of E. S. Prior's Voewood House. JB also opened two new sections. one for the architect John Gibson, with a look at the lovely St Margaret's ("The Marble Church") in Bodelwyddan, Clwydd; the other for the stained glass firm, Burlison & Grylls, followed by ten examples of work attributed to the firm at Rochester Cathedral. Thanks to Colin Price for all these pictures! On returning home, JB started adding various new items from her travels, such as a "Liverpool Special" postbox, the recently restored and magnificent Liverpool Lime Street Station, and Peter Ellis's extraordinarily advanced Oriel Chambers, also in Liverpool.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed photographs of Thomas Brock’s monument to Queen Victoria in Belfast, Sir Francis Chantrey’s Monument to Sir John Phelips, plus photographs an an essay on a Memorial Column to Admiral Hood in Somerset.

Rendering our site in Spanish continues at universities in Madrid. Professor Asun Lopez-Varela edited Evelina Šaponjić-Jovanović’s translation of the second chapter of Marjorie Stone’s book on Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Ana González-Rivas Fernández edited Ana Abril Hernández’s translation of Andrzej Diniejko’s “Walter Besant: Un Sketch biográfico” and his introduction to late-nineteenth-century Slum Fiction —  “Ficción de barrio: Introducción” plus Delfina Kashki’s translation of Jackie Banerjee's photo-essay on J. M. Barrie, George Du Maurier, and Thomas Hardy in Lulworth Cove, Dorset. María Álvarez translated half a dozen documents on EBB, which were edited by Belén Piqueras, and Helena Sánchez revised and edited Luisa Antón Pacheco’s “Samuel Smiles.”

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “A Real Doll,” a review of Joanna Ebenstein's The Anatomical Venus: Wax, God, Death and the Ecstatic, and Susan Guralnik reviewed Malcolm Shifrin’s Victorian Turkish Baths.

Thanks to Jim Spates for sharing “Ruskin’s moss & the beauty of the earth” from his blog, Why Ruskin? Thanks, too, to Cordula Grewe for permitting us to include excerpts from Painting the Sacred in the Age of Romanticism, her study of the German Nazarene painters, on the site: “The Nazarenes as Art Revolutionaries,” “The Religions of the Nazarenes and the Conflict of Faiths,” “Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld’s Bible in Pictures,” and “Nineteenth-century European Anti-Semitism.” A third thanks goes to Tony Harker of Oxford for sharing with us a fascinating letter concerning freed slaves written by a minor Jamaican official to his brother, an antislavery Methodist minister back in England. A fourth thanks to Gail Frampton, who kindly sent us photographs of her great-great grandfather, whose Crimean War letter she found on our site. It's wonderful to receive material from readers!

Thanks also to Antoine Capet of Cercles for letting us reproduce on our website Ginger Frost's searching review of Thomas R. C. Gibson-Brydon's The Moral Mapping of Victorian and Edwardian London: Charles Booth, Christian Charity, and the Poor-but-Respectable.

Many thanks to D. C. Rose for letting us know that some of the Wilde websites he recommended some years back have blinked out of existence. Thanks, too, to Diane L. Ritter for pointing out some embarassing typos and fixing a link and to Mark Graham for pointing out the Greek letters on a Pugin tile.

On the twenty-fifth the site had 89,312 documents and images.

June 2016

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une began with your webmaster creating a section for one of his favorite painters, John Singer Sargent. Thanks to the riches and generosity of major museums that permit Creative Commons use of images of works in their collections, particularly the Metropolitan Museum in New York, Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts, London’s National Portrait Gallery, and Tate Britain, we have the beginnings of an adequate coverage of this great painter.

Much of the month have been occupied by creating a web version of A Stained Glass Masterpiece in Victorian Glasgow: Stephen Adam’s Celebration of Industrial Labor by Lionel Gossman, M. Taylor Pyne Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages, Princeton University. In addition to providing important material about Scotland, an important part of the UK for which the Victorian Web dosn't have nearly enough material, the book’s early chapters serve as introductions to our section on stained glass.

Phillip V. Allingham continues his vast Little Dorrit illustration project by adding more than a dozen of James Mahoney's visual interpretations of Dickens — and then comparing his to those of other illustrators.

At the end of last month, Ramachandran Venkatesh had sent in photographs and a helpful commentary on Elphinstone College in Mumbai, and Jackie Banerjee added commentaries to several other photographs of his, for example of statues by Matthew Noble (including one of Mountstuart Elphinstone himself) and Thomas Woolner (a characterful one of David Sassoon), in the same city. She also added a notice of the new exhibition at the Courtauld of Georgiana Houghton's "Spirit paintings," along with several of the paintings on show there. Other additions were three buildings (the former Cambridge Medical School, Voewood House and The Barn, Exmouth) for our new section on architect E. S. Prior. Special thanks to Antoine Capet of Cercles for letting her reproduce on our website her new review of Malcolm Shifrin's splendid Victorian Turkish Baths.

Thank you also to Cynthia Gamble for sending in an interesting note about her book on Wenlock Abbey; to Rosalind White, for her useful essay on that popular (sad) topic, "fallen women" (on such figures in George Eliot, Wilkie Collins and Elizabeth Gaskell); and to Antoine Capet of Cercles for sharing another review, this time by Allanah Tomkins, on Elizabeth Hurren's Protesting about Pauperism: Poverty, Politics and Poor Relief in Late-Victorian England, 1870-1900. Particularly welcome was a batch of photographs from Ramachandran Venkatesh, with commentary, for a new entry on one of the greatest buildings of the Gothic Revival, the Victoria (now Chhatrapti Shivaji) Terminus in Mumbai. JB added a life of the architect, F. W. Stevens and two of his other works, the Royal Alfred Sailors' Home and the much-praised Municipal Buildings, as well (several more to follow). She also added an introduction to the artist, Richard Redgrave.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed photographs of John Flaxman’s Tomb of Harriet Susan née Dashwood, Viscountess Fitzharris (1783-1815) and Henry Weekes’ Shelley Memorial.

Thanks to Marie and Ray Ella for sharing photographs of their Lincolnshire home, part of which was formerly a Victorian Primitive Methodist chapel.

Thanks to Tony Schwab, who most recently contributed his essay on the sublime, for sending in corrections about materials found throughout the site; thanks to Natalina Aloisi who writes from Italy to helpfully point out a missing letter that broke a link; and thanks to Dr. Cammy Thomas who notified us about an obsolete document.

On the twenty-seventh the site had 88,861 documents and images.

May 2016

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fter your webmaster returned from London, he continued work on editorial and other cartoons from Fun and added dozens of cartoons to the categories first created — arts, cabs and omnibuses, children, poverty and starvation, religion, servants, and workers plus parodies of word and image. New topics included what people wore, railways, theatre and popular entertainment, Valentine’s Day, Christmas, environment and public health and Queen Victoria and the royal family. One result of working with humorous and editorial cartoons has been to create sections for book illustrators new to the site, including Henry Stephen “Hal” Ludlow, James Frank Sullivan, and John Gordon Thomson.

Landow also reviewed Devon Cox’s The Street of Wonderful Possibilities: Whistler, Wilde, and Sargent in Tite Street and created a section on Anna Lea Merrit, the American artist living in London who painted Love Locked Out, which is discussed in the book.

One of the largest recent projects on the site involved reducing rather than adding to it, as we removed syllabi of courses that formerly used the Victorian Web at universities in the United States, Canada, and Singapore and student contributions not particularly relevant to the site, such as those on twentieth-century American non-fiction and modern fantasy.

The site added an obituary for Linda H. Peterson, who contributed her pioneering book on Victorian autobiography and other materials some years ago. We hope to add more of her books and articles.

Philip V. Allingham continues his work on book illustration, turning his attention to the way Phiz, Mahoney, Furniss, and others illustrated Dickens’s Little Dorrit.

Jacqueline Banerjee got a warm welcome at the Ragged School Museum on its open weekend this month, afterwards adding a long overdue introduction to Dr Barnardo. Working with more pictures from Ramachandran Venkatesh, she continued filling out our Mumbai section with its well-known Flora Fountain, co-designed by Richard Norman Shaw. She added commentaries to Julia Cameron's May Day and a Fun cartoon which also plays on Tennyson's "May Queen" for a royal betrothal. Much time was spent revising and updating a number of earlier pieces by various people, such as Paul Mersh's account of General Gordon's charitable works, first added in 2007. Looking for relocated illustrations, and incorporating links to new material, for example in the biography of Brunel, also took time. Later in the month, JB added about a dozen of Susan Durant's medallions of the royal family, and updated the sections on both Durant and Henri de Triqueti, especially on the Triqueti Marbles at St George's Chapel, Windsor, while preparing for her talk at the PMSA (Public Monuments and Sculpture Association) conference. She also images and commentaries for his cenotaph for Prince Albert and the Yates Memorial. At the end of the month she reviewed the Tate's new "Painting with Light" exhibition.

Thank you to Rosie White, who shared two new items from her "Cabinet of Curiosity" with us: "Alice through the Magnifying Glass, Visual and Verbal Interplay in Wonderland," and "Charles Kingsley's The Water Babies and the Origins Debate." Thank you too to Antoine Capet of Cercles for sharing with us Mark Klobas's review of Nancy Ellenberger's Balfour's World: Aristocracy and Political Culture at the Fin de Siècle.

Simon Cooke created a section on the late-nineteenth-century illustrator Christiana Mary Demain ‘Chris’ Hammond (1860–1900), which includes eight of her works and a critical biography. Cooke also contributed several book designs by Alex Turbayne, including ones for Kingsley’s Westward Ho!, Maria Edgeworth’s Maria, and Sir Walter Scott’s The Lady of the Lake. At month’s end Cooke created a new section for a Paul Woddroffe, which thus far includes a dozen illustrations and an introduction to his life and work entitled, “Paul Woodroffe: Illustrator of the Nineties.”

Susan Walker writes to us about a crowdsourcing effort to fund Casa Tolomei, the Italian summer home of the Brownings in 1853 and 1857.

Thanks to Nina Taylor for catching several documents dated 2018 — would that we could read the future! And thanks to Diane L. Ritter for catching scanning errors in the biography of G. P. R. James and Simon Collcutt for catching multiple mispellings of T. E. Collcutt's last name!

On the ninth the site had 88,597 documents and images, on the 30th after we removed more than 600 documents from the former section on course material associated with the site and added other documents, it had 88,266.

April 2016

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pril began with your webmaster in London, where he attended a number of exhibitions and their press views. First, he headed straightaway to the Victoria & Albert Museum to see their installation of the Botticelli show he had reviewed after seeing it in Berlin. The joint review, which compares the very different approaches of the two museums, is now online. He next wrote “Bejewelled Treasures — a review of another exhibition drawn from the Al Thani Collection,” and Tate Britain’s “review of Conceptual Art in Britain, 1964-1979.” Next up Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear at the Victoria & Albert, and Pre-Raphaelites on Paper at the Leighton House Museum. A return visit to the Blackfriars Pub produced some improved photographs of the Arts and Crafts decorations and sculpture.

While in London, Landow met with the private collector who has shared photographs of his large collection of sculpture, painting, and decorative arts. Thus far the new materials of which images have appeared online include Robert Anning Bell’s Sir Galahad, Conrad Dressler’s Benjamin Disraeli, Francis Derwent Wood’s Bust of a Laughing Women, Kathleen Bruce Scott’s Peter as a Baby, Stephen Wiens’s Girl with a Lizard, Edouard Lanteri’s Duet, and his French Hospital Dispensary medal, Sydney March’s General Wolfe, Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal’s pair of Coalport Cornucopias Ellen Mary Rope’s Unto Babes and Visit of the Magi and Onslow Whiting’s Boer War Commemorative plaque.

Landow opened a section for another Trollope novel, The Three Clerks, beginning a homepage and two documents — “Trollope and contemporary fraud, embezzlement, and stock swindles” and “Who has given so great a blow to political honesty as Sir Robert Peel?.

The same collector generously shared photographs about medals and plaques by George Gammon Adams (Sir George Gilbert Scott ), Emil Fuchs (Boer War Royal Tour/Visit to the Colonies medal), the painter and Royal Academician Edward J. Poynter (Clio (ΚΛΕΙΩ)), Francis John Williamson’s Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee plaque, and members of the Wyons family that dominated Victorian medallist work: Joseph Shepherd Wyon’s John Bacon and Samuel Johnson and Leonard Charles Wyon's Thomas Banks. Decorative arts contributions include Katie Harris’s silver christening cup and match box.

At the end of last month, Jacqueline Banerjee added the picturesque Barmouth Bridge, the longest in Wales, thanks to pictures contributed by Colin Price. Thanks again too to Roger Beale of for kindly letting us use a picture from the Illustrated London News to illustrate a new commentary on the handsome Royal Courts of Justice clock. Then it was on to the writer, illustrator and cartoonist, Wallis Mackay, for whom she created a new section with his life, and a dozen or so of his illustrations and cartoons.

Many thanks for two new book reviews: one by William Whyte via Cercles, on Martin Geoffrey Cook's Edward Prior: Arts and Crafts Architect, and the other by Ellen Moody on Martha Stoddart Holmes's Fictions of Affliction: Physical Disability in Victorian Culture. The former prompted JB to write an introduction to a new section on Prior. Similarly, R. Venkatesh's photograph of a chattri in Mumbai's former Victoria Park prompted her to make a new section for its architect Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob, and to update an older account of Coronation Park in New Delhi, still slowly evolving into a heritage site. Then she wrote a piece about the Savile Club in Mayfair. Finally, returning to Colin Price's photographs, she added new information and pictures to Brunel's Chepstow railway bridge, and the Forth Rail Bridge, and also put online with commentaries the Avon Aqueduct in Linlithgow and the unique Warrington Transporter Bridge. At the end of the month she received Rosalind White's interesting piece on "Mesmerism, Madness and Witchcraft in Charlotte Bronté's Jane Eyre."

All this left a little time for some enjoyable meetings with our webmaster and his wife during their three-week stay in London; for updating and correcting a number of old documents, such as that on Tower Bridge and Its Art; and for her usual freelance writing. She published a couple of new reviews for the TLS this month, and a piece on the fascinating topic of the London Underground for Aquila. She also visited Windsor to see the Triqueti Marbles at first hand, since she is working on a paper on this sculptor for next month's PMSA Emigré Sculptors conference in London.

Derek B. Scott contributed another performance of a Victorian ballad — George Root’s The Hazel Dell.

Simon Cooke created a section for an illustrator new to the site —  Richard Heighway, providing an introduction and 5 plates.

Thanks to a new contributor, Robert Hill, architect and collector of architectural drawings, who shared Isaiah Robert Edmondson Birkett’s drawing of a Birmingham office block.

Robert Freidus contributed photographs of funerary and memorial sculpture from St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh: Sir George Frampton’s General Sir William Stephen Alexander Lockhart, three works by James Pittendrigh MacGillivray (Robert Fergusson, John Knox, and Margaret Oliphant), and John and William Birnie Rhind’s James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose.

As of the twenty-fifth the site had 88,236 documents and images.

March 2016

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arch began with your webmaster continuing to work with cartoons and articles from Fun, the Victorian would-be rival to Punch that for an important part of its existence was owned by the Dalziels, the artists and engravers involved with so much book and periodical illustration. It turns out that whereas the Internet Archive and Hathi Digital Library Trust each have around half a dozen of the magazine’s volumes, each of which contains six months’s issues, the Suzy Covey Comic Book Collection in the George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida, offers a full run of the magazines. Unfortunately, unlike the Hathi online versions, the Florida ones have only page images but no usable text, which has meant spending many hours making transcriptions. Some of the sections begun in February that began with only a few examples, such as those on Disraeli, Gladstone, and railways, which only had a few examples, now have many more — there are, for example, now 28 cartoons for railways — and we now have many more topics, some grim (poverty and starvation in Victorian Britain), some serious (the Risorgimento), and others with comedy, including those on the arts, cabs and omnibuses, children, servants, workers, and religion. Among the most interesting are those cartoons and verse that either simply allude to Victorian painting and sculpture as a means of creating political satire or those that parody these works.

Philip V. Allingham has transcribed and written introductions for three sections of an 1838 adaptation of Dickens’s Oliver Twist, possibly by George Almar.

A trip to Venice this month gave Jacqueline Banerjee material for a piece on Salviati in Venice and Britain: An Introduction, and she would like to thank Rita Kovach for permission to use a portrait of Antonio Salviati. But much of her time was spent in working with a new contributor, Colin Price, on some very famous bridges: George Gilbert Scott's Clifton Hampden Bridge; Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Saltash Bridge, Wharncliffe Viaduct, and Maidenhead Railway Bridge; William Tierney Clark's Marlow Bridge; and the Blackfriars road and railway bridges in London. Thank you to Colin for sending in a huge number of photographs, including sets documenting all the cathedrals of Britain, in all their aspects (especially stained glass). Towards the end of the month (still in the bridges section), she added archival excerpts about the Tay Bridge Disaster, and commented on Colin's pictures of the new Tay Bridge.

JB also added three new reviews, shared with us by Professor Antoine Capet, reviews editor of the online journal Cercles: Janet Gezari's review of Wuthering Heights on Film and Television: A Journey across Time and Cultures by Valérie V. Hazette; William Whyte's review of Gavin Stamp's Gothic for the Steam Age: An Illustrated Biography of Sir George Gilbert Scott (our second review of this important book); Laurent Bury's review of Lindsay Smith's Lewis Carroll: Photography on the Move. Thanks to Professor Capet and the authors involved for giving us permission to include these.

Simon Cooke, our editor for illustration and book design, has just published George Du Maurier: Illustrator, Author, Critic, which he co-edited with Paul Goldman, contributing a chapter and introduction.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed “An indelible stigma of disgrace”: The Guns of Kabul,” which prompted the creation of a homepage for Afghanistan.

Thanks to Sarah Colegrave Fine Art for sharing with our readers half a dozen late-Victorian watercolors of Pakistan by Edward Clifford, paintings and drawings by Walter Greaves, and a delightful watercolor by Violet Brunton.

Thanks to James Spates, Professor of Sociology Emeritus Hobart and William Smith Colleges, for “How I Found Ruskin,” originally a 50-page essay most of which is devoted to Ruskin's political importance.

Thanks to Albert Hickson for correcting a typo on the index for Liverpool. Many thanks also to Rita Kovach for correcting a date in the new Salviati piece, and sending in some more information about the firm's showrooms in London.

On March fourteenth the site had 87,730 documents and images.

February 2016

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ebruary already? The time flew by especially quickly for your webmaster, who found himself immersed in two large projects dependent upon the wonderful resources of the Hathi Digital Library Trust, from which he obtained maps, illustrations, and Punch cartoons, and long articles from The Illustrated London News, Fraser’s Magazine, the Westminster Review, and Fun, which linked together created a characteristic Victorian Web projects — namely, a series of interlinked primarily documents with commentaries plus some brief essays on a major issue, in this case the brief if deadly uprising after emancipation in Jamaica followed by the excessive and illegal reprisals by Governor Eyre and his underlings, some of whom were ultimately indicted for murder. Our interwoven materials on the Morant uprising and the subsequent Governor Eyre affair work well with our materials on the West Indies and public commentary on all sides of the affair has much to tell us about many subjects, including Carlyle's reputation, the context of the 1867 Reform Bill, and the British government’s rare willingness to seek and carry out justice in the face of jingoism, racism, and imperialism.

After examining articles in newspapers and journals, Landow decided to see how Punch and similar magazines treated the issue, an investigation that led to the discovery of the Hathi Trust’s issues of Fun, an obvious rival to Punch and imitator of it. This far we've put online with occasional commentary cartoons about Disraeli and the second reform bill, arts and literature, railways (and swindlers), and royal weddings, and the usual Punch-like cartoons on the war-between-the sexes with more than a dozen editorial cartoons on Gladstone and the failed battle for Irish Home Rule in the 1890s.

Philip V. Allingham in a burst of creativity has completed his one of his illustration projects, providing the plates, passages, commentary, and up to half a dozen comparison images by other artists for Harry Furniss’s illustrations of Charles Dickens’s Martin Chuzzlewit. Like Trollope, who notes that as soon as he completed one novel, he reached for a sheet of paper and began a new major project, PVA next began and completeda similar series of Henry Matthew Brock’s book jacket and beautiful color illustrations of Dickens’s The Holly Tree Inn.

The highlight of this month for Jacqueline Banerjee was the "Artist and Empire" exhibition at the Tate, which she reviewed along with its accompanying book. Many thanks to Leeds Art Gallery and Robert Crouch Rare Books, as well as the Tate, for helping her illustrate the review. Writing separately about Edward Armitage's dramatic allegorical painting Retribution at Leeds, she also provided an introduction to his work. Another pleasure was coming across Walter Crane's old house in Kensington, and learning about his bohemian lifestyle there!

Later in the month, she added accounts of The Prospect of Whitby pub in Wapping, and the Wapping Hydraulic Pumping Station opposite it. Finally, she opened a new section on John Wilson Croker, to include an essay by David Morphet on Croker's Image of France, reprinted here by kind permission of the Eblj (Electronic British Library Journal). For the periodicals section, she also formatted and illustrated Morphet's new and longer piece, "The Political Mission of the Quarterly Review, 1809-1859." Many thanks also to Antoine Capet and Deborah Mutch, for allowing us to reprint from Cercles Mutch's informative book review of Haewon Hwang's London's Underground Spaces: Representing the Victorian City, 1840-1915.

Andrzej Diniejko continues his essays on the novels of Disraeli with Benjamin Disraeli’s The Young Duke as a Silver Fork-Novel With Social Commentary.

Simon Cooke contributed “Aubrey Beardsley as a Book Cover Designer.”

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed “The Victims of Fugitives’ Drift,” a photo essay about a British invading force that was annihilated at the hands of the Zulus with nearly 1800 killed and only 55 surviving. This new material on southern Africa encouraged your webmaster to create a section on Rhodesia, the modern Zimbabwe.

Thanks to John Sankey, our long-time contributor on matters relating to Thomas Brock, for sending in three new works by the sculptor — Richard Baxter, his very first public monument, and equestrian statues of Edward VII in Sydney, Australia, and Toronto, Canada.

Thanks to our following readers: (1) to Rebecca Brittenham, Associate Professor of English, Indiana University, South Bend, for notifying us about a dead link to an external website listed in a bibliography (2) Michael Thomas for pointing put an incorrect date and to Bill Burns for correcting the incorrect date given in reference works for the illustrator Robert Dudley’s death; (3) Bryn Roberts of the British Museum for pointing us to the availability online of a fifteenth-century illuminated Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

On the twenty-ninth — that extra leap-year day —  the site had 87,390 documents and images.

January 2016

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As the new year begins, your webmaster continued to mine The Illustrated London News, adapting both individual documents, such a biography with portrait of Darwin and an obituary and portrait of the sculptor, Alexander Munro, and also sets of interlinked essays and images, such as those on the 1887 British occupation of Burma, men's and women's turn-of-the-century clothing, and new galleries of advertising. Thus far we have small collections of those for patent medicines, soap and skin care, and jewelry. In addition, the ILN proved a source for a wide variety of new materials — or comments added to materials already on the site — on individual painters and sculptors as well as on India.

Jacqueline Banerjee started the month by formatting and illustrating two new reviews, the first by Bénédicte Coste, of Muriel Pécastaing-Boissière et Marie Terrier's Annie Besant (1847-1933): La lutte et la quête [The Struggle and the Quest], and the second, by Deborah Mutch of John Callow's new edition of Keir Hardie's From Serfdom to Socialism. Many thanks to Antoine Capet and the authors of these reviews for permitting them to be reprinted here. JB then extended an earlier account of Richard Jefferies and other "Country Writers," turning it into a photo-essay, and opened a new section on H. G. Wells, with a biography focused on the Victorian years when he wrote some of his ground-breaking "scientific romances" as well as the first of his more traditional novels. This section includes discussions of The Wheels of Chance and The War of the Worlds, and also considers his reputation. With the help of more photographs from Michael Critchlow, she then added The Four Kings Altar Frontal by Thomas Wardle and the Leek Embroidery Society to the new embroidery section, and several more after that, including the beautiful Hierarchy of Angels panel. This was only part of a whole set of pictures from the same contributor, documenting G. E. Street's work on St Edmund the Confessor, Leek, with its lovely windows by G. F. Bodley (who designed the two rose windows, one shown here), John Henry Dearle and others.

By the end of January, just over six months after first joining Twitter, we have over 1,240 followers, some of whom have sent in very useful queries and comments, as well as contributions. Michael Critchlow is one of these. Another is Jamal Jafri, who spotted a discrepancy in the source material about the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta. Special thanks to Mimi Matthews, who also got in touch, and contributed a lively piece on "Penny dreadfuls, juvenile crime, and late-Victorian moral panic," which your webmaster formatted. Many Twitter replies have contained encouraging remarks about the website!

Simon Cooke contributes the essay and plates for “Fawkes to Marcus Stone: Trollope and his ‘Other’ Illustrators During his Lifetime.”

Derek Scott sent in performances of two more Victorian parlor songs —  A life on the ocean wave and A bandit’s life is the life for me.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey’s latest addition to his section on the British West Indies is “Georgian Jamaica and its public buildings.”

Naomi Lightman contributed “‘No man could owe more’ — John Ruskin’s debt to Anna Barbauld’s books for children.” We are grateful to David Morphet, another new contributor, for his interesting piece on Louis Jennings, a forgotten Victorian journalist, who became editor of the New York Times.

As of the twenty-fifth the site has 86,606 documents and images.


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ontinuing to mine the riches of the Hathi Digital Library's web versions of Illustrated London News, which Google has scanned, your webmaster added some interesting material to various areas of the site, and using ABBYY FineReader software, he produced the text from the page images in the Hathi Digital Library's web versions of this periodical. The new documents and images include artworks, such as Edward Hodges Baily’s Sir Charles Metcalfe (as well as a portrait and obituary of the sculptor) and William Behnes’s portrait medal of Robert Vernon, and additions to the history section, including “Gallant capture of a Slaver by H.M.S Rattler.” The Illustrated London News’s serio-comic article on London fogs prompted the creation of a new section on the Victorian environment, and this newspaper’s continuing interest in contemporary technology also enriched our sections on Victorian railways as we added “The Needham-Market Station on the Norwich and Ipswitch Railway,” “Railway Monopoly,” “Arrival of Cattle at the Railway Terminus, Euston-Square,” and a half dozen other images railways and articles about them, include one on a train crash in India.

Several of the articles excavated from Illustrated London News combined religious and social history, such as “The Jewish Question:” The Illustrated London News defends the right of Rothchild and other Jews to serve in Parliament and the related “Baron Rothschild taking the oaths in the House of Commons”. Others concerned Victorian fears of Roman Catholicism, such as “Papal Agression,” an article which reported various hostile responses to the Pope's re-establishing bishoprics and archbishoprics in England and the association of High Church Anglican religious services with Roman Catholicism. Your webmaster also created an eleven-part series centering on the 1850 anti-Catholic riots in Stockport. The ILN obituaries often provide valuable information that complements materials we already have, as did the one for F. D. Maurice. We have a new section entitled “London Scenes,” which thus far contains material on range of topics, including the financial crash of 1866, construction of the Embankment, which changed the face of London, and commentary about the Derby, fashionable sections of town, and Christmas pantomime.

Illustrated London News also provided images contemporary architecture, including of St. of the interior and exterior John's College Chapel, University of Cambridge, and various churches, including two by George Gilbert Scott — Camberwell Church and Christ Church, Ealing.

Philip V. Allingham shifted his attention to a different Dickens novel — Our Mutual friend — contributing scans of several dozen illustrations by James Mahoney plus providing the passages illustrated, interpretative commentaries, and comparative images by other illustrators.

At the beginning of the month, Jacqueline Banerjee enjoyed reviewing Cynthia Gamble's Wenlock Abbey, 1857-1919 and this prompted a new section on embroidery, both domestic and secular, with several new pieces included. After that she worked with Chris Bell again to expand the accounts of Landseer's lions in Trafalgar Square, and Thomas Milnes's lions in Saltaire. In this connection, she opened a new folder on the portrait-painter John Ballantyne, who famously painted Landseer at work on his lions. Milnes's postmortem sketch of Wellington was also incorporated in the account of his statue of Wellington in this section. Joe Pilling's latest and very welcome review, of Jo Manton's Sister Dora: A Life of Dorothy Pattison, then prompted a piece about her statue in Walsall (the first public statue of any woman outside the royal family).

Later in the month JB added an essay on George Meredith and Emilie Maceroni — Emilie inspired Meredith's heroine in his "Italian novels" — and several new pictures and commentaries for Meredith's gallery. Two interesting new items relating to Meredith were a study and drawing by Rossetti, who used Meredith's portrait as the head of Jesus in Mary at the Door of Simon. She next added portrait of Emily Brontë, and a discussion of Ada Lovelace, following a visit to the exhibition on Lovelace at the Science Museum, Kensington: Ada Lovelace: Pioneering Computer Programmer?

Many thanks to Joe Pilling for another thorough and informed review, this time on Angus Hawkins' hefty two-volume biography, The Forgotten Prime Minister: The 14th Earl of Derby.

Thanks to Sarah Colegreave Fine Art for permitting us to include on this site three works by Frederic Shields: Head of a Girl, Cottage Interior, and Apple Blossom. Thanks, too, to Liss Fine Art for Barmaid from the London Characters series.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “Benjamin Disraeli’s Vivian Grey as a Silver-Fork Novel With a Key.”

Derek B. Scott, our Music Editor, contributed “Music and social class in Victorian London, plus a review of E. D. Gregory’s Victorian Songhunters: The Recovery and Editing of English Vernacular Ballads and Folk Lyrics, 1820-1883,” and a performance of the parlor ballad, I’ll Sing Thee Songs of Araby.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey, who has created a section on the British West Indies within the British Empire section, contributed “Jamaica and the British Caribbean. An Introduction,” “Georgian Jamaica and its public buildings,” “The Anglican churches of eighteenth-century Jamaica,” “The Great houses Jamaica,” and “The Jamaica Coffee House in the City of London,” all of which he illustrated with his own photographs. Landow then added from The Illustrated London NewsThe Jamaica Commissioners’s report on the Jamaica insurrection condemning the conduct of Governor Eyre and his subordinates.”

Thanks to Rob Poole who shared a drawing of a railway tunnel that shows the opposite end of one depicted by Nieman Smith, and thanks to Caroline Rumsey for correcting an error made when we re-organized the Cruikshank folder.

As the year ends the site had 86,066 documents and images.


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fter ten days back home in Rhode Island, your webmaster returned to Germany to give a talk at Key Ideas and Concepts of the Digital Humanities, a conference hosted by the Technische Universität Darmstadt. The conference took place in the Georg Christoph Lichtenberg House, the former home of Prince Otto Heinrich zu Schaumburg-Lippe, who had it decorated in art nouveau tiles and woodwork.

Earlier visits to American museums provided enough material to open a new section on American sculptors working in nineteenth-century Italy that ties in nicely to Jacqueline Banerjee’s earlier essays on the Brownings in Italy and the expatriates in Italy. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts, which has an extensive collection of work by these sculptors, has in its collections Thomas Ridgeway Gould’s Cleopatra Chauncey Bradley Ives’s Pandora, Hiram Powers’s Eve Disconsolate and Faith, Randolph Rogers’s Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii, William Wetmore Storey's Sappho, Venus Anadyomene, and Medea. The MFA also has an interesting gothic revival hall stand designed by Christopher Dresser and manufacturered by Coalbrookdale Iron Works.

Looking through photo files of material from museums in Europe and the U. S., Landow created a section on “Beheading Women,” which includes two dozen photographs of paintings and engravings of Salome plus others of Judith and other women like Queen Tomyris, some who appear as heroines, others as villains. Your webmaster next reviewed Alison Matthews David’s fascinating — and disturbing —  Fashion Victims: The Dangers of Dress Past and Present. Trawling issues of the Illustrated London News in the invaluable Internet Archive produced images and information that supplemented material we already have online, including Marshall Wood’s bust of H.R.H. the Princess of Wales, Joseph Durham’s Chastity, images of sports (the Eton-Winchester cricket match and a national ladies archery contest at Alexandra Park), the demolition of the old Battersea Bridge, a progress report on the Albert Memorial with details of its construction, a portrait and obituary Sir Joseph Paxton, Alexander Munro’s Undine, John Birnie Philip’s Richard Oastler (a monument to the man who campaigned against child labor) and a nice article with four images about George Stevenson’s locomotive works in Newcastle-on-Time plus a dozen detailed Paris fashions plates and accompanying detailed descriptions, which led to creating an index pages for what people wore in the 1840s, ’50s, and ’60s. The Illustrated London News also provided information and images of architecture in South Asia: All Saints’s Church in Bhopal and the Albert Hall in Jeypore. Landow ended the month with “Columbia Market, Bethnal Green (1869), designed by H. A. Darbishire” — one of miss Burdett Coutts’s most extensive (and well conceived) charitable projects.

Philip V. Allingham has begun work on illustrations of Dickens in the Household Edition by Felix O. C. Darley, thus far completing commentaries on two dozen plates.

This month Jacqueline Banerjee has been looking at some churches. She rewrote her earlier entries on Benjamin Ferrey's Christ Church, Esher, with the welcome addition of interior pictures from contributing photographer John Salmon. Then came Holy Trinity, Llandudno in North Wales, and Richard Norman Shaw's very distinctive church in Staffordshire, All Saints, Leek. The photos here came from a new contributor, Michael Critchlow: many thanks! They included church furniture like this unusual font by William Lethaby, and a whole series of wonderful Burne-Jones and Morris windows. They included some church embroidery, which prompted opening a new section on this craft. Besides the well-known artists were two who needed introductions, so JB also made new indexes for Sir Ninian Comper, both in the architecture section and in the stained glass section; she said a little too about the stained glass firm, A. L. Moore & Son.

Other contributions that came JB's way were from Chris Bell, a member of the Milnes family, who sent in a timeline for, and a note on the birthdate of, the sculptor Thomas Milnes, accompanied by photos of his grave. These small pieces represent a great deal of research: we are grateful again that Chris shared it with us. Our regular political history reviewer, Joe Pilling, reviewed the diary of Sir Edward (Eddy) Walter Hamilton, a top civil servant with an important role in that service (for example, he organised Gladstone's funeral). He lived at Whitehall Court, the subject of one of Joseph Pennell's most evocative night scenes, so JB added that too. At the end of the month, she also wrote about S. S. Teulon's Holy Trinity Church, Northwood, in Hillingdon, which apart from anything else has a wonderful array of stained glass by Teulon himself, Burne-Jones, James Powell & Sons, Comper and others. Joe Pilling sent in another review, too, this time of Paul Brighton's fascinating Original Spin, about political "spin" operating even in Victorian times.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed a photograph and text for Edward Hodges Baily’s bust of Robert Southey and “The Battle-Field of Chillianwallah,” an 1853 article from the Illustrated London News to go with his essay on the subject. In addition, he opened up a new section on the West Indies, beginning with The Statue of Admiral Lord Rodney in Spanish Town, Jamaica that commemorates the British victory over the French fleet that preserved British colonies in the Carribbean, and “In search of the Ferry Inn, Jamaica.”

Joe Pilling reviewed Paul Brighton's Original Spin: Downing Street and the Press in Victorian Britain

Tony Schwab has contributed “The Unlikely Collaboration of Dickens and Darwin: A Closer Look at the Three Reviews.”

Thanks to James Spates for sharing “Will it last? — Ruskin's criticism of modern ephemerality” with our readers.

As of the twenty-third, the site has 85,412 documents and images.


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our webmaster’s two-week trip to Prague, Dresden, Wittenberg, and Berlin produced interesting comparative material, including a series of photographs of the Czech city’s Church of Saints Peter and Paul, a building that combines Gothic Revival architecture with Art Nouveau painted decoration, and also additional images, including night views, of St. Vitus Cathedral, which raise the question, does it embody Gothic survival or revival? Prague, which is far richer in Art Nouveau than any city in the U. K., provided examples of architectural detail, ceramic tiles, painting, and sculpture.

Philip V. Allingham has completed his series of illustrated essays on the individual plates in C. E. Brock’s illustrations of Dickens’s The Cricket on the Hearth: A Fairy Tale of Hearth and Home.

Jacqueline Banerjee returned to some photographs she took last year, and added a gallery of new pictures to Sarah Losh's St Mary's, Wreay, in Cumbria, and St George's, Jesmond, with T. R. Spence's stunning mosaic scheme, a selection of his stained glass there, Ralph Hedley's woodcarving, and George Frampton's memorials to Charles Mitchell and his son, Charles William Mitchell. Filling a gap that she found in the stained glass sequence, she added two late-Victorian panels from the Booth Museum of Natural History in Brighton, together with a piece on the quirky little museum itself. This was followed by Peter Price's Castle Arcade, Cardiff, and John Nash's Park Village East and his very first independent work, a terrace on Great Russell Street. She also reviewed a welcome new book about the sculptor Benjamin Creswick.

Many thanks to Joe Pilling again for a review of an earlier but valuable account of James Covert's A Victorian Marriage: Mandell and Louise Creighton. Also to Dr J. Ken Roberts and his friend, Dennis Eaton, who sent in more pictures and information about St Cybi's Church, Holyhead, which prompted a spate on new work on it, and especially on its stained glass windows from the Morris Co., Kempe and others, all listed in the Related Material for the church. This included a brief note on a new stained glass maker, John J. Jennings.

Simon Cooke contributed “The Aesthetics and Economics of Novelty Bindings,” which is accompanied by many beautiful photographs of Mauchline-ware binding's, which consisted of a combination of leather, wood, and photograpghic or other images, and those with the appearance of polished leather or tortoise shell created by pulped paper bound together by an industrial gum.

Andrzej Diniejko, Contributing Editor for Poland, contributed “A Quest for the Eternal Feminine Ideal in Thomas Hardy’s The Well-Beloved.”

Thanks to Sussain’s Auctions of Chicago, Illinois, for notifying us about the sale of Henry Moore’s Off St. Catherines After a Gale and permitting us to include it our section for that painter.

Thanks to Michael Haskell, a ninth grader from Hilliard, Ohio, who reported some typographical errors.

As of the eighteenth the site had 84, 789 documents and images.


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eptember saw the completion of the first phase of reconfiguring the site to make it better accessible to readers using smart phones. What remains? Reformatting the sections containing Spanish and French translations, and exchanging the old diamond-shaped homepages for authors, artists, and a few subjects for lists that will work better. (Only about a dozen remain.) We welcome on board Dr. Mark Bernstein, Chief Scientist and CEO of Eastgate Systems, who has helped with HTML and CSS in the past, as a member of the editorial board who will be in charge of designing changes to our style sheets — that is, to our basic formatting and page/screen design.

Shortly before setting out on a two-week trip to Europe, your webmaster came upon an interesting review, which prompted brief comments about “Wellington as pragmatic Tory politician” and “Wellington at Waterloo.

Philip V. Allingham has completed his series of comparative essays about both Charles Green’s illustrations of A Christmas Carol and the same artist's illustrations for Dickens's The Haunted Man. After moving from snowy and cold Ontario, PVA has returned to the balmy climate of Vancouver, leaving it briefly to give a talk in Poland. In between unpacking his books and getting a ticket for his jaunt to Krakow, he began twenty-five commentaries on the illustrations of A Christmas Carol by Charles Edmund Brock , completing the first five before his departure.

Jacqueline Banerjee reviewed Gavin Stamp's handsome new Gothic for the Steam Age: An Illustrated Biography of George Gilbert Scott, and added an account of Scott's grand funeral in Westminster Abbey to the Scott section. She also formatted and illustrated several reviews. Joe Pilling reviewed two books: the new edition of Denis Judd's Palmerston, and John Cooper's The Unexpected Story of Nathaniel Rothschild. Hugh Clout's review of William Whyte's Redbrick: A Social and Architectural History of Britain's Civic Universities, and Gilles Couderc's review of James Lyon's Charles Dickens, la musique et la vie artistique Londres l'époque victorienne, came to us from the online journal Cercles. Many thanks to all these reviewers for sharing their responses with us.

Photographer John Salmon sent in some more of his lovely photographs, this time of St Michael and All Angels, Ladbroke Grove, for which, and for the beautiful stained glass windows there, JB wrote a commentaries. Photographer Peter Loud also sent in some more great photographs, further examples of Ralph Hedley's marvellous woodcarvings in the choir of St Nicholas Cathedral, Newcastle, misericords and other curious features. After a trip to France, where she had been invited to read a paper at an international study-day on the sculptor Carlo Marochetti (in very daunting company!), JB settled down again to do some more reformatting, though only a very, very little compared to our webmaster.

Simon Cooke contributed “Henry Noel Humphreys as a Designer of Cloth Bindings.

Diane Greco Josefowicz reviewed Pauline Conolly's The Water Doctor's Daughters, and Selby Whittingham reviewed Lawrence Gowing: Selected Writings.

Mike Hickox contributed “Shakespeare, Phrenology, and Henry Wallis's A Sculptor's Workshop” — his second essay on that painting.

Many thanks to Beth Newman, Associate Professor of English, Southern Methodist University, for giving a head's up about a bad link to an external site that has disappeared.

The Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), a world association of academics and researchers, is organizing A Panel on Neo-Victorian Fiction: Excavating the Bygone in the Modern World, 3-6 January 2016, Athens, Greece.

On the twenty-first the site had 84, 573 documents and images.


Decorated initial As the month began, your webmaster continued the often dreary task of reformatting the site by completing work on several sections, including Gender Matters, Graphic Arts (Etching, Engraving, Lithography), Photography, Periodicals, and Music and Popular Entertainment.

Philip V. Allingham, who has completed most of the commentaries in the Green section, is working with GPL on adding to and improving the Phiz illustrations, beginning with a new folder for Dickens's Dombey and Son.

Jacqueline Banerjee, who has taken even more responsibility for the quality of the site, began the month modifying and improving work in the Places section. So far Derbyshire and Dorset have been spruced up. To Dorset, she added a photo-essay on Weymouth in (mainly) Victorian times, and another on the statue of Queen Victoria there. Other work this month included biographies of the artists Louisa Anne Beresford and Eleanor Vere Boyle, and some works by each, and accounts of two statues in Calcutta for people still held in much respect there, Sir Edward Hyde East and the educationist David Hare.

Many thanks to Richard Barnes for contributing the photograph of East's statue, also to to Christine Whittemore for a thoughtful comment on Mary Ward's Richard Elsemere, and to Helen Elletson, of the William Morris Society for contributing her picture of one of William Morris's Sussex chairs. Church photographer John Salmon has also sent in dozens of marvellous photographs, the first of which, documenting James Brooks's dramatic All Hallows, Gospel Oak, are now online.

Simon Cooke ended last month and began with new one by creating a new section on Edward Poynter's illustrations.

Sandra Ujpétery, a new contributor from Switzerland, contributed “A Corrective to common views of Smith's ideas of Laissez-Faire — Smith, Townsend, and the Workhouse Test Act” and revised the final paragraph in our essay on the Test Act in the section on the Poor Law. >/p>

On the 24th the site had 84,456 documents and images.


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In the first two weeks or so of this month, your webmaster continued reformatting sections of the site, finishing architecture and illustration (except for parts of Phiz that Phillip Allingham is taken in hand), and the reformatting also involves exchanging our diamond-shaped design for various sitemaps (homepages) with lists that are easier to read on smart phones. Landow renamed the originally homepage for the site oldindex.html and included a link in the new one for those readers who prefer to use the old one whose design emphasizes that all the topics in the various icons constitute the idea or work of the author or artist in the center.

John Salmon joins us a contributing photographer. Jacqueline Banerjee and he teamed up to create photo-essays on the exterior and interior of William Butterfield’s St Mary Magdalene, Enfield. This has marvellous north and south wall-paintings by Nathaniel Westlake and stained glass by Heaton, Butler and Bayne, much of it, like the beautiful east window, by Butterfield himself, but including also James Clark's memorial window based on his famous World War I painting, The Great Sacrifice. This led to a biography of Clark and the inclusion of more of his works, like the touching Blind Mary (many thanks to Hartlepool Art Gallery's Charlotte Taylor for all her help). She also wrote an essay on the Victorian's restoration work on Westminster Abbey. She has started a Twitter account for our website, too! Please follow us on it, and add some replies!

Many thanks to the Reverend Canon Stephen Evans for updating us on the whereabouts of the altar before which the Brownings took their marriage vows. It was returned to St Marylebone Parish Church in 2012, in time for the bicentenary of Robert's birth. Thanks also to photographer Peter Loud, who contributed some photographs for Jacqueline Banerjee's last project this month, on the paintings and woodcarvings of Newcastle artist Ralph Hedley. In this connection, many thanks too to the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, and the Shipley Art Gallery, Gateshead, for permission to reproduce paintings.

Simon Cooke completed “The Biblical Illustrations of Simeon Solomon.”

By the 27th almost 4000 documents and images were uploaded to the site, bringing the number of them to 84,338 as the Victorian Web grew slightly as the reformatting continues.


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June began and continued very much the way May had gone — with your webmaster reformatting, reconfiguring, and updating the HTML documents in our architecture section. By the middle of the month he had completed the folder containing Gothic revival architecture in Poland and by the 25th completed architecture.

Jacqueline Banerjee’s “The Former Lower Chapman Street School, Shadwell, by E. R. Robson and T. J. Bailey” tells the story of an East End school begun in 1874 and extended a decade later that informs both our understanding of architecture and social history. Thanks once again to John Salmon for his pictures of the mosaics by John Standen Adkins in St John the Baptist, Holland Road, to which JB added commentaries and also to Cercles for sharing Fionnuala Dillane's review of "Nancy Henry's The Life of George Eliot: A Critical Biography, which JB formatted and illustrated. The rest of the month went on selecting, writing about and arranging nearly 200 more of John Salmon's splendid photographs, which included one set taken in St Edward the Confessor's Church, Romford, with its beautiful stained glass windows like Lavers & Barraud's Christ's Ministry; and another set taken in St Mary the Virgin, Great Warley, which contains a virtuoso Arts and Crafts interior by William Reynolds-Stephens. This prompted her to write an essay on Arts and Crafts or Art Nouveau? W. Reynolds-Stephens and the Interior of St Mary the Virgin, Great Warley. Many thanks again to John Salmon for his major part in these collaborative projects.

Simon Cooke continues his work on Simeon Solomon, scanning more than a dozen of his illustrations of the Old Testament to which has added commentaries.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey's contributions this month include Edward Richardson’s Memorial for Sir Robert Dick containing a biography of its subject and William Salter’s portrait of Dick. He also continues his work on the buildings of British India with Col. J. L. Caldwell and Captain De Havilland’s Madras Cathedral and “An exhalation from the earth” — his photo essay on Watson’s Hotel in Bombay. His work also includes Sir Francis Chantrey's monument to Bishop Heber in St. Georges Cathedral.

Ivo de Galan, a first-time contributor, shared with us an image of the manuscript of George Whyte-Melville's “A Child in the nursery crying” — a rare Crimean War poem — and an introduction to it. Later in the month he contributed images of two drawings in his collection, Sir Hubert von Herkomer’s charcoal portrait, Edwin Lord Weeks and Sir John Everett Millais’s Cows in a Field, a study for Millais's frontispiece to Trollope’s Orley Farm. Another new contributor, Tony Schwab, has sent us “A Bad Trip: The Trouble with Martin Chuzzlewit,” which contains a particularly interesting discussion of the way critics have distorted the character of Mark Tapley, because he is too good for their tastes.

Thanks to Arn Dekker for correcting the transcription of a name on one of Bowcher's medals.

By the twenty-ninth the site had 84,144 documents and images. As we winnow unneeded thumbnail images, we have uploaded 2781 documents — almost all re-formatted html with a view older images whose perspective distortions required fixing — but the site has only grown by a few documents in the past month!


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s the month began, your webmaster worked with the owner of a large sculpture collection, who wishes to remain anonymous, adding a considerable number of works to the site. After sizing the images, adjusting their colors, and creating the htmls, Landow put the following works of sculpture online: M. Berry’s Mary Harvey Hart, two bas reliefs by Benjamin Creswick (In the Chapel and Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree), Richard Garbe’s porcelain bas-relief, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth William Goscombe John’s maquette for The Guardian Angel, Hamo Thornycroft’s Winged Assyrian Sphinx, Sydney March’s three works assocated with the Boer War (Lord Kitchener , Robert Baden-Powell and Lord Roberts), A. Bertram Pegram's Father Time.

The new medals from the same collection added to the site include the Art Union commemorative platter containing nine medals by the Wyons and other artists, Charles John Allen’s Kanthack medal, Gilbert Bayes’s Cobbett Medal for the Worshipful Company of Musicians, Frank Bowcher’s Centenary of the Linnaean Society, Darwin and Wallace Medal, Homage of the Empire Medal Franco-British Exhibition medal, Aimé-Jules Dalou’s Journée remplie, Ernest George Gillick's Royal Academy of Arts School medal, Edward Carter Preston’s George V Jubilee Medal 1910-1935, Louis Frederick Roselieb's Canterbury Camera Club medal, Paisley Philosophical Institution medal, and The Southend-on-Sea Photographic Society medal.

Working with Philip V. Allingham, Landow created a section for C. E. Brock with 30 illustrations of Dickens's Christmas Books: Our contributing editor from Canada provided scans of the plates and information about them and Landow then resized them, adjusted color and contrast, created a final version of an index for Brock. As time permits, Allingham will add his usual documents containing the text illustrated, detailed commentaries, and comparisons with work by other illustrators of the same works. On the 12th he completed the first if them, Brock's frontispiece for A Christmas CarolHe had been Tim's blood horse all the way from church. More to come!

Allingham, who is about to become an emeritus member of the faculty at Lakeland University, leave Ontario, and return to Vancouver, has not slowed the rate of his contributions even while packing books and moving house! Over the past three weeks he has also contributed 100 image scans of Charles Green's wonderful illustrations of works by Dickens. Thus far he has also completed almost all the commentaries and sets of comparative images for the 31 plates in The Chimes.

Jacqueline Banrejee created a new section on John Raphael Roderigues Brandon, which includes four buildings and an extensive biographical introduction. She also added Sir John Belcher’s Colchester Town Hall and Victoria Tower, Essex (1897), which replaced Brandon and Blore’s 1845 structure. Turning to photography, she created a long overdue section on Lewis Carroll, which includes a dozen photographs and her incisive commentaries. She also formatted and added illustrations to Joe Pilling's review of Edward Wakeling's Lewis Carroll: The Man and His Circle. and Ingrid Hanson's review of Wilkie Collins: A Life of Sensation, the latter kindly shared with us by the online jpurnal, Cercles.

Then began a collaboration with a very welcome new contributor, John Salmon, who sent in splendid photographs of James Brooks's church, St John the Baptist, Holland Road, Kensington, and George Gilbert Scott's St Mary's (New) Church, Stoke Newington. These involved adding commentaries and writing a short biography of James Brooks, as well as biographies of the sculptors J. E. Taylerson and Richard Westmacott, Jr. , and an account of the stained glass firm, Percy Bacon Brothers, in order to introduce the lovely samples of their work found in these churches.

Simon Cooke continued his Millais project by contributing almost 40 image scans of his illustrations for Trollope's Orley Farm with accompanying commentaries plus a multi-part essay, “Godfrey Sykes and the front cover of The Cornhill Magazine” and “Tennyson on Book Illustration.”

Derek B. Scott contributed another performance of a Victorian parlour song — Alice, Where Art Thou? (1861), lyrics by Weillinton Guernsey (1817–1885), music by Joseph Ascher (1829–1869).

Diane Greco Josefowicz transcribed, edited, and linked “The Fossil-Finder of Lyme-Regis,” an article from the 1857 Chamber's Journal.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey has written another of his photo-essays that recovers a significant element of almost-forgotten colonial and military history, this one with a religious importance as well — “The Afghan Church in Mumbai and the Guild of the Holy Standard.

Robert Freidus contributed photographs of both the interior and exterior of Lewis Cubitt's King's Cross Station, London (1852).

Susan Guralnik, M.A. reviewed Seth Koven's The Match Girl and the Heiress.

Thanks to Renee Benham for correcting a date.

On the 25th the site had 84,207 documents and images as reformatting and winnowing documents continues amid a flood of excellent contributions.

April 2015

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pril began with your webmaster working 8-9 hours a day converting the footer icons to the new format. Thus far the sections on genre, history, religion, and sculpture have seen completion as well as about half the authors discussed on the site. On the seventh Landow traveled to London were he met with half a dozen contributors and visited several important exhibitions, including the Tate version of the sculpture show that began in New Haven, for which he wrote ““The Elephant in the Room”: Sculpture Victorious comes to Tate Britain.” Next came “The Delights of Neo-Decadence — a Review of ‘Savage Beauty’ at the Victoria & Albert Museum.”

He also photographed the outsides of two important Anglo-Catholic (or High Church) churches — St. Barnabas Pimlico and the nearby sister-church St. Mary the Virgin (also known as St. Mary's Bourne Street). Returning on a Saturday morning when Mr. John Boshier, the friendly and informative guide at St. Barnabas, opened it to visitors, Landow created a series on the church's interior, including its mosaics and stained glass.

Philip V. Allingham has added Charles Green’s illustrations of Dickens’s The Chimes and begun to enlarge the section on Charles Pears as well.

Jaqueline Banerjee has added photo essays on William Morris's Kelmscott House in Hammersmith and his Albion Printing Press, and the interior of Winchester Cathedral and George Gilbert Scott's Choir Screen there. She has also formatted and illustrated some fine new reviews, the first two shared with the journal Cercles: Timothy Brittain-Catlin's review of Oliver Bradbury's Sir John Soane's Influence on Architecture from 1791: A Continuing Legacy, Jules Gehrke's review of Michele M. Strong's Education, Travel and the "Civilisation" of the Victorian Working Classes, and Joe Pilling's review of Daisy Hay's Mr and Mrs Disraeli, A Strange Romance. She then wrote a short biography of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, the influential botanist and adventurous plant-collector, because Dr Jim Endersby of Sussex University kindly let us take some excerpts from his books on the history of science, three of which (listed at the end of Hooker's biography) are on Hooker. Another was on the eugenicist Sir Francis Galton, entitled here "Sir Francis Galton and the 'Average Man'" — a specimen for whom Galton had little time. At the end of the month she formatted and illustrated another fascinating review from Cercles, on Harry Furniss's political caricatures and magic lantern shows, for which she also supplied some examples, including Furniss's famous depictions of a high-collared Gladstone.

Simon Cooke contributed several essays on Millais as illustrator, including “John Everett Millais as an Illustrator — Significant Gesture, Expressive Line, and Emblematic Detail,” “Millais’s Illustrations for Trollope,” and “John Everett Millais as an Illustrator and Interpreter of Trollope.”

Andrzej Diniejko continued his Hardy project with “Castles, cameras, and telegraphy — ancient and modern in Thomas Hardy's A Laodicean.”

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “Mary Anning (1799-1847), fossilist” and “Sir Henry Thomas de la Beche (1796-1855), geologist, paleontologist” to the new, reorganized geology section as well as adding her transcribed and edited web-version of “Mary Anning, The Fossil Finder (” an article that appeared in Dickens's All the Year Round.

Tom Ward kindly shared the introduction and discussion of indexing The Girl's Own Paper from his website.

Thanks to Melissa Shields Jenkins, Assistant Professor of English at Wake Forest University, for pointing to an error in the book review section.

Continuing to prune the site of unneeded thumbnails and footer icons, it still grows, though more slowly, and now has 83,561 documents and images as of the twenty-seventh.

March 2015

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or the first week of March, your webmaster found himself occupied with — no, consumed by — a major project: creating a web version of Charlotte Gere's Victorian Jewelry, a particular challenge because so much relevant visual material in modern museums and Victorian publications has recently become available and deserves to be linked to this important text. By the 14th this valuable resource that links to everything on the site from railways (gold earrings were made of miniature locomotives!) to Egptomania saw completion.

Offers to reconfigure the Victorian Web (for a substantial fee) pour in several times a week, but when Chris Reynolds wrote from the UK with suggestions that we should modify our formatting easier to read on iPhones and other smart phones and tablets, he offered some important suggestions, one of which we have begun to implement — replacing our image-based icons with text-based navigation tiles, two of which you'll find at the bottom of this page. This approach, which obviates the need to create an image for each icon, has the further advantages of allowing us to provide them for authors, artists, and topics that have too few associated documents to warrant creating the oler images while also avoiding annoying variations in color and tone of the image-based footer icons. One problem we haven't solved yet: getting your webmaster's beloved Oxford font to work on our servers. Take a look at one group of documents for which this time-consuming conversion has been completed.

Continuing his enormous Dickens illustrators project, Philip Allingham has competed the section containing eighty of Kyd’s character portraits and added the following illustrated essays on Harry Furniss's illustrations of Oliver Twist: Nancy in hysterics, Rose and Nancy, and Fagin and Noah understand each other.

Jacqueline Banerjee has created a new section on Julia Margaret Cameron thus far containing a biography, bibliography, and eight of her photographs. This was followed by a set of Daniel Maclise's illustrations for Cameron's translation of the popular ballad Leonora, and then by work on the artist, etcher and illustrator William Strang — a biography, four paintings (including her favourite, The Love Letter), ten etchings (including a particularly characterful self-portrait) and two of his popular pencil and chalk portraits. Then she returned to India again with Baron Carlo Marochetti's Angel at the Cawnpore Memorial, some of the material for which came from Caroline Hedengren-Dillon (many thanks, again!), and Walter Granville's Cawnpore Memorial Church. Along the way, she also wrote about Marochetti's Crimean War Memorial for Scutari. At the end of the month she sent in two more paintings by Richard Dadd, with commentaries: Mercy: David Spareth Saul's Life and Contradiction: Oberon and Titania.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed another of his essays about the British in South Asia — “A melancholy monument to the ravages of disease in British India” — plus photographs of William Brodie’s 93rd Highlanders Indian Mutiny Memorial in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, and William Birnie Rhind’s Black Watch War Memorial

John Sankey reviewed Public Sculpture of Sussex by Jill and Peter Seddon and Anthony McIntosh. Laurent Bury reviewed Béatrice Laurent’s Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain Cultural, Literary and Artistic Explorations of a Myth.

Gerald Roberts, author of Gerard Manley Hopkins, a Literary Life (Macmillan, 1994), has contributed “Victorian Exiles: Gerard Manley Hopkins and Robert Louis Stevenson.”

Jim Spates has kindly shared Some thoughts on Mike Leigh's Mr. Turner from his blog, Why Ruskin

Joe Leggiero sent in an example of stained glass from the worksop of Heaton, Butler and Bayne.

On March 30th, the site had 83,390 documents and images — a net loss of 14 of them since dozens of unneeded thumbnail images and footer icons have been discarded as we convert to text-based navigation tiles.

February 2015

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rawing upon the collection of the Guildhall Art Gallery, which has encouraged us to places works from their collection on this site, and the Internet Archive, your webmaster created a new section on the paintings of John Gilbert, R.A. and added commentaries to various paintings in the Guildhall collection, including three works by James Clarke Hook, W. J. Baker’s The Pool of London, John William Godward’s The Betrothed, Henry Holiday’s The Burgesses of Calais, Frederic Lord Leighton’s The Music Lesson, John Liston Byam Shaw’s The Blessed Damozel, Daniel Maclise’s Banquet Scene in Shakespeare's 'Macbeth', Henry Pether’s The Custom House and Pool of London by Moonlight and Gun Wharf, Tower of London, Joseph Severn’s Isabella and the Pot of Basil, Clarkson Stanfield’s The 'Victory' Towed into Gibraltar and Oxwich Bay, and Marcus Stone’s Married for Love.

Philip V. Allingham opened the month with a biography of George Cruikshank and an essay on “Cinematic Adaptations of ​A Christmas Carol, 1908-2009,” after which he added Frederic W. Pailthorpe’s twenty-one colored illustrations of Dickens's Oliver Twist. Continuing his work on Kyd, he added several dozen more character portraits from Dickens. Finally, he and GPL wrote “‘Well, Oliver, how do you like it?’: Dickens, Funerals, and Undertakers.

Before her trip to India in February, Jacqueline Banerjee wrote commentaries on Rossetti's La Ghirlandata; Albert Goodwin's The Toiler's Return, Sir John Gilbert's A Girl with Fruit, two works by John Everett Millais (My First Sermon and My Second Sermon) and John Whitehead Walton's The First London School Board, a painting that records momentous developments in social history. Then she reviewed the splendid new rehang at the Guildhall Art Gallery, where these and many more paintings are currently displayed.

After her return she contributed her photo essays, “Humayun’s Tomb and the Victorians,” “The Red Fort, Delhi: Walls and Gateways,” “British Army Barracks and Offices at the Red Fort, Delhi,” and a much amplified revision of “‘The Epic of the Race’: The Indian Uprisings of 1857” plus commentaries on Luke Fildes's Naomi and Millais’s My First Sermon and My Second Sermon.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “Under the Greenwood Tree: Thomas Hardy's Early Masterpiece” and “Subversion and Self-reflexivity in Thomas Hardy's The Hand of Ethelberta.”

Simon Cooke has created a section for the illustrator Paul Gray, which thus far includes a biographical introduction and eight examples of Gray’s work.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey brings us another essay from British India in Victorian days — “The high hopes and sad demise of the Indus Flotilla.”

Joe Leggiero shared a photograph of his stained glass Head of a Prophet supposedly created by Heaton, Butler and Bayne. Please contact the webmaster if you have any information on this piece.

The first international conference on "George Meredith and his Circle: International Communities and Literary Networks" is being hosted at Bishop Grosseteste University in Lincoln, UK, on 24-25 July, and organisers Dr Claudia Capancioni and Dr Alice Crossley have put out a call for papers. The keynote speaker will be the eminent Victorianist Professor Sally Shuttleworth of the University of Oxford, and there will be a chance to visit the archives of the Tennyson Research Centre in Lincoln. Anyone interested in attending should contact

On the twenty-third the site had 83,053 documents and images.

January 2015

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ontinuing to review exhibitions about Victorian death and mourning, your webmaster visited one entitled The Art of Mourning at a tiny museum in Brooklyn, New York, that bears an unusual and not entirely accurate name — the Museum of Morbid Anatomy. Next in line something more cheerful: the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Treasures from India: Jewels from the Al-Thani Collection. Snowed in with temperatures outside occasionally dropping to -3 Fharenheit (19.4 Celsius), GPL wrote “Risky Business,” a review of Aeron Hunt’s Personal Business: Character and Commerce in Victorian Literature and Culture. Once again mining the Magazine of Art, your webmaster found there materials to begin a section for a painter new to the site — E. J. Gregory. The 1884-85 Magazine of Art also provided images of individual works by artists for whom we already have sections, such as William Blake Richmond and William Lionel Wyllie, as well as artists new to the site, including Walter Langley, E. Blair Leighton, Seymour Lucas, James B. Linton, and J. R. Reid plus a new sculptor — Elinor Hallé, a pupil of Legros.

Philip V. Allingham added fifty characters from Dickens's novels that appeared on John Players cigaret cards by Joseph Clayton Clarke, who signed his work with his pseudonym “Kyd.” Next, he opened a section on a new illustrator, Maurice Greiffenhagen.

Jacqueline Banerjee started the new year by expanding her recent English Studies review of Marianne Thormählen’s The Brontës in Context for us, and then reviewing Neil Hultgren’s Imperialistic Melodramatic Writing: From the Sepoy Rebellion to Cecil Rhodes. She also expanded the first half of a double review she did for the TLS on Jeffrey Richards' The Golden Age of Pantomime, and part of an article for English Studies under the new title, "'True Visions' or 'Deluding Lies': Tensions in Walter Besant's The Ivory Gate." Her next contribution was a piece on Augustin Dumont's sculpture of the "Spirit of Freedom" in Paris inspired by recent events there.

Much of her time this month has been spent arranging, formatting and illustrating some valuable new contributions. Many thanks to Michael Blaker, R.E., who sent in two articles on Joseph Pennell: "The Opinionated Joseph Pennell" and "The Revival of the Artist-Etcher in the Victorian Era." Thanks also to Antoine Capet, reviews editor of Cercles for getting permission for us to reprint and illustrate Ellen Moody's review of Nora Gilbert's Left Unsaid: Victorian Novels, Hays Code Films, and the Benefits of Censorship, and Laurent Bury's review of The Ghost Behind the Masks: The Victorian Poets and Shakespeare. Another very welcome new contributor, Pradip Das, has sent in some chapters from his book on the Irish architect Henry Irwin who designed many buildings in India, prompting a revision of Irwin's index. The first part (adapted from Chapter 3 of the book) of Das's reconsideration of the Indo-Saracenic Movement sees him as "An Irish Engineer in Search of a Style." Two more chapters followed, on the Viceregal Lodge at Simla, and Irwin's work in Madras.

Nearer home, many thanks to Joe Pilling for a review of Andrew Roberts' Salisbury, Victorian Titan, putting the focus for a change on Queen Victoria's longest-serving Prime Minister. Then, at the very end of the month, JB was invited to the Guildhall Art Gallery's fabulous new rehang of its Victorian paintings. Very many thanks to Julia Dudkiewicz, Principal Curator for the rehang, and Sonia Solicari, returning Principal Curator, for taking me round and talking so knowledgeably about the paintings, and for giving the Victorian Web permission to put the collection up on our website — a formidable task. Examples so far are George Dunlop Leslie's light-filled Sun and Moon Flowers; A. E. Mulready's poignant Remembering Joys that Have Passed Away; and Thomas Faed's equally moving Forgiven.

Simon Cooke has written a series of essays on Thackeray as illustrator, which include “William Makepeace Thackeray and Book Illustration,” “Style and Purpose,” “Thackeray's Christmas Books,” “Thackeray’s Illustrations for Vanity Fair ,” Thackeray’s Illustrations for Vanity Fair ,” Vanity Fair: the full-page engravings,” Vanity Fair: the ‘small cuts’,” Vanity Fair: the the Initial Letters,” and Putting the Jigsaw Together.”

Moving from South Asia to Africa for his subjects, Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed “Two neglected Boer War memorials and the uncertainties of history,” which includes a Johannesburg monument by Sir Edwin Lutyens.

Many thanks to Paul Crowther, Professor and Chair in Philosophy, National University of Ireland Galway, the National Gallery of Slovenia, and the Moore Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, for permitting us to put up the entire catalogue of the Awakening Beauty exhibition, which includes more than one hundred works by Victorian painters. Thanks, too, to Dr. Katherine Miller Webber for creating the web version.

New Victorian Web Reviews: Kelsey L. Bennet has some good comments on the new edition of Juli Wosk's Breaking Frame: Technology, Art, and Design in the Nineteenth Century, and Ellen Moody has strong words about Nora Gilbert's Better Left Unsaid: Victorian Novels, Hays Code Films, and the Benefits of Censorship.

As of the nineteenth the site had 82,537 documents and images.

December 2014

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he last month of the year began with your webmaster creating a web version of Richard Redgrave and Samuel Redgrave’s chapter on the Pre-Raphaelites. After meeting with the Director of the Brown University Libraries and the head of its digital scholarship group, he learned that only a single one of their projects relates to Victorian matters, but the enormous Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection includes, among many other things, hundreds of nineteenth-century images. Drawing upon this treasure trove of images, he began a sections in visual arts on the army in British India and the Boer War as well as adding to older material on the Crimean War. Turning to the Internet Archive again, GPL found the watercolors of the Boer War by Mortimer Menpes — an artist best known for his association with Whistler and the revival of etching and engraving —  and from these he chose 47 to add to the site as well as the artist’s reminiscences people he encounted in Southern Africa, including Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Conan Doyle, Winston Churchill, and Lord Roberts, the Commander-in-Chief. (Thanks to both Jacqueline Banerjee and Tim Willasey-Wilsey for assistance deciphering text on some of the thirty-five watercolors and lithographs added to the site.

Landow also contributed two reviews, the first of a book, the second of an exhibition at the Metropolitan of Art in New York: first, “Radical skeptic, true believer,” a review of Larence Poston’s The Antagonist Principle: John Henry Newman and the Paradox of Personality, and second, “Death Becomes Her: A Century of Mourning Attire.”

The recent commemorations of well-remembered World War I demand that we also look back to the all-but-forgotten Boer War, which prepared for aspects of 1914 much as the Spanish Civil War did World War II. As a proof-of-concept project intended to show how the Victorian Web adds value to material available online, your webmaster has created an amplified, enriched web-version of Arthur Conan Doyle's a detailed history of the causes, events, and consequences of the South African conflict. Readers will encounter his text illustrated by (1) the watercolors of Mortimer Menpes, an artist usually remembered for his work in the Whistler circle, (2) British and German images of battles, and (3) many photographs of Boer leaders, army units, civilian life, and troops in action. Taken together, this Boer War project offers contrasting views of the events, though both sides agree about the gallantry of those they fought.

Philip V. Allingham continued his Dickens illustrators project, adding image scans, texts of passages illustrated, critical commentary, and images for comparison with other artists for twenty examples of James Mahoney’s visualizations of Oliver Twist, to which he added comparative works by Harry Furness, Sol Eytinge, and George Cruikshank.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed “George Meredith: An Introduction,” after which she turned to things Parisian beginning with a lovely photo-essay on La Sainte-Chapelle, Paris and a new section on the great French Gothic revivalist, Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, which includes his restoration of The Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris. These pieces led to a brief study of Pugin's "French Connection", and an introduction to the architect Benjamin Ferrey, who accompanied the Pugins on their drawing tours to France. Ferrey's additions to St Nicholas' Church in Thames Ditton, Surrey, his vicarage there (though partly hidden by foliage) and St Paul's Cathedral on the island of St Helena, followed, as well as the series of Nathaniel Westlake's stained glass windows in St Nicholas, starting with The Three Maries at the Sepulchre. She also reviewed the exhibition of the Peréz Simón Collection at Leighton House Museum, which was entitled "A Victorian Obsession," and wrote a short piece on The Old Swan Inn at Thames Ditton.

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “Dark Margins: A Review of Lillian Craton's The Victorian Freak Show: The Significance of Disability and Physical Differences in 19th-Century Fiction.

Simon Cooke continues his survey of book design in the Victorian years with “Announcing the Laughter: Cloth Bindings Designed by Comic Illustrators,” to which he added his own photographs of book cover designs by Phiz, Charles Altamont Doyle, Ernest Griset, and George Cruikshank

Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed four essays about Indian subjects illustrated with his own photographs: “The enigmatic Warren Hastings and his Calcutta properties,” “The relentless decline of Robert Clive’s house at Dum Dum,” “Blind Terror: The 1857 Rebellion in Pakistan,” and “The Asiatic Society of Bengal.” Then moving from South Asia to Africa, he wrote “Edmund Gabriel and the suppression of the Angolan slave trade.”

Antoine Capet contributed “A Visit to Red House: "The birthplace of the Arts & Crafts Movement".” Oliver Buckton, Professor of English at Florida Atlantic University, reviewed Peter Adam Nash’s The Life and Times of Moses Jacob Ezekiel: American Sculptor, Arcadian Knight. Liselot Quisquater contributed a brief note on the the illustrator “JM.”

On the twenty-ninth the site had 81,879 documents and images.

November 2014

Illuminated initial November began with your webmaster's “Yet another Romance of the Archive: a review of Nigel Daly's The Lost Pre-Raphaelite: The Secret Life and Loves of Robert Bateman.” Landow then came across the Atlantic to give a brief talk at Google London, and since he was already there he attended five major exhibitions — those on Constable at the V&A, Moroni at the Royal Academy, Morris at the National Portrait Gallery, Rembrandt at the National Gallery, and Turner at Tate Britain). Upon his return he reviewed Kelsey L. Bennett’s Principle and Propensity: Experience and Religion in the Nineteenth-Century British and American Bildungsroman (2014).

Mining the Internet Archive’s web versions of The Magazine of Art continued to enrich our sections on the arts. New additions include a number of illustrated essays, including two by M. H. Spielman — “The Revival of Lithography. Its Rise and First Decline” and “Original Lithography. The Present Revival in England” — plus Gleeson White's “At the Sign of the Dial: Mr. Ricketts as a Book-Builder.” Conrad Dressler’s Crucifixion, Luke Fildes's Self-portrait, Edward Onslow Ford’s Dr. Dale, William Powell Frith's essay, “‘Realism’ versus ‘Sloppiness’” and his 1876 Self-portrait, and one by Mortimer Menpes, J. M. Swan’s Leopard playing with [a] tortoise, and Hamo Thornycroft’s Monument to the Hon. William Owen Stanley, and numerous works by Franz von Stuck and a portrait of him.

Jackie Banerjee wrote photo-essays about the interior and exterior of St Bartholomew's, Brighton and formatted, linked, and illustrated Antoine Capet's review of a Darwin Exhibition at the Natural History Museum, and also his review of the new William Morris exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery. She also reviewed the new paperback reissue of John Holmes's Darwin's Bards: British and American Poetry in the Age of Evolution. After that came accounts of three more stained glass windows in St James', Weybridge: Lavers and Barraud's Annunciation window, Nathaniel Westlake's Visitation window and the firm of Heaton, Butler and Bayne's lovely Palm Sunday window. On quite a different tack, she looked at St Mary's Lighthouse, Whitley Bay. She also wrote a short piece about St Cybi's Church, Holyhead, N. Wales, restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott, and reviewed Katherine Wheeler's Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “Charles Bradlaugh: A Victorian Apostle of Freethought and Atheism” to which Jackie Banerjee added a portrait and GPL three essays against theism and Christianity.

Simon Cooke continued his series of essays on Victorian book designers with an essay on Albert Warren accompanied by more than a dozen photographs and descriptions of book covers warren designed.

Antoine Capet contributed an essay on Emery Walker, the pioneering designer of fonts and a close associate of William Morris.

Joe Pilling contributed another fine book review, this time on A. N. Wilson's new life of Queen Victoria.

Stephen Sangirardi sent in “The Mariners Answer Ulysses,’ a dramatic monologue that responds to the speaker in Tennyson's famous poem.

Thanks to Andrew Marienberg for pointing out a repeated paragraph in one of the scanned texts of the Bridgewater Treatises.

The site had 80,733 documents and images on the seventeenth.

October 2014

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ctober began with your webmaster adding material on the four “Lighthouse Stevensons” — Robert Stevenson and his sons Alan, David, and Thomas — and Thomas's famous son, Robert Louis Stevenson, which led, among other things, to photographs and paintings of the writer, his family, and homes in different parts of the world, including the watercolors of W. Brown Macdougall. Once again mining the rich ore in the Internet Archive produced images and information about various works of art, including Thomas Jackson's Grand Piano, four new paintings by Frank Dicksee, Frank Holl's Leaving Home, Paul Falconer Poole's Going out for the Night, Sir Edward Poynter's When the World Was Young and Diadumene, Solomon J. Solomon's A Reverie (and Arthur Garratt's chalk drawing of him painting at the Royal Exchange), and J. W. Waterhouse's The Oracle. GPL also added G. A. Storey's 1897 illustrated essay on Philip Hermogenes Calderon and a series of painted and sculpted portraits: Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm's bust, Benjamin Disraeli, John Jackson's Portrait of Sir David Wilkie, a photograph of J. D. Harding, and George Frampton's Leigh Hunt Memorial. In addition, the Internet Archive provided late Victorian photographs of the interior of Buckingham Palace, cartoons for Sir William Blake Richmond's mosaics in St. Paul's Cathedral, drawings of museums in Birmingham and Reading, a detail of Indian architecture.

GPL transcribed three essays about individual artists from issues of The Magazine of Art: “Our Rising Artists: Mr. W. Reynolds-Stephens,” “Philip Hermogenes Calderon, R.A.,” and Cosmo Monkhouse's “The Watts Exhibiton,” adding ten of the artist's works, and also reviewed an exhibition —  Making Pottery Art: The Robert A. Ellison Jr Collection of French Ceramics (c. 1880-1910) at Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York — and several books, including John Paul M. Kanwit's Victorian Art Criticism and the Woman Writer and James Hamilton’s A Strange Business: Making Art and Money in Nineteenth-Century Great Britain.

A visit to Switzerland in September produced Jacqueline Banerjee's two-part photo-essay on Sir Leslie Stephen as a mountaineer, and a biography of him and and several photo-essays relating to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: “The Reichenbach Falls near Meiringen, Switzerland” (where the battle-to-the-death of Holmes and Moriarty takes place), “Author and "Sportesmann": Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in Switzerland” (which tells in passing that Doyle introduced skiing to Switzerland), and “The English Church, Meiringen.”

After that came some more work on Sir Thomas Telford's Menai Bridge in N. Wales, and Robert Stephenson's Britannia Bridge over the Menai, nearby — two of the age's great engineering feats. The latter was guarded by sculptor John Thomas's four monumental Egyptian-style lions. Then off again to India, with an essay on the history of Delhi's oldest church, St James', with its memories of an older Imperial India and the Sepoy Rebellion, and the bizarre case of the East India Company's Delhi agent, Sir Thomas Metcalfe, who turned an early seventeenth-century tomb into his country house — "Dilkusha" (or Heart's Delight).

Andrzej Diniejko's biography of Annie Besant traces the fascinating arcs of this important woman's life — her movement through evangelical and tractarian belief to freethinking, atheism, and theosophy on the one hand, and through social activitism, campaigns for women's rights and birth control, to socialism, and freemasonary, and Indian independence on the other.

Simon Cooke contributed “William Makepeace Thackeray and Book Illustration,” “Thackeray and Book Illustration: Style and Purpose,” and “Illustration and Irony — Thackeray's Christmas Books plus a dozen of his illustrations.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey, a former Director of the British Foreign Service, joins us this month as our Assistant Editor for Military and Colonial History. He contributed “The Place of Slaughter. Umbeyla 1863” and “In Search of Gopal Drooge and the Murder of Captain William Richardson.

Jay Rosenthal formatted Mia Chen's review of Ross G. Forman's China and the Victorian Imagination: Empires Entwined from Review19.Natalie Saudo-Welby's review of Laura Rotunno's Postal Plots in British Fiction, 1840-1898: Readdressing Correspondence in Victorian Culture appears this month by kind permission of the Cercles reviews editor, Antoine Capet. Patrick O'Sullivan, Visiting Scholar, New York University, has shared two reviews of books concerning the Irish Famine: Christopher Morash's Writing the Irish Famine and The Hungry Stream: Essays on Emigration and Famine edited by E. Margaret Crawford.

Antoine Capet, FRHists, Professor Emeritus of British Studies at the University of Rouen has reviewed Rosalind Blakesley's The Arts and Crafts Movement and Elizabeth Cumming's: Hand, Heart and Soul: The Arts and Crafts Movement in Scotland.

Thanks to “SilverTiger” for pointing out with remarkable graciousness a twice-repeated paragraph in the essay on Waterhouse's Lloyds Bank. Thanks, too, to Greg Bird for pointing out a typo.

As of the twenty-seventh the site has 80,276 documents and images.

September 2014

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s the month began, your webmaster added materials from the British Museum, including two sets of tiles by J. P. Seddon — a set of nine forming a quatrefoil and another of four forming a stylized fleurs-de-lys and an ivory medallion portrait of Admiral Thomas Maitland, 11th Earl of Lauderdale (1803-1878) by Benjamin Cheverton, who invented a reducing machine for copying marble portrait busts on small scale. He also added “The 2014 Discovery of one of the ships from the Franklin expedition.” GPL reviewed Sculpture Victorious: Art in the Age of Invention, 1837-1901, the exhibition of sculpture that opened at the Yale Center for British Art on the 12th and next year will be at the Tate Gallery in London.

Next, created Victorian Web versions of the 100 chapters of Trollope's The Way We Live Now and its 40 illustrations. The plan is to integrate it with VW commentaries on specific passages the novel and James Kincaid's book on Trollope.

Philip Allingham has recently edited a special issue of The Dickens Magazine that contains sixteen essays, three by him and one by Jackie Banerjee. He also continued working on his Oliver Twist illustrations project, part of which included adding his scans of 28 plates by James Mahoney and a similar number by Harry Furniss.

Jacqueline Banerjee, having completed her series of photo essays on the architecture of Strawberry Hill, began work on the building's stained glass, creating seven essays containing three dozen photographs. Next, she provided essays on George Stephenson's Kilsby Tunnel, his life and birthplace at Wylam, Northumberland, and probably the oldest surviving train station in the world -- at Wylam. Another wonderful old Victorian station came next, Tynemouth, also in Northumberland, and two bridges: more work on Baron Armstrong's Swing Bridge on the Tyne, and a new piece on Robert Stevenson's High Level Bridge there, both great engineering feats for their times, and part of the sensational vista of central Tyne crossings at Newcastle.

Simon Cooke added a new artist to our illustration section, contributing “Mary Ellen Edwards and Illustration of the 1860s,” “Mary Ellen Edwards as an Illustrator of Fiction,” “Mary Ellen Edwards— Her Style and Influence” plus examples of her illustrations to which GPL added six illustrations of William Gilbert's Ruth Thornbury; or the Old Maid's Story.

Katherine Miller Weber completed her web version of Robert Hewison's John Ruskin: The Argument of the Eye, and GPL added the book's fifty plates. Weber next formatted the first three chapters of James Kincaid’s The Novels of Anthony Trollope, which the Clarendon Press published in 1977.

Tim Willasey-Wilsey, Senior Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Defence Studies, Kings College, London, contributed “The Memorial to the Queen’s Own Corps of Guides at Mardan, Pakistan,” “The “Sanguinary” Battle of Chillianwala and the “Lost Graves” of the 24th Foot,” and “Of Intelligence, an Assassination, East Indiamen and the Great Hurricane of 1808,” after which he sent in “Ten Churches of British India,” illustrated by his own photographs, and “Sudden Death in a Burmese Paradise.”

Patrick DePaolo contributed “Sir William Watson Cheyne (1852-1932): Bacteriologist and Surgeon.” Susan Guralnik reviewed Joy Spanabel Emery's A History of the Paper Pattern Industry: The home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution.

Mia Ridge, doctoral student in digital humanities at the Open University, sent along new information about Margaret Giles's Boy on a Tortoise. Thanks to Simon Montgomery for correcting the names of the painter and engraver of a portrait of Sir Walter Scott, and thanks to Casey Ward for spotting a spelling error. Graham Dry writes from Munich to correct information about a Leighton binding.

On the twenty-ninth the site had 79,794 documents and images.

August 2014

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he month began with your webmaster creating icons, homepage, and subject lists for Mrs. Humphrey Ward plus various essays, including “Unitarianism and Robert Elsmere's new religion,” ““Well, if she was inconsequent, she was dear!” — The diminishing of Eugénie in Fenwick's Career,” “The Swindle and the double life in Fenwick's Career,” “Social class in Fenwick's Career,” “Passages discussing painting in Fenwick's Career,” “The tale of George Romney in Fenwick's Career,” and “Examples of Ward's word-painting” plus four illustrations of her work by Albert Sterner. In addition GPL added material on Emily Faithfull, and the English Women's Journal and on the divide in Victorian feminism between women's public rights and their private ones. Next, he created a section on W. S. Gilbert's book illustrations and added an image of the cover his “Bab” Ballads to our section on book design and two reviews —  the first, “Charles LaPorte and Timothy Larsen on Victorian religion and Victorian literature” and the second on Charlotte Brontë’s Atypical Typology by Keith A. Jenkins. He also added a delightful example of Art Nouveau in illustration — Oskar Zwintscher's train with Art Nouveau smoke that looks eerily like the work of Maurice Sendak — and an interesting French version of the kind of work that appeared in Punch, Henri de Montaut's cartoon of a member of the minor nobility placing an enormous seal on a letter. Returning to British work, GPL added a drawing by Charles West Cope.

While vacationing in Nova Scotia, GPL came upon two interesting examples of Gothic Revival churches, the tiny wood Community Church in North Grand Pré and L'Église Sainte-Marie at Church Point, perhaps the largest wooden church in America. A visit to the Acadian Village in West Pubnico, Nova Scotia — Le Village historique acadien de la Nouvelle-Écosse — produced a series of photographs that you can find in “The blacksmith at work: making nails by hand” — one of the documents in the section on human-powered technology.

Philip V. Allingham added R. Knight's illustrations for Thomas Hardy's Under the Greenwood Tree, a project which involved reconfiguring the Hardy main page and adding photographs associated with places in the novel. He next began a project involving visual material related to Oliver Twist, contributing images and in-depth commentaries thirty plates by Felix Darley, including thirteen from Scenes and Characters from Dickens (1888). Next, he began to write commentaries for the original 24 Cruikshank illustrations.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed a main page or sitemap for the stained glass designer Charles Hardgrave and his east window of St James' Church, Weybridge plus the sitemap for James Powell & Sons, Whitefriars. She then added a third stained glass designer new to the site — William Wailes — plus three of his windows, and his remarkable home, Saltwell Towers in Saltwell Park. In addition, she has identified several memorials in St. Paul's Cathedral by major sculptors, including Onslow Ford's Memorial to Sir George Grey, Sir Alfred Gilbert's Edward Bulwer-Lytton Memorial, Hamo Thornycroft's Sir John Goss, Knt., Francis Derwent Wood's Major-General Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, and Farmer & Brindley's Memorial to Lt. Col Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie. Three monuments were by Marochetti, and this prompted a new collaboration with Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who sent in photographs for a short essay on Marochetti's monument there to the Viscounts Melbourne, with its two lovely angels. Another collaboration was with Penelope Harris, who provided the text for pictures of Henry John Hansom's St Joseph's R.C. Church, East Greenwich. Many thanks to both. JB's last major project this month took the form of a series of eight photo essays containing more than 40 images on Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill.

Katherine Miller Weber, who is creating a web version of Robert Hewison’s Ruskin: The Argument of the Eye, has completed the first seven chapters and also formatted dozens of reviews that Review 19 has shared with the Victorian Web, and GPL has created seventeen separate lists of reviews, such as those for architecture, decorative arts and design, gender matters, genre, history, literature, religion, and science.

Zack Rearick, M.A., a graduate student at Georgia State University, contributed a database of the meter in Christina Rossetti's “Goblin Market” plus How to Read the Database of the Scansion of Christina Rossetti's ‘Goblin Market’”

Thanks to Albert Hickson, who wrote identifying the open doorway in one of our photographs of Venice as the entrance to the convent of San Stefano.

As of the twenty-fifth the site had 78,896 documents and images.

July 2014

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As the month began, your webmaster added Sally Mitchell's discussion of Francis Power Cobbe and workhouse visitation and her discussion of the Echo plus three interesting late-Victorian essays on women novelists from Project Gutenberg to the site — Edna Lyall's “Mrs. Gaskell,” Eliza Lynn Linton's “George Eliot,” and Mrs Parr's “Diane Mulock Craik. Next, GPL added materials Mrs Humphry Ward (Mathew Arnold's niece) including “Robert Elsemere's deathbed,” ““‘It is hard, it is bitter’ — Robert Elsemere's loss of belief,” and “To reconceive the Christ! — Robert Elsmere's New Brotherhood of Christ,” “There are drawbacks to having a St. Elizabeth for a sister” — Catherine Leyburn,” and selected passages from her works, such as “The living conditions of the rural poor in Robert Elsmere.

Philip V. Allingham began the month by completing the section containing sixteen plates for R. Knight's illustrations of Thomas Hardy's “Under the Greenwood Tree.”

After returning on a trip to Newcastle that produced hundreds of photographs, Jacqueline Banerjee sent in Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones's drawing King's Daughters, which she added to the review by Joe Pilling, who has become a regular contributor, of Judith Flanders's A Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling, Georgiana Burne-Jones, Agnes Poynter and Louisa Baldwin. She also reviewed Catriona Blaker's book on E. W. Pugin in Kent. Next, came a half dozen documents with stained glass by Clayton & Bell for St Peter's Church, Hersham, Surrey. She then added photos of sculpture by John Graham Lough, a difficult procedure that required removing distracting backgrounds from the images, which included his The Infant Lyrist Taming Cerberus, Cupid and Psyche, Boy Giving Water to a Dolphin, and Sabrina.

The trip north also produced an essay on Ewan Christian's restoration of Carlisle Cathedral, a biography of Christian, and more sculptural works: memorials to Bishops Harvey Goodwin by Hamo Thornycrof, and Francis Close by H H Armstead; and one to George Moore by John Acton-Adams. From Hexham came John Tweed's fine memorial to Colonel Benson, and, from Tynemouth, Alfred Turner's pensive Queen Victoria.

JB's other work this month included a new essay on Marochetti's first great equestrian statue, of Emmanuele Filiberto in Turin. She was helped here by Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who herself contributed Marochetti's medallion portrait of his daughter Giovanna. Many thanks for that. Then JB sent in Vital Dubray's similarly iconic equestrian statue of Napoleon, in Rouen. Closer to home was Christ Church, East Greenwich by two architects of interest, John Brown and Robert Kerr. Finally, we opened a new section to bring together work on that quintessential Victorian, Samuel Smiles.

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “The Polyglot Darwin,” a review of Marwa Elshakry's Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860-1950 (2013). She and GPL created a sitemap, “Reviews of books about science, medicine, and literature.”

Katherine Miller Weber, who's importing and formatting documents and images into the Victorian Web, has completed her first two documents — Jonathan Smith's review of George Levine's Darwin the Writer and Patrick C. Fleming's review of Juliet John's Dickens and Mass Culture. In the following days she added two dozen more.

Valeria Aleksandrova writes that she has translated one of our docs on early locomotives into Swedish, and Kate Bondareva e-mails from Germany that she's translated into French our directions for contributors.

Thanks to a reader who wishes to remain anonymous for sending us the correct full name of the sister of the architect Walter Granville, editor of his autobiography — Paulina Katinka Eliza Bozzi Granville, and thanks also to Gerry Newby for pointing out an incorrect image and to Joanna Penglase of Australia for letting us know that one of our off-site links no longer works.

On the twenty-eighth the site had 78,573 documents and images.

June 2014

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n the first day of the new month, your webmaster completed the web-version of the third chapter of Marjorie Stone's book on Elizabeth Barrett Browning and a week or so later completed the entire book, after which he reviewed of Stephen J. May's Voyage of the Slave Ship: J. M. W. Turner's Masterpiece in Historical Context (2014). Creating web versions of parts of the Fine Art Society catalogue, Architects for a New Age, added to sections on the architect William Wilkins, Charles Barry, and Philip Hardwick and also created a new one for E. W. Godwin. After photographing Joseph Durham's The Rowers in a private collection, Landow added to the materials on the sculptor. Using new software — 3DRT Setup Utility Lisboa v.1.4.8.— he created a qtvr images of several sculptures whose rotation readers can control. These include the Durham, Thomas Brock's Frederick, Lord Leighton, and Frederick James Halnon's Peace.

After a trip to Ottawa for the opening of the Gustave Doré: Master of Imagination at the National Gallery of Canada, Landow reviewed this eye-opening exhibition and its excellent catalogue. As the month ended, he reviewed Terry Deary's Dangerous Days on the Victorian Railways: A history of the terrors and the torments, the dirt, diseases and deaths suffered by our ancestors.

Philip V. Allingham contributed an essay on Arthur Jules Goodman's illustrations for Hardy's "An Imaginative Woman" (1894) and another —his first published article — “The Naming of Names in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol.” In the second half of the month he created a section for an artist new to this site — R. Knight, who illustrated Thomas Hardy's Under the Greenwood Tree.

Jacqueline Banerjee finished her work on Pugin at the very end of last month with two of the preparatory drawings for the Houses of Parliament, went on to format Joe Pilling's review (see below) with two sets of selected passages about Archbishop Benson's extraordinary wife Mary Benson and her "unequal marriage" (these last with help from GPL!), and next turned to R. R. Goulden's touching memorial for the social reformer and feminist Margaret MacDonald in Lincoln's Inn Fields. She also added pictures of the original interiors of Leighton House to modern photographs of it, giving some contemporary views of the artist's home.

Some collaborations followed: with John Kemp over Old Place in Lindfield, Sussex, home of his great-great-granduncle, the stained glass artist Charles Eamer Kempe; and with Clodagh Brown over the work of her greatgrandfather Ralph Hedley in St Nicholas, Newcastle (this was a rewrite of an earlier entry). Many thanks to both. She then looked at J. L. Pearson's St James' Church, Weybridge. This involved opening sections for two new stained glass artists, George Hedgeland and Michael O'Connor, as well as adding works by familiar names such as Sir Edward Burne-Jones, and Francis Chantrey.

Simon Cooke contributed an introduction to periodical Belgravia “ and Visualizing the Sensational: George du Maurier’s Illustrations for The Notting Hill Mystery in Once a Week,” after which he created a section on an illustrator new to the Victorian Web, Paolo Priolo

Joe Pilling reviewed Rodney Bolt's As Good as God, as Clever as the Devil: The Impossible Life of Mary Benson.

Thanks to James Heffernan, founder and editor-in-chief of Review 19 for generously sharing the reviews on his site with readers of the Victorian Web. The first one on our site is Laurence Davies's brilliant review of Jonathan H. Grossman's Charles Dickens's Networks: Public Transportation and the Novel. Over the next few days, Landow put up six reviews of books about Dickens, three about Trollope, two on Tennyson, and two dozen on more general subjects plus several each in other sections of the site, such as Genre, Gender Matters, Technology, and Social and Political History.

Penelope Harris, a new contributor, sent in a biography of the architect-inventor Joseph Hansom and the church he and his son designed: Church of the Holy Name of Jesus (R.C.) in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester; Jackie Banerjee provided the photographs. Thanks to Dr Trudi Tate, Clare Hall, Cambridge University, for sending in her transcription of “Alma,” a Crimean War poem by R. C. Trench and Hollie Mantle for send in Luke Rees's “Blood, Betting and Baiting: The Dark History of London’s Pubs.”

On the thirtieth the site had 78,227 documents and images.

May 2014

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he Fine Art Society, whose contributions fifteen years ago essentially began our sections on visual arts, has just shared a half dozen catalogues with us, and your webmaster created a web version of Gordon Cooke's Whistler on the Thames, which contains detailed discussions of fourteen of the artist's etchings and lithographs, and the same editor's Samuel Palmer, His Friends, and Followers allowed the addition of work by three artists to the site: a dozen etchings by Samuel Palmer, three paintings and six engravings and lithographs by Edward Calvert, and two paintings by George Richmond. In addition, the Victorian and Edwardian items in Masterpieces from the John Scott Collection provided essays on the following works of decorative art: William Burges's Wheel of Fortune table, William de Morgan's Fishing Lesson charger, yellow glazed four-handled vase with grotesque masks, Thomas Jeckyll's sunflower andirons, Minton & Company's vase decorated in the pseudo-cloisonné, and Harry Clarke's “Mr Gilhooley” by Liam O’Flaherty from the Geneva window.

After a collector who wishes to remain anonymous contributed photographs of Victorian and Edwardian medals and information about them, your webmaster spent the first few days in April creating html documents for them. This collection includes multiple new works by three artists — (1) Frank Bowcher (Col. J.F. Lewis R.E., Comitatus Vigorniæ , Edward Allen Baron Brotherington of Wakefield, Montague John Rendall, Tower Bridge opening medal, 1894, David Lloyd George , Franco-British Medal, 1908, and the Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee Badge); (2) Emil Fuchs (Aerial Crossing of the English Channel medal, South African Campaign Peace Medal , George V Coronation Medal, and Queen Victoria household medal); and (3) Benjamin Wyon (Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Sir William Chambers (after Richard Westmacott)). In addition, this contribution contained single works by other medallists, many new to the site. We have, for example, Charles John Allen's 700th Anniversary of Liverpool; Gilbert Bayes's Railway Centenary Medal; Charles Bell Birch's Edward, Prince of Wales; George William De Saulles' Edward VII Board of Education Medal; Charles Doman's Unveiling of Cenotaph; Conrad Dressler's M.B. Lucas; Alfred Drury's Lest We Forget (World War I medal); Sir George Frampton's City of London Imperial Volunteers medal; Walter Gilbert's Liverpool Cathedral Ernest George Gillick's 1926 General Strike Service medal; Ethel Alice Chivers Harris's Edward Gascoigne Bulwer; William Goscombe John's Thomas Edward Ellis Edouard Lanteri's R. Phene Spiers ; Alphonse Legros's Sinclair Compton VIII – Duke of Devonshire; Erik Lindberg, Stockholm Summer Olympics Medal 1912 (obverse); Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal's Stockholm Summer Olympics Medal (reverse); Alfred Bertram Pegram's Jutland Victory Medal; Edward Carter Preston's 1919 Peace Medal (Bethnal Green); Theodore Spicer Simson's Aerial Crossing of the English Channel medal; Harold Stabler's Merchantile Marine Medal; Alfred Joseph Stothard's Reynolds; Sir W. Hamo Thornycroft's James T. Chance Leonard Charles Wyon's Hogarth; William Wyon's Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey . In addition to these medals the following sculptural works have been added: Conrad Dressler's untitled portrait disk, Albert Toft's untitled head of a bearded man, perhaps a prophet, Ellen Mary Rope's letterbox, Alfred Drury's Innocence, Mary Seton Watts's St. Cecilia, Elsie March'Portrait bust, and a copper tazza by an unknown artist.

Visits to the National Science Museum produced images of three pioneering locomotives, Puffing Billy — “the oldest surviving locomotive in the world,” Robert Stephenson's Rocket — “the first modern steam locomotive,” and Stephenson and Joseph Locke's Columbine.

Philip V. Allingham began or continued several major projects, the first of which concerns Edward Dalziel's illustrations of Dickens's Christmas stories. Second, he began a section of reactions to the Crimean War in periodicals ranging from The Illustrated London News to Punch. In addition, he added two of John Leech's important political cartoons with extensive commentary — Substance and Shadow and Capital and Labour.

Jacqueline Banerjee created a new section in architecture on the remarkable Sarah Losh (1785-1853), which includes a biography and photo-essay on St Mary's Church, Wreay. Thanks to Bob Morgan for sharing his photographs with us. Since then she has been working on the sculpture of Baron Marochetti, adding his effigies of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria at Frogmore Mausoleum, a drawing of the missing angel for Bellini's tomb in Paris, a medallion of his wife Camille, and a bas-relief portrait of his sons. Many thanks to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon for her photographs of these last three. JB has also translated from the French a fascinating article by Caroline Hedengren-Dillon on Baron Marochetti's insertion of portraits of his family his bas relief, "The Meal at Simon's House" in the Church of the Madeleine"

But then back to the visual arts — Perkin's bust by Pomeroy, and commentaries on some more of Robert Freidus's photographs of important monuments in Highgate Cemetery: of the travelling menagerist George Wombwell; the founder of the famous furniture store, John Maple; the sculptor Alfred George Stevens; the pugilist Tom Sayers; and the physician Joseph Hodgson. To these she added her own pictures of the Lendy Memorial in Sunbury-on-Thames, and Freidus's haunting picture of the Chothia monument in Brookwood Cemetery. Then, much more slowly than your webmaster, she has been formatting and adding commentaries to some of Pugin's secular and domestic designs, in one of the catalogues kindly given by the Fine Arts Society — from door grills for the Palace of Westminster, to bookcases and an incense boat. She also formatted a wide-ranging new article on Men on the Town: Writing Late-Victorian London by Amy Milne-Smith, a fine contribution to our "Gender Studies" section.

Andrzej Diniejko reviewed Chris R. Vanden Bossche 's Reform Acts: Chartism, Social Agency, and the Victorian Novel, 1832-1867. Later in the month attended a conference in Warsaw titled: Wiktorianie nad Tamizą i nad Wisłą (Victorians on the Thames and Vistula) and enjoyed it immensely. The two-day conference, which attracted both Polish Studies and British Studies scholars, was devoted to reflection on various forms of presence of the works of Victorian writers and Victorianism as a model of culture in Polish cultural awareness and in the Polish literature of the second half of the nineteenth century and later periods.

Simon Cooke formatted and added links to Paul Goldman's introduction to the life and works of the illustrator Matthew James Lawless. In addition, he greatly expanded our section on the illustrator Charles Keene, adding several dozen plates and several essays including Once a Week, Keene, and Samuel Lucas, Keene and social comedy: George Meredith’s Evan Harrington, Creating a late medieval world: Illustrating Charles Reade's A Good Fight, Keene and Sensationalism: Ellen Wood's Verner’s Pride, and A note on Keene and the technical processes of transferring the image on to the wood-block.

Joe Pilling reviewed of Amy Milne-Smith's London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in Late-Victorian Britain.

Rupert Maas and the Maas Gallery have kindly shared the following images and information with Victorian Web: William Etty's The Pastoral Concert, after Titian plus Seated Nude and Nude from behind plus single works by William A. Breakspeare, Charles Altamont Doyle, Evelyn de Morgan, William Edward Frost, and William Mulready.

David Trestini asks an interesting question about a decade-old undergraduate commentary about a poem by Christina Rossetti. Here's my response.

A bit of fluff: Drama TV sends us their survey of "The most haunting characters in adaptations of Victorian Fiction in Drama, Cinema, and Television" in which Miss Havisham tops the list.

Many thanks to Albert Hickson of Peterborough for sending in multiple suggestions and corrections of materials in the sculpture section. Thanks, too, to Ashley Faulkner for correcting a real howler — a misattribution of Tract 80. Later in the month Kathleen Diana Ravenhill Schoch pointed out some mistranscriptions of the signatures of her great-great-grandfather, Leonard Raven Hill.

On the twenty-sixth the site had 77,539 documents and images.

April 2014

Illuminated initial T

he month began with your webmaster putting online two paintings relating to Henry Wallis discovered in the Hathi Trust's e-versions of the Art-Journal: Wallis's own Found at Naxos and W. B. Morris's Chatterton's Half-holiday — an obvious work to compare to Wallis's most famous painting. The Art-Journal of different dates also provided images and information about five paintings by John Melhuish Strudwick with commentary by George Bernard Shaw, and works by John Burr, Frederick Goodall, James Noel Paton, Rebecca Solomon, and Marcus Stone.

Prompted by Jacqueline Banerjee's formatting and illustrating Antoine Capet's "Orientalism Revisited: Art and the Politics of Representation." Report of a Symposium at Tate Britain, he transplanted a section on Edward Said's Orientalism from his old Postcolonial Literature and Culture site to the Victorian Web. Searching various issues of the Art-Journal produced A. Johnson's The Sabbath Eve, a selection of illuminated initial letters, Thanks once again to AD Antiques for sharing with us images and information from their collections of Victorian and Edwardian ceramics by Della Robbia, Doulton, and De Morgan. Shortly before leaving for London, he reviewed the Metropolitan Museum of Art's exhibition, “The Passions of Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux.”

Since arriving in London, your webmaster has photographed the remains of the exterior and interior of St Saviour's Church, Walton Place in Kightbridge, most of which has been converted to a theatre and other uses. Many thanks to Ms. Janine Gillion, who generously explained the history and recent conversion of the church. Visits to the Victoria & Albert, which included enjoying its major exhibition of post-WWII Italian fashion and the wonderful new architecture and glass galleries, produced photographs of J. E. Boehm's Eurydice and John Graham Lough's Puck.

Philip V. Allingham, who is off again lecturing on Dickens in Poland, created a series of a dozen illustrated essays on Sol Eytinge's illustrations for Dickens's Uncommercial Traveller and Additional Christmas Stories. He and Andrzej Diniejko together reviewed Joseph P. Jordan's Dickens Novels as Verse.

Following her essay on St John's Church, Kolkata, and some of its monuments, Jacqueline Banerjee's main work this month has been a two-part piece on the Prince of Wales's tour of India in 1875-76, which brought out many good qualities in the future king. She then spent some time formatting and illustrating very welcome reviews: another by Antoine Capet, of a Millais exhibition at the Tate, and one by Ellen Moody of Simon Heffer's High Minds. Many thanks to both contributors. The next review was her own, of the splendid catalogue of the William Burges exhibition in Cork, Searching for the New Jerusalem. Then she put up and wrote about some lovely photographs of North Wales contributed by Bob Morgan, for which we opened a new section in our "Places" section. These started with Llandudno Pier, the longest pier in Wales. She added an essay to these pieces on Dinorwic Quarry and the Quarrymen's Lives.

Simon Cooke added illustrations by Hugh Thomson to his new section on the artist-designer.

Joe Pilling wrote a detailed review of Jane Ridley's Bertie: A Life of Edward VII that JB formatted, adding links and images.

The French-language magazine, Cycles, asked for and received permission to use one of our images.

Thanks to Jonathan Miller for correcting a typo and also pointing out that one refers to the famous residences near Piccadilly as “Albany” and not “the Albany.”

As of the twenty-eighth the site had 76,785 documents and images.

March 2014

Illuminated initial A

fter reviewing the Ottawa Ruskin show and its catalogue last month, your webmaster received permission from the Ashmolean Museum, the University of Oxford, and the Ruskin Foundation at Lancaster University to add images in the catalogue of that show and another at the Watts Gallery to our site. As a result, we have been able to replace some older monochrome reproductions of Ruskin's drawings and watercolors with excellent color images and also to add several dozen new works. In addition, the site now has seventeen daguerreotypes either by Ruskin or in his collection. Continuing with things Ruskinian, Landow reviewed Robert Brownell's Marriage of Inconvenience: John Ruskin, Effie Gray, John Everett Millais and the surprising truth about the most notorious marriage of the nineteenth century.

He also created a section on Byzantine architecture drawing upon Bannister Fletcher and Ruskin, and later in the month he created a similar section on Romanesque architecture and the Romanesque revival. Next, turning to illustrations, Landow drew upon the Hathi Trust digital library to add 79 of Sir Edwin Landseer's drawings and watercolors reproduced in a twelve-part article in the 1875 Art-Journal, after which, drawing upon his personal library, he added thirty-four of David and William Bell Scott's illustrations for Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress.

After John Rowe send along photographs of what might be a study for Holman Hunt's The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple. Landow put them online with a discussion of the pros and cons of the case. On the way to Susquehanna University, where your webmaster gave two talks, he drove an hour out of the way to the superb Railway Museum of Pennsylvania, which has replicas of two early locomotives — John Steven's Steam Wagon and Stephenson's John Bull.

Philip V. Allingham completed his work on E. W. Haslehust's watercolors of Dickens-land, adding 15 of the artist's paintings to that artist's section, after which he added a dozen of F. O. C. Darley's illustrations to Dickens that included his usual combination of the text illustrated, detailed commentary, and comparative images by other artists. Next he added more than a dozen illustrations of Dickens works by A. A. Dixon, beginning with a depiction of Miss Havisham tell Pip, "It's a bride cake. Mine!" and the title-page for Great Expectations.

Continuing her work on British India, Jacqueline Banerjee has contributed photo essays on several major projects by E. L. Lutyens in New Delhi, whose subjects include The Viceroy's House (Rashtrapati Bhavan) in New Delhi; its forecourt, gardens and walls, and the All-India War Memorial Arch. She has also begun a new section on railways in British India, which already comprises an introduction, history of the narrow gauge Kalka-Shimla Line, and several locomotives, including the Rajputana Malwa Railway (RMR) no. F734 — the first built entirely in India. Churches and memorials in India also provided material as Banrejee contributed Monument to Major-General William Nairn Forbes in St Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata. In addition she had time and energy to edit and format Sarah Sullivan's essay on Richard Norman Shaw's Hitherbury House, Guildford.

Simon Cooke created a section on the illustrator and book designer Charles Henry Bennett (1828–67), which includes a biography plus essays on Bennett as a satirist and comic artist, his relation to the emblem tradition, his illustration of The Pilgrim’s Progress and twenty sample illustrations.

Ian Cawood, Head of History at Newman University, Birmingham, U.K., has contributed a review of By-Elections in British Politics, 1832-1914, which originally appeared in Cercles.

Thanks to the following: (1) Dickie Felton, Communications Manager, National Museums Liverpool, for sharing with us posters for late-Victorian shipping lines that will appear in a forthcoming exhibition. (2) AD Antiques for sharing images of two more works by the Martin Brothers — a tobacco jar in the shape of a comical grotesque bird and a long slender jug portraying an eskimo. (3) Sarah Colegrave for permitting us to include a number of her gallery's holdings, including three works by Walter Greaves that depict Chelsea — Second Hand Furniture Shop, Duke Street, Milk Shop, Lawrence Street, and Stokes Bootmaker, Lombard Street — plus Francis Derwent Wood's Nude Torso, James Havard Thomas's Portrait of Almina Wertheimer and George Howard's Cottage at Barford, Churt, Surrey. (4) James Graham-Stewart for sharing a photograph of Sir Richard Westmacott's Paolo and Francesca.

Thanks to John Hodges for pointing out that a link in our essay on Tower Bridge went to the wrong Brunel and to Albert Hickson for pointing out an incorrect date of Burne-Jones's Laus Veneris in a old student essay.

As of the thirtieth, the site has 76,379 documents and images.

February 2014

Illuminated initial O

our webmaster began the month with a review of Laura Euler's The Glasgow Style, the work for which prompting creating a sitemap (homepage) for that movement in the design section as well as others for Archie Campbell, Ethel Larcombe, Jesse M. King, and Talwin Morris. He next created a new section for leather bookbinding, adding material by late-Victorian and Edwardian book binders.

Last month Landow reviewed Claire Tomalin's The Invisible Woman, which Sony Pictures Classics had sent our editors in advance of the forthcoming movie of the same name. The film finally reached Providence, Rhode Island, at mid-month, and Landow wrote a review that examines the different ways scholarly books and cinema tell their tales. Landow attended the opening in Ottawa at the National Gallery of Canada of Christopher Newall's important exhibition, John Ruskin Artist and Observer, and he reviewed both show and massive catalogue. Prompted by an exhibition on Gustave Doré this coming June in Ottawa, he greatly enlarged our section on the artist and illustrator.

Philip V. Allingham, having completed the enormous comparative project involving Harry Furniss's illustrations of Dickens, is now working on two projects: E. W. Haslehust's watercolors of Dickens-land and F. O. C. Darley's illustrations of Dickens fiction.

Jaqueline Banerjee's magnum opus this month took the form of creating a new section about Byzantine Revival architecture, which includes a long essay on the revival plus photo-essays about John Oldrid Scott's Santa Sophia (Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Aghia Sophia), London, and Sidney Barnsley's The Church of Jesus Christ and the Wisdom of God, Lower Kingswood, Surrey. JB's work this month also included "Maggie Tulliver and Girls' Education in The Mill on the Floss," and two new entries for the Welsh architect Edwin Seward: the former Cardiff Coal and Shipping Exchange, and the former Harbour Trust Building, Swansea.

Andrzej Diniejko, who created the section on Victorian socialism last month, has added “Christian Socialism in Victorian England.”

Diane Greco Josefowicz has written a substantial essay entitled “Recent Studies of Victorian Psychology and its Relation to Victorian Literature” that discusses among other things cognitive cultural studies, cognitive literary historicism, and the more general problem of understanding Victorian theories of psychology and mind and then determining to what extent they help us better understand Victorian literature.

Simon Cooke has contributed illustrated essays on the book-cover designs of A. A. Turbayne and Laurence Housman.

Antoine Capet of the University of Rouen has very kindly shared with us some more of his informative reviews, of: Tim Barringer's Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde; Judith Neiswander's The Cosmopolitan Interior: Liberalism and the British Home, 1870-1914; Catherine Arscott's William Morris and Burne-Jones: Interlacings; and Allen Staley's The New Painting of the 1860s: Between the Pre-Raphaelites and the Aesthetic Movement.

George Robinson contributed “ The Edinburgh Fire Brigade, 1837-72” and promises to send some photos to accompany his brief essay.

Thanks to a reader who identifies himself as Silver Tiger for pointing to a broken offsite link.

As of the twenty-fourth the site had 75,481 documents and images.

January 2014

Illuminated initial Y

our webmaster continues work on the twenty-fifth-anniversary web-edition of Alice H. R. H. Victorian Bibliomania: The Illuminated Book in Nineteenth-Century Britain. In addition, he reviewed a book on Steampunk and Michael Forres's Art Bronzes and made some observations on Claire Tomalin's The Invisible Woman, which Sony Pictures Classics had sent our editors in advance of the forthcoming movie of the same name. He and John Pankhurst worked together to format and put online more than 50 photographs and captions for Bell & Beckham's stained glass plus one of their painted tiles and other church decorations.

Phillip V. Allingham has completed his Harry Furniss project, having written more than 100 comparative essays on the illustrator's work on Dickens's fiction.

Jacqueline Banerjee has contributed “Cultural Imperialism or Rescue? The British and Suttee.” Her work on the visual arts includes Edward Lears The Cedars of Lebanon, Richard Reginald Goulden's War Memorial in the Royal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames, London, the The Rossetti family grave in Highgate Cemetery, and that for Welsh-born sculptor Joseph Edwards plus various sculpture on Vauxhall Bridge, including Pomeroy's Architecture and Engineering and Drury's Science and Education.

Simon Cooke created a new sections for three illustrators who were also book designers — George Heywood Sumner, Arthur Gaskin, and Hugh Thomson. Each section contains a biographical essay and introduction and several plates.

Diane Greco Josefowicz has reviewed Jennifer Esmail's Reading Victorian Deafness: Signs and Sounds in Victorian Literature and Culture (2013)

Annie Creswick-Dawson contributed “The Creswick sculptures on the Bloomsbury Library, Birmingham,” which originally appeared in The Friends of Brantwood. Mike Hickox contributed an essay on Henry Wallis's Back from Marston Moor.

Antoine Capet, reviews editor of the inter-disciplinary journal Cercles, has kindly shared seven reviews with us. His own are of Elizabeth Prettejohn's The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites and Laura MacCulloch's Pre-Raphaelite Treasures at National Museums Liverpool. Four others are by Laurent Bury: J. B. Bullen's Rossetti, Painter and Poet; Margaret F. McDonald and Patricia de Montfort's An American in London: Whistler and the Thames; Spike Bucklow and Sally Woodcock's Sir John Gilbert: Art and Imagination in the Victorian Age; and Nicholas Tromans' Richard Dadd: The Artist and the Asylum. Another review, by Hugh Clout, is of Drew Gray's London's Shadows: The Dark Side of the Victorian City. Thanks to Jackie Banerjee, who illustrated and formatted these welcome essays.

Emma Coleman writes from the de Morgan Centre to announce an exhibition that includes a rarely-seen portrait of Pre-Raphaelite artists’ model Jane Morris.

Alexander Mirgorodskiy of Taganrog, Russia, asked for and received permission to use one of our images in his book on the attacks of the British and French on Taganrog and Azov Sea coast in the summer of 1855. Courtney Quigley, Exhibitions and Programs Production Manager of the Chicago Botanic Garden asked for and received permission to use one of our images “for an informational panel about Orchid History.” Piret Põldver, Editor of Maurus Publishing House in Tallinn, Estonia, has received permission to translate our web version of Carlyle's “Signs of the Times.”

Thanks to Alane Lim for pointing out broken links caused by reformatting some documents, and thanks to Carl Eichenlaub for pointing out a missing document in the In Memoriam project.

As of the twenty-seventh the site had 74,801 documents and images.

December 2013

Your webmaster has written “Beauties in Bell Jars: A Review of John Whitenight's Under Glass: A Victorian Obsession” and added more than 290 illustrations by Sidney Paget of the Sherlock Holmes stories, which provide useful documentation of railroad travel in the 1890s and what men wore, such as their hats, outerware, and trousers.

Landow's major project was a twenty-fifth-anniversary web-edition of the catalogue of Alice H. R. H. Victorian Bibliomania 1987 exhibition at the Museum of the Rhode Island School of Design. This catalogue's six dozen entries valuably complement Simon Cooke's section on book bindings and design with its authoritative discussions of Victorian book illumination, chromolithography, and relievo bindings, all related to both the Gothic Revival and the Arts and Crafts Movement. This important exhibition includes works by Owen Jones, Henry Noel Humphreys, William Morris, Augustus Pugin, John Ruskin, and many others. Fortunately, both the Museum and some of the major lenders to the exhibition, particularly Ellen K. Morris and Edward Levin, have enthusiastically supported creating a new, much-expanded e-version of the original catalogue, which replaced many of the black-and-white illustrations with color and also much more material.

Jacqueline Banerjee has contributed "Industry, Religion and Self-Help in Mrs. Henry Wood's Mrs Halliburton's Troubles," which includes a discussion of the glove-making trade in nineteenth-century Worcester, as well as an essay on humour in Mrs Wood's The Channings. Also, she added further comments on the webmaster's pictures of Vauxhall Bridge in London, with its eight unusually placed statues by F. W. Pomeroy and Alfred Drury, like Pomeroy's Pottery. Nearby was the Doulton Pottery in Lambeth, with interesting traces of it even in the one remaining building's interior.

Simon Cooke contributed ‘A Refined Division of Labour’: The Production of Cloth-Bound Books and has continued his work on Victorian book design, adding a dozen or so images of work by Aubrey Beardsley, Robert Dudley, Laurence Housman, and Albert Warren.

Mike Hickox, a frequent contributor, has written “A Sculptor's Workshop, Stratford-upon-Avon — 1617 by Henry Wallis

John E. S. Pankhurst has contributed a catalogue of the stained glass and church decoration by the firm of Bell & Beckham.

Zsófia Marincsák of, a site based in Hungary, writes to exchange links. Rory Walsh. Discovering Britain Project Officer of the Royal Geographical Society, reqeusted and received permission to use one of our images.

Thanks to Rev. Dr. Ron Davies for correcting a caption for our photo of Budapest castle

On the thirtieth the site had 74,371 documents and images.

November 2013

Your webmaster added two works by Edith Downing illustrated in The Studio: Music and Mother and children. The Internet Archive online version of this periodical also provided images of paintings, including Albert Goodwin's The Delectable Mountains, and Sir Edward John Poynter's The Message, and sculpture including Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal's Oceana. Robert Freidus and GPL teamed up once again, adding photographs of George Tinworth's Pilgrimage of Life Fountain in Kennington Park, London,

Philip V. Allingham will be heading to Lublin, Poland, next month to give a talk at Maria Curie-Sklodowska University for PASE (the Polish Association for the Study of English). His subject will be the changing reception of Great Expectations as reflected in its Victorian illustrations. Before heading across the Atlantic, Allingham wrote a dozen more essays on Harry Furniss's illustrations of Dickens's A Tale of Two Citiesich includes. Each essay contains an enlargeable image of the illustration, the passage it realizes, an interpretive essay, and comparisons with images of illustrations by other artists.

Jaqueline Banerjee created new sections for two important women novelists — Mary Augusta Ward and Mrs. Henry Wood. Ward's includes a biography, discussion of her career as writer, philanthropy, and later reputation, and Wood's biography, discussion of her career as writer, death and posthumous reputation, and her grave in Highgate Cemetery.

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor for Poland, has created a substantial new section on Arthur Conan Doyle containing a biography, chronology, bibliography and discussions of both his writing career and interest in spiritualism. Prompted by the new material on Doyle, Banerejee wrote Dickens's Inspector Bucket Points the Way, and Landow added excerpts and essays on Doyle including “'Who will say what is possible in such a country?' South America as bridge to the unknown dreamland,” Racism and genocide in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World, “We are the Mormons”: The Church of Latter Day Saints in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet, Sherlock Holmes's praise of state schools, Setting as characterization in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World, “The notorious Professor Challenger” — “a stunted Hercules” and an “enormous bull-frog,” and “Sherlock Holmes's anti-romantic view of the country,” In addition, Landow added 140 of Sidney Paget's illustrations of Sherlock Holmes stories with the passages illustrated and then mined them for documents in the site's section on Victorian Men's Fashions, 1850-1900, including those on Outerwear, trousers, outerwear, and hats.

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed Caroline Herschel (1750-1848), astronomer.

Simon Cooke, who reviewed Peter Levi's Edward Lear: A Life, created a new section on the artist and designer Robert Dudley, which includes essays on his illustrations, book cover designs, and chromolithographs. /p>

Nancy Glazener, Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies, Department of English, University of Pittsburgh, asked for and received permission to reproduce Beerbohm's Robert Browning, Taking Tea with the Browning Society as an illustration for her Modern Language Quarterly essay on Browning in America.

Thanks once again to Robert Bowman for sharing images and information about sculpture in his gallery's collection: William Reid Dicks's Mask of Perseus, Francis Derwent Wood's The Bather, Richard Louis Garbe's The Song of the Siren, Frederick James Halnon's Peace, and Sir William Goscombe John's Boy at Play. Thanks also for AD Antiques for sharing images and information about several tiles by the Martin Brothers, including Flower-and-leaves and Rose. The Maas Gallery contributed an image of James Thomas Watts's A Welsh Wood in Winter.

Thanks to Anthony Pincott, Hon. Treasurer and Membership Secretary of The Bookplate Society, who writes from London to correct James Thomas Watts's year of birth: According to FreeBMD website, “ an index of births, marriages and deaths, transcribed from official registers,” he was born in March 1850. Thanks, also, to Deena Wang '14, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for pointing out broken links in the Music and Popular Entertainment section.

The site had 73,325 documents and images as of the thirteenth.

October 2013

Your webmaster delivered a keynote address at E-Learning2013 in Las Vegas entitled “Twenty-Five Years of Teaching with the Victorian Web: What Works and What Doesn't.” Continuing to work with Trollope's novels, Landow has written “Trollope's flawed protagonists — the example of Framley Parsonage,” “The path of a letter in Frampton Parsonage,” “Personal, local, and national politics in Frampton Parsonage and Trollope's use of the mock-heroic.”

Ah, the names of London pubs of which Robert Freidus sent in photographs that Landow formatted — Chelsea's The Adam and Eve, Black Lion Pub on High Kilburn Road (there are also Red and White Lion Pubs elsewhere), the Crown in Seven Dials and the Crown in Seven Dials and the Crown & Cushion on Westminster Bridge Road, the Falcon in Clapham south of the Thames and the Flask in Hampstead, way north of the Thames (saw one of the Rolling Stones there once). How about the Hung, Drawn & Quartered Pub at Byward Street and Great Tower Street. I especially like the name of the Shooting Star.

The Internet Archive provided seven drawings by Phil May, including a self portrait, plus a portrait of Charles Santley, the impressario and opera singer, by Thomas Cooper Gotch, who is generally known for his allegorical paintings of young girls and women.

Landow also formatted the photographs of medals by famous sculpturs provides by a collector who wishes to remain anonymous: Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm's Queen Victoria 1887 Golden Jubilee Medal, Frank Bowcher's William Shakspere (honouring William Spark Ogden), M.H. Spielmann, and 1897 Diamond Jubilee Medal for the Victorian Era Exhibition; Thomas Brock's maquette for the 1911 Royal Academy medal; Emil Fuchs's King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra Coronation Medal; William Goscombe John's Edward, Prince of Wales Investiture Medal and his George V Jubilee Medal; Alphonse Legros's John Stuart Mill; Frederick Lord Leighton's Queen Victoria 1887 Golden Jubilee Medal, and three by Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal: Mercantile Marine WWI Medal, Royal Society of Arts Medal (George V) , and George V and Queen Mary Coronation medal.

Philip V. Allingham continued his major project on Harry Furniss's illustrations to Dickens's Christmas stories, each essay of which contains the scanned illustration, caption, text illustrated, commentary and comparison with other illustrators' approach to the same passage. He has written photo-essays for Polly, Barbox Brothers' Guest at Dinner, What Christmas is, as we Grow Older, and Nurse and Mother.

Jacqueline Banerjee has continued her work with the architect William Richard Lethaby, adding All Saints' Church, Brockhampton and Birmingham's Eagle Insurance Buildings, High Coxlease in Hampshire plus his drawing for an elaborate fireplace. She then sent in a photo essay on Claremont, the royal estate in Surrey where Queen Victoria spent her happiest days as a child. Next, she created a biography for another architect, George Halford Fellowes Prynne plus photo essays on the exterior and interior of his St Peter's Church, Staines, after which she wrote a biographical introduction to the works of Prynne's brother, the stained-glass designer Edward Arthur Fellowes Prynne plus a series of photo essays on his own work for his brother's church in Staines.

Derek B. Scott contributed his performance of Felix McGlennon's music hall song “Comrades.”

Simon Cooke contributed two essays on book and binding design: “Victorian book illustrators as book cloth designers, 1850–1870: Richard Doyle and Arthur Hughes” and “John Sliegh: illustrator and book cover designer.” He provided half a dozen illustrations for the first essay and is currently working on a set for the second. Thanks to Simon for procuring permission from Edmund M. B. King to include in the Victorian Web his “The Book Cover Designs of William Harry Rogers.” (which originally appeared in the British Library Journal). GPL scanned, formatted, and linked the text.

Gaby Lacayo has translated into Spanish three essays by Philip V. Allingham relating to Wilkie Collins life and relation to Dickens.

Thanks to Joseph Dimartino, who shared photographs of Thomas Brock's Hercules strangling Antaeus.

David McDonnell has written to thank us for providing information used in his book ClanMcDonnell Tales of Ireland.

The site had 73,026 documents on the twenty-eighth.

September 2013

The month began with your webmaster adding to the site several essays from Victorian periodicals, including one from the 1860 Cornhill Review on the adulteration of food and “Edward J. Poynter, R.A.” from the 1883 Magazine of Art, a periodical that contributed images and information about a range of paintings, such as Thomas Faed's From Dawn Till Sunset, Evangeline, His Only Pair, and Granny M'Laughan; Frank Holl's Self-portrait and portraits of John Everett Millais, Sir William Jenner, and John Bright; Albert Moore's MidsummerThe Lovers, Pale Margaret, The Quartet, White Hydrangeas, Rose Leaves, Reading Aloud, Autumn, and Yellow Marguerites; William Blake Richmond's Andrew Lang, Hermes, and A Maid of Athens; W. P. Frith, R.A. at the Age of Thirty, and Lauce and His Dog; John Collier's A Prietess of Bacchus, Arthur Hughes's Silver and Gold, Peter Macnab's The Lady of Shalott, and G.F. Watts's Sir Frederick Leighton. In addition to material about painting, the Magazine of Art provided reproductions of designs by G. F. Watts and W. E. Britten for Salviati mosaics in St. Paul's plus Britten's 12 illustrations of Swinburne poems and B. Jobling's drawings of Tyneside.

The Hathi Trust Digital Library's e-versions of The Art-Journal provided images and information for Augustus Leopold Egg's The Victim and Daniel Maclise's The Ballad Singer. Landow next created a section on Anthony Trollope's The Small House at Allington beginning with a “Crosbie was not altogether a villain” — Trollope and the psychology of betrayal, after which he added a dozen passages exemplifying the novel's characterization, setting, description, and political and social themes.

Philip V. Allingham continued his major project on Harry Furniss's illustrations to Dickens's Christmas stories, each essay of which contains the scanned illustration, caption, text illustrated, commentary and comparison with other illustrators' approach to the same passage. His essays include Arrivals at The Holly Tree, Servants at The Holly Tree, The Golden Lucy, Captain Jorgan, The Tinker's Philosophy and half a dozen others.

In addition to formatting and illustrating Linda Hall's “Garden Suburbs: Architecture, Landscape and Modernity 1880-1940,” Jacqueline Banerjee created a related project on Port Sunlight, including “Port Sunlight, Wirral, Cheshire: Introduction,” “Port Sunlight's Housing,” “Port Sunlight: Amenities,” as well as a new section for the architects William and Segar Owen and several of their buildings: Christ Church, The Lady Lever Art Gallery, and the Warrington Technical School.The next creates a biography and homepage for William Richard Lethaby as well as his Melsetter House, Chapel of St Colm and St Margaret,and All Saints' Brockhampton. Finally, she wrote “Mary Kingsley: Demystifying Africa.”

Andrzej Diniejko, our contributing editor from Poland, has written “The Fabian Society in Late Victorian Britain.”

Simon Cooke created a new section for the illustrator Ernest Griset, which includes an introduction and Griset's delightful Natural History, The Fox and the Grapes, and The Mountain in Labour. Thanks to Simon for procuring permission from Edmund M. B. King to include in the Victorian Web his “The Book Cover Designs of John Leighton, F.S.A.” (which originally appeared in the British Library Journal). GPL scanned, formatted, and linked the text, adding half a dozen images.

Hugh Small contributed “After Crimea: Florence Nightingale and Slum Clearance,” and Cyndy Manton shared a brief introduction to the designer Henry Wilson.

More Spanish translations: Esther Fernández Gutiérrez rendered into Spanish a dozen or so documents from the Blackmore section while Lourdes Ilian translated biography and Dick Sullivan's “Sadness and Salvation: Six Victorian Poems.”

Stephen Zelnick contributed “Conrad’s Bloody Imperialism: Achebe, Said, and what Conrad really wrote.” Charles de Paolo contributed “George Robert Waterhouse (1808-1888), Architect, Entomologist, Zoologist, Mineralogist, and Curator.” Amy Milne-Smith shared several extensive passages from her 2011 book, London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in late-Victorian Britain, including “Understanding London Clubland: Exclusion in Action — Club Elections,Gentleman behaving badly: Gambling in London Clubland,” and an extensive bibliography.

Thanks to a private collector who wishes to remain anonymous for sharing photographs of two paintings by Robert Brough — Sweetviolets and Breton Women.

Lindsey Moore, Deputy editor of Skipton's Craven Herald requested and received permission to use an image on the site.

Thanks to Donato Esposito for sending in new information about the year of J. H. Dearle's birth.

The site had with 72,708 documents on the thirtieth.

August 2013

Your webmaster reviewed Emerging from the Shadows, the catalogue for the fine exhibition of Holl's works at the Watts Gallery. Thanks also to Francesca Collin who obtained permission for us to put online photographs of painting and sculpture at Guildhall Art Gallery. These works include three by Sir George Frampton: Geoffrey Chaucer, Queen Mary, and King George V, Albert Bruce Joy's Lord Salisbury, William Merrett's Florence Nightingale, William Theed's General Gordon, John ing Herbert's Our Saviour Subject to His Parents at Nazareth, John Collier's Clytemnestra, and James Tissot's The Last Evening.

Drawing upon Project Gutenberg's online version of Anthony Trollope's Thackeray, GPL also added Thackeray's “The Willow” and his parody of this medieval-style balland. Thackeray also was the basis of the following documents: “Trollope on Thackeray's style,” “Thackeray becomes editor of the Cornhill Magazine,” “A Defense of Thackeray's characters in Vanity Fair,” “Henry Esmond the greatest of Thackeray's works,” “Trollope on the novel as teacher of morals,” and “Trollope on Dickens, Thackeray, and lectures and public readings,” The Hathi Trust Digital Library provided the text of its review of the Moxon Tennyson as well as engravings of the following paintings and sculptures: John Henry Foley's Innocence, Daniel Maclise's Undine, William Mulready's The Wolf and the Lamb David Roberts's Gate of the Metwaleys: Cairo, Clarkson Stanfield's The Battle of Trafalgar, Theeds's Sappho, William Wyon's The Rescue,

Jacqueline Banerjee began the month by reorganizing the material on Highgate Cemetery, including the monuments for George Eliot, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and Frank Matcham. Turning to architecture in the Uk and Europe, she next contributed “Guildford Castle Grounds, Guildford, Surrey, by Henry Peak,” which includes a new a section for P. J. H. Cuypers, whose Rijksmuseum and Amsterdam Central Station both owed something to the amazingly widespread influence of Ruskin and the Arts and Crafts Movement — as indeed did Amsterdam's fabulous Shipping House, the first fully accomplished work of the Amsterdam School.

Then, coming back to her collaboration with photographer Robert Freidus, she wrote about John Johnson's Colquhoun Mortuary Chapel at Brookwood Cemetery, and the chapels and Egyptian Catacombs at Highgate Western Cemetery. She also put together with commentaries two galleries of views (Eastern and Western, and two of monuments with angels or similar figures (Eastern and Western), for each side of this famous cemetery. Monuments considered separately were Frank Holl's, Michael Faraday's and the architect Edward Blore's. But, thanks to our busy contributing photographer, there are many more famous people's graves and unusual monuments still to come. Special thanks to Dr Ian Dungavell for contributing his photos of the interior of the Colquhoun Mortuary Chapel at Brookwood.

Simon Cooke continued his essays on Victorian book illustrators with an introduction to the life and works of John William North and the following three essays on Arthur Boyd Houghton, the great illustrator: “Houghton as a stylist: from the Orient to images of the Victorian poor,” “Houghton and the representation of children,” and “Houghton, escapism, and contemporary life” plus a half dozen images.

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “Was Darwin Racist?: A Review of Charles De Paolo's The Ethnography of Charles Darwin: A Study of His Writings on Aboriginal Peoples

Jessica Porter and Albert Pionke contributed an HTML version of Thomas de Quincey's “Secret Societies.”

John Cooper, Webmaster of Oscar Wilde in America, shared with us “The Roots of Oscar Wilde’s Dress Philosophy.” Andrey Fomin has translated Diane Josefowicz's

The Wave Theory of Light” into Czech. Thanks to Jeanette Edgar of Blackwell, the Arts and Crafts House in Bowness-on-Windermere for sharing a series of photographs of Baillie-Scott's furniture, and thanks to Liss Fine Art for sharing images of Frank Brangwyn's mural The Printed Word Makes the People of the World One and sketches for other murals, including studies for Man the Creator and Man the Master as well as Fyffe Christie's The Lady of Shalott .

Thanks to Ellen McCormick for correcting a factual error.

On August 26th there were 72,190 documents and images on the site.

July 2013

Working through folders of photographs taken in London, your webmaster added London's Methodist Central Hall and the former St. Peter's Church (1866) — now St. Yeghiche's Armenian Church. Thanks to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's for permitting GPL to photograph and put online photos of the Victorian mosaics designed by Salviati and Richmond in the Cathedral.

GPL also formatted several of Robert Friedus's photograph series, including the tomb of Guilio Salviati, the Novello Theatre (originally the Waldorf), Shaftesbury Theatre. His new photographs of architectural sculpture include Paul Gasq's Simmer and Winter and works on the St. Thomas More Buildings in Chelsea, Balfour House on Great Titchfield Street, and buildings at 26 Westbourne Grove, Westminster Palace Gardens, 153 Fenchurch Street, and wrought iron gates and fencing at G. E. Street's Law Courts. Prompted by Philip Allingham's photo essay, “John Butler, Lieutenant-Colonel and leader of Butler's Rangers,” GPL began work on our new section on Victorian Canada.

Philip V. Allingham contributed 4 photographs by Alfred Ellis of characters in the play based on George Du Maurier's Trilby; each photograph is accompanied by Du Maurier's original illustration, the passage the photograph represents, and an essay explaining the relation ship between images and text. Her also contributed scans and commentaries the Tauchnitz plates of Dickens and the illustrations by Harry Furniss of Cricket on the Hearth, such as Caleb Plummer — The Toy Maker. Allingham began our new section on Victorian Canada with a photo-essay on John Butler, Lieutenant-Colonel and leader of Butler's Rangers.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed “The Cremation Society and Woking Crematorium, Surrey, ” a “History of Brookwood cemetery,” and commentary to accompany Bob Freidus's photos on the Monastery of the St Edward the Martyr in Brookwood Cemetery. She also provided the text and bibliography for the history of Willesden United Synagogue Cemetery and for “Ritual buildings and views” as well as creating a new section for the architect Nathan Solomon Joseph, including a biography and preliminary list of works. Still in connection with cemeteries, she wrote about Sir William Drake, lawyer and art connoisseur, who has an elegant mausoleum at Brookwood, and rewrote an earlier piece on Highgate Cemetery to include seven of Robert Freidus's lovely pictures. She also added a new piece, with more of his pictures, on a remarkable late-19c.businesswoman, Marthe Josephine Besson, who is buried there. Finally, last month's visit to the recently restored Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam produced a biography of W. F. Dixon, and she followed this up in July with a series of five commentaries on his brilliant (in every sense) stained glass windows there.

Self-abuse, daughter abuse, manslaughter, homicide, scandal — Diane Greco Josefowicz, our Science & Technology Editor, discusses them all in her "Purity and Danger in Malvern: A Review of Pauline Conolly's The Water Doctor's Daughters."

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “A Short Bibliographical Survey of Thomas Hardy Studies.”

Want to see how Trollope (and his readers) mapped out his novels? Take a look at Ellen Moody's "Mapping Trollope; or Geographies of Power."

Ivo de Galan has shared another work with readers of the Victorian Web: Portrait of a young woman by Sir Samuel Luke Fildes, R. A.

A collector, who wishes to remain anonymous, shared with us photographs of the 16-inch version of Alfred the Great, L. Gwendolen Williams's A Primrose by the River Banks, Maggie Richardson's In Ha Signo Vinces, Mary Kynaston Watts-Jones's Mother and child, and her But things like this, you know, after a famous victory.

Alberto Landoni, a retired mathematician from a little town near Milan, Italy, requested and received permission to reproduce Jackie Banerjee's photograph of Cambridge's Church of the Holy Sepulchre in his planned book on Legnano.

Vassilaki Papanicolaou, who is finishing a doctorate in comparative literature at University Bordeaux III, France, kindly sent in corrections for some scanning and typographical errors on the site. Many thanks, and thanks to Brian J. Goggin of Stradbally North, Castleconnell, County Limerick, Ireland, for identifying the Louisa as a horse-drawn barge

As of July 29th the site had 71,729 documents and images.

June 2013

Continuing their collaboration, your webmaster and Robert Freidus created a partial list of the works that served as prizes in the annual Art Union lottery. He also put up “Communcations Networks: Postal Service, Telegraph, LAN, and Internet” — brief selection from Catherine Golden's work. On the 12th Landow left for Germany to begin a brief 1-month Fulbright (as a Senior Specialist in Information Technology) at the University of Bayreuth. Thanks to Tamsin Williams and the Watts Gallery for sharing more than a dozen images of paintings by Frank Holl, which has enabled GPL to create a new section on the artist and announce the Gallery's coming exhibition of his work.

Philip V. Allingham contributed essays on Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, "The Blackwood's Tale": An Enduring Legacy," and the Tauchnitz editions of Charles Dickens. He also continued his series of in-depth comparative studies of individual plates of illustrations of Dickens, The Ghostly Knocker, Marley's Ghost, Phantoms in the Street, and The First of the Three Spirits.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed a five-part essay on Victorian orphanages that concentrates on Captain Coram and the Foundling Hospital in London but ranges widely as well. Much of the rest of the month was spent on completing her work on Lichfield Cathedral. This included the highly decorative monument to Bishop Selwyn, who was Bishop of New Zealand, and (exotic in another way) a monument to the controversial Major Hodson of Hodson's Horse, who died in the 1857 Mutiny. The interior of the Cathedral, with its splendid Scott-Skidmore screen and other fittings, came last, with a list of "Related Material" there serving as an index to the whole series. Other contributions included a short essay on E. M. Barry's Charing Cross Hotel (and some proof-reading, as usual! Please notify us of any mistakes you spot!).

Simon Cooke opened the month with essays on a series of new illustrators, including Ford Madox Brown, James Doyle, Charles Doyle, and Frederick Shields plus an essay on the illustrations of William Holman Hunt. He closed out July with an essay on John William North; the illustrations will come in August.

James Driscoll of Driscolls Antiques Ltd., of Clitheroe, Lancashire, kindly shared photographs of a dozen works of Victorian furniture, one of the most interesting being a burr walnut card table from the 1860s that opens in two different ways. Alison Davey of AD Antiques, of Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, has generously shared photographs and information about two dozen ceramic objects, including chargers by William de Morgan, grotesque birds, vases, and a fish by the Martin Brothers, and a range of objects manufactured by Doulton — Lambeth jugs designed by Hanna Barlow, an Art Nouveau vase designed by Eliza Simmance, and Mark Marshall's The Waning of the Honeymoon.

Sharon Kim, Professor of English at Judson University, contributed four passages from her Literary Epiphany in the Novel, 1850-1950: Constellations of the Soul, which Palgrave Macmillan published in 2012: “Epiphany as experience and epiphany as a textual record of that experience,” “Epiphanies and spirituality,” “Epiphanies and Time,” and “Reverse Projection: Moral Epiphany in Middlemarch,”

As of June 24th, the site had 70, 820 documents and images.

May 2013

Lovely May began with your webmaster reviewing Leah Price's fascinating How to Do Things with Books in Victorian Britain and David J. Getsy's Body Doubles: Sculpture in Britain, 1877-1905. It ended with his joint review of two books about Victorian violence: Ingrid Hanson's William Morris and the Uses of Violence, 1856-1890 and Amy E. Martin's Alter-Nations: Nationalisms, Terror, and the State in Nineteenth-Century Britain and Ireland. In between he delved once again into the treasure house that is the Internet Archive, from which he created a new section on Frances Macdonald and added three objects to that for Alexander Fisher, 1 to that for Herbert MacNair, 11 photographs of interior architectural sculpture by W.R. Colton, two dozen examples of work in metal, glass, and textile design by Christopher Dresser, and more than a dozen objects by his favorite designer, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, a including a series on the Argyle Street tea rooms, several posters, and mural decorations. Later in the month issues of the Architecture Review furnished information and images that allowed adding more than a half a dozen names to our section on women sculptors plus new works by S. Nicholson Babb, Francis Derwent Wood, Sir William Reid Dick, George Frampton, Richard Garbe, Ernest Gillick, Andrea Carlo Lucchesi, Paul Raphael Montford, William Burnie Rhind, Ellen Mary Rope, and Albert Toft, Arthur George Walker. This same periodical also furnished material that permitted creating new sections in architecture for John Belcher and Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott and adding numerous examples of work by John Belcher, W.D. Caroe, Thomas E. Colcutt, Basil Champneys, Edward Buckton Lamb Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, Edward William Mountford, Ernest Newton, Charles Harrison Townsend, and Aston Webb.

Jacqueline Banerjee, who reviewed Mitchell and Benford's new Yale edition of George Meredith's Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside, with Poems and Ballads, created a photo-essay on T. R. Spence's St George's Church in Newcastle with the assistance of Bob Morgan, Dr Neil Moat, and the Newcastle City Library and the monument to Andrew Newton by Richard Westmacott, Senior, at Lichfield Cathedral. This was followed by stained glass at the cathedral by John Hardman, Charles Eamer Kempe and William Wailes, with short biographies of Kempe and Wailes. Other work this month includes a piece on F. W. Woodington's splendid Rugby Union Lion at Twickenham, and a longer life and illustrations for Kate Greenaway (for the illustrations, see the index there). Other contributions are about Ruskin's spring and pump at Fulking, Sussex, and Bird, a new illustration by Helen Allingham. She also reviewed Pamela Horn's concise but very useful Life in a Victorian Classroom.

Philip V. Allingham completed his extensive commentaries on Sol Eyting, Jr., illustrations to Dickens's Christmas book.

Simon Cooke has written the authoritative essay on William Holman Hunt as book illustrator. Continuing his series of essays on illustrated Victorian periodicals, Cooke also contributed an essay on The Quiver and four plates by Frederick Sandys.

Ed Green has shared with readers of the Victorian Web his “Music and the Victorian Mind: The Musical Aesthetics of the Rev. H. R. Haweis,” which first appeared in IRASM [International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music]. Thanks to the editors for their permission.

John Sankey's review of Nicola Capon's John Tweed: Sculpting the Empire came in at the end of last month. Many thanks!

Marja Berclouw contributed an illustrated essay, “A Prosaic but Useful Service: Bathhouses and Washhouses, an Idea Whose Time Had Come,” to the Public Health section. Michael and Sudan Padwee contributed new photographs and information about Victorian tiles that enabled GPL to create a homepage for them. Maroussia Oakley contributed introductions to two Victorian periodicals — Good Words for the Young and The Welcome Guest. Robert L. Patten has kindly permitted us to include his classic essay “ Pickwick Papers and the Development of Serial Fiction.”

Terence Trelawny-Gower writes inquiring about architectural sculpture in Clare College Cambridge designed by Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt and executed by Theodore Phyffers.

The SDBB (The Swiss Service Centre for Vocational Training, Study and Careers Counselling) is an Institution of the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK) requested and received permission to use an image of a student essay on Brontë.

Thanks to Richard Toporoski of Vancouver for pointing out a mistaken transcription of “GCB.” as “CCB.”

By May 27th, the site had 70, 313 documents and images.

April 2013

The month began with your webmaster back in London, expecting a balmy spring but encountering cold, strong breezes, and, yes, snow. Before leaving home, he put online 10 of William Nicholson's fine portraits of Queen Victoria and other notables, which Paul Liss of liss Fine Art shared with readers of the Victorian Web. Thanks, Paul! Thanks, too, to Chris Blanchett, a tile historian, who explained that tiles in G. E. Street's Roman church attributed to William Morris are actually by Frederick Garrard. He also contributed a glossary of ceramics terms, a biography of Garrard, discussion of his styles, list of works, and photographs of 46 other tiles by Garrard, which led to your webmaster's creating a homepage for tiles and for Gerrard. While out exploring the area north of Old Brompton Road, Landow came upon a William Butterfield gem — the Church of St. Augustine Queens Gate. See the new sections on the exterior, interior, tile paintings of Old and New Testament events, and the church's post-Victorian stained glass.

Thanks to Peyton Skipwith, past Master of the Art Workers Guild, and Ellspeth Dennison, current secretary, Landow was able to photograph the Guild's treasure trove of portraits for the site. The painted commemorative portraits of Masters of the Guild include Gilbert Bayes by G. N. Meredith Frampton, Robert Anning Bell's self-portrait, Sir George Frampton, R.A by William Strang, Graham Jackson by Solomon J. Solomon, F. W. Pomeroy by Robert Anning Bell. The sculpted ones (nine busts and one bas relief) include C. R. Ashbee by Allan G. Wyon, Walter Crane by George Blackall-Simonds, Selwyn Image by William Silver Frith, Thomas Stirling Lee (1898) by Arthur George Walker, W. R. Lethaby by Gilbert Bayes, William Morris by Conrad Dressler, William Strang George Frampton, Francis W. Troup by Gilbert Bayes, Heywood Sumner by Henry Alfred Pegram, Charles Harrison Townsend by Francis Derwent Wood. A visit to Parliament Square produced a new set of four photographs of Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston and a detail of the Disraeli. The rare appearance of the sun this trip also occasioned new photos, such as a brightly lit cow on the former Wrights Dairy on King's Road. Landow also reviewed Barbara Black's A Room of His Own: A Literary-Cultural Study of Victorian Clubland.

Rising very early one morning to avoid crowds in Parliament Square and take photographs there when the sun shines from just the right place in the sky, Landow made new images of Matthew Noble's statues of Robert Peel and Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, Lord Derby as well as H. Young's Palmerston and Mario Raggi's Benjamin Disraeli. He then took a series of photographs of the medieval revival carvings on Middlesex Guildhall from which he created a gallery, linked to Jackie Banerjee's photo essay. Returning to a another place first photographed for the site a dozen years ago, he added many images to the section on Holy Trinity, Sloane Street — the Arts and Crafts Church. A walk around Chelsea produced photos of another interesting church — St Simon Zelotes, and thanks to Aïcha Mehrez and the Royal British Society of Sculptors for providing information and a photograph to accompany Landow's photographs of Dora House, the home of the Society. After Rupert Maas of the Maas Gallery gave the Victorian Web permission to use images from their current Pre-Raphaelitism show, Landow added to the site two works by the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor Alexander Munro plus paintings and drawings by William Bond, John Brett, Edward Burne-Jones, E. R. Frampton, Henry Holiday, A. W. Hunt, J. W. Inchbold, John Samuel Raven, D. G. Rossetti, Frederick Sandys, Robert Tonge, and William J. Webbe.

Philip V. Allingham spent April 11 through 13 at the University of Warminsko-Mazurski, in Poland, at a Dickens conference.

Early in the month, Jacqueline Banerjee completed a short series of essays on Basil Champneys' college buildings: Bedford College, London, Newnham College, Cambridge, and the Divinity School, Cambridge — also his Gothic memorial cross for All Saint's Church in Cambridge. These were followed by photo essays on the Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham, by Aston Webb & Ingress Bell, with memorable architectural sculpture by Harry Bates (Queen Victoria) and William Silver Frith (St George and the Dragon, and other figures), and the stylish Methodist Central Hall, Birmingham, the architectural sculpture for which was by the leading terracotta firm of Gibbs & and Canning. Then, as a result of a visit to South London, JB wrote about the William Booth Memorial Training College on Denmark Hill, and the statues there by George Wade: General William Booth himself and his wife Catherine, of the Salvation Army. She also reviewed the hefty new edition of J. Mordaunt Crook's splendid William Burges and the High Victorian Dream. At the end of the month, she opened a new section on the sculptor Mary Grant, which includes her statues at Lichfeild Cathedral, and her busts of Sir Francis Grant, Tennyson and Parnell. Adding some comments to Robert Freidus's picture, JB also discussed 49 Pall Mall, and started writing about Sir George Gilbert Scott's restoration of Lichfield Cathedral.

Derek B. Scott, our music editor, set in his performance of Longfellow's The Wreck of the Hesperus.

Simon Cooke contributed a dozen or so illustrations by Harrison Weir.

Maroussia Oakley, a new contribution, has written two essays on Victorian magazines: The Welcome Guest. A Magazine of Recreative Reading for All and Good Words for the Young.

Ruth M. Landow contributed five photographs of Tower Bridge.

Daniela Daniele, Assistant Professor of Anglo-American Literature, University of Udine, Italy, made an interesting contribution to the gender matters section: “Sandism in reverse: the strange, marmorean beauty of Julia Ward Howe’s The Hermaphrodite” Michael Padwee contributed 11 images of tiles by the International Tile Company. Mike Hickox contributed “The Political Background to The Death of Chatterton by Henry Wallis” Continuing the flood of new contributions, Martin C. Jenkins sent his his biography of the sculptor F. Lynn Jenkins.

Thanks to Mark Bernstein of Eastgate Systems for picking up a typo.

On the 29nd of April the site had 69,351 documents and images.

March 2013

This month your webmaster contributed a review of two works of Neo-Victorian fiction that provide continuations of novels by Dickens and Eliot: Charles Barry's Mr. Micawber Down Under (2011) and Imke Thormählen's The Laidislaw Case (2011). Then, working with photographs and research by Robert Freidus, and valuable assistance from Jacqueline Banerjee, he created sections containing hundreds of images for the following cemeteries and their monument and mausoleums: Abney Park, Beckenham, Hampstead, Hillingdon, Hither Green, Nunhead, and S. Ealing.

At the end of last month, Jacqueline Banerjee's contributions included an account of the Aston Webb buildings at the University of Birmingham, with external sculptural and decorative work by Henry Alfred Pegram and Robert Anning Bell, and T. R. Spence's magnificent window inside the Great Hall. So this month began with a new section on Spence, explaining his involvement with the Art Workers' Guild, together with a short biography of him kindly contributed by Dr Neil Moat, and one of his paintings, The Disciples of Sappho. A visit to Ealing then inspired another new section, this time on the London borough's best-remembered architect, Charles Jones, who was responsible for the former town hall, as well as the later town hall, and for important work on Sir John Soane's Pitzhanger Manor-House and its grounds, Walpole Park. In the park is Jones's memorial, by the medallist/sculptor Frank Bowcher. Jones's two town halls led to a new town halls index, bringing together various examples of this important class of Victorian architecture.

Philip V. Allingham continued his major illustration project, posting images and extensive commentary for the British Household Edition of The Unfortunate Traveller by E. G. Dalziel and the American version by C. S. Reinhart. He has also nearly completed the commentaries for Marcus Stone's eight Illustrated Library Edition illustrations for A Child's History of England, a series undoubtedly sanctioned by Dickens himself. In consequence, issues as various as Dickens's attitudes towards historical figures in English and French history such as Joan of Arc and Lady Jane Grey, as well as to "The Burgers of Calais," almshouses, Victorian theatres, ship-building, Mormon emigration, and mailboats have been connected with Dickens's non-fiction published in the 1850s and 1860s.

Diane Greco Josefowicz added an introduction and new material to her bibliography of primary sources on Victorian theories of biology and gender.

Simon Cooke, who continues to explain our already large section on illustration, contributed a biographical introductions for Thomas Morten and John Pettie plus examples of their work.

Elaine D. Trehub contributed "Archival resources relating to the higher education of women in England," a survey that covers thirteen institutions, including women's colleges at Cambridge, London, and Oxford.

Thanks to Liselot Quisquater from the University of Ghent for notifying us about a bad link, which turned out to be a document that had gone missing. Your webmaster located it and put it in its proper location. Thanks, too, to Katja Rachinsky, who wrote from Germany to correct a typo in the date of one of Alexander Bain's works, and to Thomas Sawyer from Irvine, California for proof-reading our essay on London Society and providing an important date.

As of the 25th, the site had 68,432 document and images.

February 2013

Your webmaster began the month editing and formatting the work of two new contributors on large projects. First, he worked with Michael Kersting's 40 photographs of Pugin's churches and chapels in County Wexford, Ireland. A much larger project involved creating with Clare Sargent a hypermedia assemblage comprising the history of St. Peter's College, Radley, its predecessor institution, St Columba’s College, Stackallan, Ireland, and the founders, patrons, staff, and a students of the English High Church boarding school — all of which provides the context for Ms. Sargent's edition (on this site) of Robert Singleton's diaries. Next, using volumes available online from the Internet Archive and his own library, GPL added steel engraved versions of works by J. D. Harding, Samuel Prout, and J. W. M. Turner from Jenning's 1833 Landscape Annual and the 1830 edition of Roger's Italy. The last half of the month was spent translating Elizabeth K. Helsinger's Ruskin and the Art of the Beholder into html and linking it to materials both within and without our Ruskin section.

Philip V. Allingham completed the commentaries on E. A. Abbey's American Household Edition illustrations for The Christmas Books and Christmas Stories, after which he began work on commentaries for Edward Dalziel's British Household Edition illustrations of The Uncommercial Traveller, complementing earlier commentaries on C. S. Reinhart's illustrations for a similar anthology in the Harper and Brothers' Household Edition. The acquisition of the full set of Furniss's 1915 edition of the works of Charles Dickens (courtesy of Professor Emeritus Jim Gellert of Lakehead University's English Department) prompted him to update the commentaries for a number of Furniss's illustrations for Great Expectations, including his complicated title-page vignette for that volume. All told, he's done about 30 essays during the last two months.

Jacqueline Banerjee created a section on the sculpture of Marshall Wood (1834-1882) and sent in new photographs of his statue of Queen Victoria in Kolkata, together with one of Richard Cobden in Manchester. Completing her work on St Chad's R. C. Cathedral, Birmingham, she wrote a piece on John Hardman & Co. and two of the Hardman stained glass windows there, the Flanagan window and the war memorial window. Very many thanks to Canon Gerry Breen of the cathedral for his kind help in "reading" the former. A prominent Kolkata architect followed, Walter Granville, whose General Post Office, High Court and elegant Indian Museum were all landmark buildings there — as was Charles Wyatt's grand Raj Bhavan or Government House. This led to an essay on the whole Wyatt dynasty of architects, and short separate biographies of Benjamin Dean Wyatt and Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt, as well as a couple of fine London buildings by two earlier Wyatts — Samuel Wyatt's Trinity House, and James Wyatt's "Gothick" former Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Andrzej Diniejko, our Contributing Editor from Poland, created a section on Caroline Norton, including a biography, chronology, and list of works in various genres.

This month, the Pugin Society asked if they could link to us, and the BBC history website requested our help on the topic of crime and crime fiction in the Victorian period. Peter Silk wrote to request permission to use one of Bob Freidus's photos for a Royal Mail commemorative sheet celebrating the life and work of the Australian sculptor Bertram Mackennal.

Alison Hemmings of the Caledonian Club's magazine asked for and received permission to use an image of St. Paul's.

Thanks to Matthew T. Howells for writing in with additional information about Church of St, James the Great on Cardiff.

Jane Freeman writes to point out a typo in Charlotte Brontë's penname. John Sankey, a regular contributor, corrects a few dates in the list of Athenæum members. Thanks!

As of the 25th, the site had 67,677 document and images.

January 2013

The year began with 66, 789 documents and images on the Victorian Web, 4,500 sites linked to us, and all of 101 people follow us on on the VW Facebook page.

Your webmaster continued expanding the section on Frank Brangwynn, adding thirty watercolors of bridges, medieval and modern, which led to creating a new home- or index page for Victorian railways in the visual arts. Next, he created a section on Liverpool before Victoria and another on Glasgow in the Visual Arts plus creating a chronology for the “Early History of the Steamship” and adding photographs and information about late-Victorian and Edwardian steam ships. Discovering that one of our images by Albrecht Dürer had gone missing, GPL scanned another and created a section on Dürer, which includes links to a few of the Victorian artists he influenced. Continuing to mine The Internet Archive, GPL added to our section on Victorian railways, beginning with late-nineteenth-century discussions of individual lines, such as The Great Western, the North-Eastern, and the London and South-Western Railways — more to come soon — and images and descriptions of characteristic locomotives.

Philip V. Allingham completed the last of his twenty-eight essays comparing individual illustrations by Edward A. Abbey to both the texts they realize and other artist's illustrations of the same passages.He has begun a similar series on the Dickens illustrations of Harry Furniss.

Jaqueline Banerjee began the month with a biography of the sculptor R. J. Wyatt and a photographs of his monument to the Smith Family in St Mary the Virgin Church, Merton Park, a church about which she contributed a photo-essay discussing both its origin form, Victorian additions, monuments, and stained glass window by Burne-Jones and Morris, including Moses and Abraham, Isaiah and David, St Mary and St John, and . Other materials associated with this church include Nathaniel Hitch and Henry Philip Burke Downing's war monument in the churchyard. She also added a photo-essay on Silvester Charles Capes's commercial building at 14-16 Cowcross Street in Islington. (The Financial Times requested and received permission to quote from one of her contributions.)

Upon her return from India, she contributed some beautiful photographs of Frampton's statue of Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser that stands before the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta. Turning to things back in England, she sent in a substantial photo-essay of Pugin's Cathedral Church of St Chad, Birmingham, followed by others on the interior of St Chad's, and on Pugin's stained glass there. Thanks to the Dean & Chapter of the cathedral for allowing us to illustrate these. Somers Clarke's essay on stained glass provided some interesting comments on the subject too. Finally, these researches also turned up some more information about a later stained glass artist, A. K. Nicholson.

Some extra pictures of Chantrey's Bishop Heber in St Paul's Cathedral in Kolkata took us back to India again, and prompted John Sankey to send in a new contribution about Thomas Brock's young Queen Victoria in the Victoria Memorial Hall there. Many thanks!!

Simon Cooke continued his series of articles on Victorian periodicals with an introduction to the Methodist reformer Thomas Bywater Smithies's Band of Hope Review and its illustrations, including John Gilbert's Curious Jane with the Gypsies. He accompanyied this contribution with essays on Smithies's British Workman and its illustrations by Gilbert and Robert Barnes. He also added examples of work by German illustrators, such as Alfred Rethel's Death on the Barricades and Siegfried and the Rhine Maidens. Cooke also wrote essays on The Churchman’s Family Magazine and London Society — An Illustrated Magazine of Light and Amusing Literature for the Hours of Relaxation. The month ended with an essay with examples of the illustrations of Richard Dadd.

Asun López-Varela vetted and then sent along Yuliya Yuliyanova Pavlova's translations into Spanish of the materials on the children's author, Julia Horatia Ewing.

Philip Cohen contributed photographs of the Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, where the poet John Barlas ended his days.

The De Morgan Centre, which has sent along a notice of their forthcoming exhibition, The Lost Paintings of Evelyn De Morgan (1 February to 20 April), has also kindly shared several images of the artist's work, including St. Christina Giving her Father’s Jewels to the Poor.

Dennis McCue, Senior Information Officer, Glasgow City Council, kindly sent along a photograph of George Frampton's monument for Queen Victoria as exhibited at the 1901 International Exhibition in Glasgow, which now accompanies photographs of the statue in Calcutta by Ramnath Subbaraman, Robert Freidus, and Simon Stock.

Michael Curl writes to inform us that the old link to Trollope's Apollo: A Guide to Classics in the Barsetshire Novels of Anthony Trollope no longer works and to one that does. Thanks! Thanks and apologies are due to Denise Betteridge whose e-mail from last July pointing out the disappearance of an image just surfaced in GPL's in-box.

As of the 28th the site had 67,194 documents and images.

December 2012

Your webmaster reviewed Philip K. Cohen's excellent critical biography whose title well describes its subject: John Evelyn Barlas, A Critical Biography: Poetry, Anarchism, and Mental Illness in Late-Victorian Britain (2012). Drawing once again upon the riches of the Internet Archive, Landow added the essays of Henry James on illustrators (Edward A. Abbey, Charles C. Reinhart, and Alfred Parsons) and writers (Matthew Arnold, George Eliot, William Morris, Rudyard Kipling, and A. C. Swinburne). Landow then added more than thirty plates by one of his favorite illustrators, Edmund J. Sullivan, with sitemaps (or homepages) for his illustrations of Tennyson and Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat to match the older one on Carlyle's Sartor Resartus. Then, drawing upon James Thorpe's 1949 monograph, he added commentaries to these sitemaps and Sullivan's main page. Working from other sources, he added works to Charles Robinson and created new sections on Harry Clarke, William James Linton, and Helen M. Sinclair. The year ended with Landow adding to the material on Frank Brangwyn, creating new sections for his engravings and lithographs, watercolors, and war posters, and adding dozens of examples to those already existing on paintings and drawings plus commentaries taken from two books by his early twentieth-century advocate, Walter Shaw Sparrow.

Philip v. Allingham has contributed a dozen and a half comparative essays on the illustrations of Dickens's Christmas books by the American E. A. Abbey (subject of an essay by Henry James just added).

At the very end of last month and the beginning of this, Jacqueline Banerjee wrote an illustrated essay on the French influence on Victorian Architecture, including the example of Cuthbert Brodrick's Second Empire-style Grand Hotel, Scarborough. She then started writing about Pugin in the Midlands, discussing — the exterior and interior of his masterpiece, the Roman Catholic Church of St Giles in Cheadle, and its beautiful stained glass. Dr Craig Thornber again very kindly provided some lovely pictures, this time for her description of the other (Anglican) Church of St Giles in Cheadle, and her short biography of its architect, J. P. Pritchett. These were followed by photo essays on Pugin's additions and alterations to Alton Towers, the Convent and school at Cheadle, and a review of Michael Fisher's book, "Gothic For Ever": A. W. N. Pugin, Lord Shrewsbury, and the Rebuilding of Catholic England. JB also reviewed two other new books: Philip Davies's London: Hidden Interiors, with its magnificent photography by Derek Kendall, and John Sankey's edition of an exciting find, a recently discovered early twentieth-century biography of Thomas Brock: Thomas Brock: Forgotten Sculptor of the Victoria Memorial. Finally, she excerpted and formatted a well-illustrated discussion of "Pugin's First Church, St James', Reading," from John and Lindsay Mullaney's recent book about the church. We are very grateful to them both for the chance to reprint this informative account. It is of great interest because the church, unusually for Pugin, is in Noman-Romanesque style, and they discuss how far it already fits in with his "True Principles."

Andrzej Diniejko, Contributing Editor, Poland, sent along fron Warsaw his new section on Walter Besant, which includes a biography, “Walter Besant's Dystopian Novels,” “Walter Besant's Novels of East London,” and a chronology of his works.

Simon Cooke, who has an updated biography, began his promised series of articles on Victorian periodicals and book illustration with “Samuel Lucas, Once a Week, and the Development of Sixties Illustration” and “The Cornhill Magazine, George Smith and illustrators of ‘The Sixties.’” To accompany these essays, he also contributed illustrations by Robert Barnes (Honest Work and Death by suffocation) and George du Maurier (The Cicilian Pirates).

Stuart Durant, one of our regulars, contributed “Voysey and his first mentor, John Pollard Seddon.

Graham Lupp from Down Under sent along his photograph and accompanying text of Orton Park in New South Wales.

Greg Withnail writes from the Open University to point out a bad link created when we moved an essay to our section on children's literature. Thanks!

As of the 24th the site has 66, 595 documents and images.

November 2012

We welcome Simon Cooke as the Assistant Editor for Book Illustration and Design. Most appropriately, he contributed more material to his section on the illustrator Alfred Walter Bayes (1831-1909) and a much-needed essay on German illustrators and Victorian England. These new additions to our section on illustration prompted your webmaster to add to the materials on Laurence Housman, the brother of the poet who was a fine illustrator, poet, playwright, and author of both realist and fantasy fiction. The Internet Archive provided 60 examples of his illustrations for his own and other writer's works and two of his designs for bindings, and his autobiography, The Unexpected Year proved a treasure drove of information about his relation with his more famous brother, his reminiscences of Wilde and Whistler, the history of his religious belief, the harmful effects of Victorian prudery, and his movement from a political and social conservative to a radical who campaigned for female suffrage.

Drawing upon more published work of the late E.D.H. Johnson (your webmaster's thesis advisor way back in 1966), we've added “British Painting and the Industrial Revolution,” comments on Wilkie and genre painting, The Graphic. The Internet Archive version of Charles Rowley's illustrated reminiscences, has provided substantial additions to our sections on Ford Madox Brown's drawings and paintings, Walter Crane's drawings, and Frederic Shields's paintings

Philip V. Allingham contributed five commentaries on Edwin Austin Abbey's illustrations for A Christmas Carol.

Jacqueline Banerjee's contributions in the first half of the month included photographs of, and commentaries on, Sir Francis Chantrey's famous and touching Sleeping Children and his figure of Bishop Ryder, both from Lichfield Cathedral, and a photo-essay on the architect Basil Champneys' contributions to Manchester Cathedral. Her recent trip to Manchester also yielded an illustrated essay on Edward Salomons' fine Reform Club there. She completed her short series on the interior of the Midland Grand Hotel at St. Pancras with a look at the Grand Staircase and the atrium there, then turned to a private residence: The Heights in Witley, Surrey, designed for Sir Henry Cole by his son. It later became the home of George Eliot. Many thanks to Sarah Worthington for suggesting this piece, and also for her photographs and added information. Collaboration is always welcome!

We have several contributions from Down Under: Gill Parmenter contributed “The Adult’s Construction of the Inner World of the Child: Insights from Nineteenth-Century Autobiographical Literature” and Graham Lupp a photograph of Woolstone, a mansion decorated with cast iron trim. Thanks to Margaret Wright of Australia for correcting a typo that put a date in the wrong century!

As of the 27th the site has grown to 65, 882 documents and images — and this after deleting dozens of small thumbnails no longer necessary when most readers have faster Internet access.

October 2012

Your webmaster continued working with both his photographs of Oxford colleges and material available in the Internet Archive, creating a new homepage for Oxford that now includes 23 colleges plus a section on individual churches and streets. Part of this project includes a review of J. Mordaunt Crook's Brasenose: The Biography of an Oxford College. Doing a little housekeeping, your master added photographs and images that had been waiting patiently for many months, including works in cast iron, such as a finial with mer children (mermaid babies) surmounted by gilded crown, an ornate cast-iron lamppost in Trafalgar Square with cherubs and griffins, and a glass-and-iron porch roof with a cast bad relief of a dog. Thanks to the Athenæum Club we have a portrait of Sir Walter Scott, the formatting of which led to creating a new art relations section for the novelist. August's visit to London also produced a photograph of Westmacott's statue that surmounts the Duke of York's Column on Carlton Terrace.

The section on the Victoria and Albert Museum, which tripled in size, now includes pictures of the the columns and façade of the Henry Cole wing before and after restoration, the Costume Gallery and larger images and details of the altar screen visible from the entrance hall, examples of damage to the façade caused by air pollution, and the museums usually hidden iron and glass roof that protects a dropped ceiling over the galleries. Several of the older photographs have been replaced by better ones, many details have been added as well. The Internet archive provides images of proposed works by the architect, W. D. Caroë and wallpaper by Walter Crane.

Landow also reviewed Sara Atwood’s Ruskin’s Educational Ideals and drawing upon Holman Hunt's Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood created a number of documents for the section on Ford Madox Brown, including “'Curious crotchets:' Hunt on Ford Madox Brown's disappointments and character,” Ford Madox Brown's earlier work, Ford Madox Brown becomes a Pre-Raphaelite convert, Holman Hunt on Ford Madox Brown's mistreatment by the art establishment and later years, and Ford Madox Brown's praise for Hunt and Millais plus Hunt's comments on Dante Gabriel Rossetti's Girlhood of Mary Virgin and The Annunciation. He also added a dozen or so images to the artist's works.

Philip V. Allingham's chapter in Reading Victorian Book Illustration received a very favorable review by New Books Online 19.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed her biography of the Manchester architect Edward Salomons and his Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in Manchester plus William Robert Colton's The Spring-Tide of Life and Henry Richard Hope-Pinker's statuette of Dr. James Martineau. A reader (P. Brown) wrote in to correct a misidentification of a building and Ray Unwin contributed a fine photo, which she used in her essay on Newcastle's Union Club Thanks everybody! A week in Paris, and a very special visit to "Castello Marochetti" in Vaux--sur-Seine, then produced some contributions from France: photographs and discussions of the Eiffel Tower and the Art Nouveau metro station at Porte Dauphine (to which GPL usefully added details from Saint-Michel);an attractive stained glass window in a Parisian townhouse; and a series of new works by Marochetti: his relief of the Battle of Jemmapes on the Arc de Triomphe; his headstone for the composer Bellini at Père LaChaise; a a bust of Sir James Stephen; a medallion of Lord Macaulay; and The Angel of Sleep. Many thanks again to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon for her continued support of our Marochetti pages! Back in England, JB came across a picture of the artist William Holman Hunt's cottage in Sonning, making a nice link to the painting of Sonning which GPL had put up earlier this year. In addition, she began a series on the interior of the Midland Grand Hotel, including Introduction and Entrance Hall and a gallery of gothic arches plus Hardwick Road Cemetery, King's Lynn by Aickin & Capes.

Derek B. Scott, our music editor from Leeds, sends in performances of three more Victorian parlor ballads, including "Love’s Old Sweet Song" (which appears in Molly Bloom’s monologue in James Joyce’s Ulysses) plus "It was a Dream" and "Goodbye!"

Diane Greco Josefowicz, our science editor, has just compiled "Contraception in Victorian Britain: A Bibliography of Secondary Materials"

Simon Cooke contributed essays entitled “Art-training in mid-Victorian Britain: Sass’s” and “Art-training in mid-Victorian Britain: Leigh’s” plus a five essays, including a biography, on the illustrator Alfred Walter Bayes, father of he famous sculptor.

Dr Alexandra Mitchell, Project Officer (Worsley New Hall) at the University of Salford, writes to tell us about material available online about Blore's Worsley New Hall.

Paul Venter sent along a fine example of zoological illustration by R. Morgan. If you have any information about this nineteenth-century draughtsman and lithographer, please e-mail the webmaster.

As of the 29th the site had 65, 314 documents and images.

September 2012

Your webmaster began the month with a review of Sylvia Nasar's Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius and a few a brief pieces inspired by Nasar (who is best known for A Beautiful Mind) — What was the life of a typical Englishman just before Victoria ascended the throne? and Malthus, Mill, Carlyle, Marx, and Economics as a “Dismal Science.” Work continues on photographs from the recent trip to England, including a fountain in one of the Inns of Court, the Friends Meeting House in Hampstead, and a series on the William Morris Gallery in Walthamstow, an “anonymous” post box, and several works in the Athenaeum: George James Howard's drawing of F. T. Palgrave and two drawings by Alphonse Legros — Cardinal Manning,  G. F. Watts, and a caricature of the Athenaeum Burne-Jones sent to his nephew Rudyard Kipling upon his election to the club.

In addition, Landow has again teamed with Robert Freidus on documenting London cemeteries, and the first documents thus far for Camberwell Old Cemetery in Southwark, London, Kingston on Thames Cemetery, and Twickenham Cemetery, Willesden United Synagogue Cemetery, which thus far includes more than 50 memorials. Landow also wrote A little too thin: A Review of Sara Atwood’s Ruskin’s Educational Ideals.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed "Border Crossings" a review of Claudia Nelson's Precocious Children & Childish Adults: Age Inversion in Victorian Literature, after which she continued her work on the art and architecture of Birmingham with some wonderful photographs (and accompanying texts) of Burne-Jones stained glass in St. Philip's Cathedral, Birmingham: the Nativity, Crucifixion Ascension, and Last Judgment.

Shifting her focus from Birmingham to Manchester, she has begun a series on photo-essays on Waterhouse's designs for the University of Manchester, beginning with the Waterhouse Quad and Rear Courtyard and university buildings facing Oxford Road. Thanks to Stephen Richards for contributing his excellent photographs. Joining Landow and Freidus on the London cemetery project, she carrie dout a great deal of research to produce “A Victorian Partnership: Aickin & Capes” She also sent in some sculpture photos and commentaries, on Richard Cockle Lucas's Dr Johnson statue in Lichfield; Percy Fitzgerald's biography and his Boswell statue in the same town, as well as his statue of Dr Johnson in London; and Sir Richard Westmacott's monument to Nelson in Birmingham's Bull Ring, this last piece accompanying a lovely photograph provided by Dr Craig Thornber. She rounded off the month with an essay on Victorian Listed Buildings," prompting your hard-working webmaster to make links to it from the many, many splendid listed buildings in our architecture section.

Phillip V. Allingham has completed several months' work on the illustrations of Dickens's five Christmas books (including Christmas Carol)

Andrzej Diniejko contributes a six-part series of essays on the history of the Salvation Army, which includes biographies of both William and Catherine Mumford Booth plus a discussion of the The Hallelujah Lasses, a chronology, and a bibliography and suggestions for additional reading.

Diane Greco Josefowicz has written "Bad Medicine" — a review of Sylvia A. Pamboukian's Doctoring the Novel: Medicine and Quackery from Shelley to Doyle

Tamsin Williams writes to announce a splendid exhibition of the works of William and Evelyn De Morgan at the Watts Gallery, Compton, Surrey (6 November 2012 – 27 January 2013).

Cécile Haranger-Dehayes, who teaches at l'Université Inter-Ages de Caen, has written and volunteered to help translate the site into French. Béatrice Laurent, Maître de Conférences at the Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, Martinique, who has translated materials in the Victorian Web, contributes two essays in French: “Ailleurs intérieurs : l’errance chez Thomas De Quincey” and “Nowhere, Neverland, Wonderland : les Ailleurs féériques des Victoriens

Mark Bernstein of Eastgate Systems helpfully sends along a few corrections of typos in the Ruskin section. Dorothy Fuldheim pointed out a dead offsite link. P. Brown corrects the identification of a building in Newcastle. Thanks!

Bernard F. Dukore, University Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech, writes to announce the publication of his new book Bernard Shaw: Slaves of Duty and Tricks of the Governing Class, by ELT Press (available on Amazon).

As of the 24th the site had 64,515 documents and images.

August 2012

Your webmaster began the month with a few brief documents about Darwin — Darwin's views of religion: his agnosticism and his reasons for rejecting Christianity and descriptions by Darwin and his son Francis of the family home in Down. As part of the ongoing project to update the formatting of some of our earliest documents, Landow restyled the main pages containing photographs of Myanmar.

A week in England produced several hundred photographs of the University of Oxford — yes, that's the proper name of the university — including series on the following colleges: Balliol, Brasenose, Christ Church, Keble, Magdalen, and St. John's. A walk with Robert Freidus through Hampstead Heath produced a much-expanded section on that green space. In addition to the architecture of William Butterfield's Keble College, the site now contains his mosaics in the chapel. Before heading to Oxford Landow completed the basic Legal London section by adding Gray's Inn (with Pomeroy's statue of Francis Bacon) to earlier work on Lincoln's Inn and the Middle and Inner Temples. Exploring the area around Gray's Inn, your webmaster peeked in an alley and caught sight of a massive church tower, which turned out to be Butterfield's Church of St Alban the Martyr, a church almost entire hidden by the buildings surrounding it. More photographs to come!

Philip Allingham continues his series of extensive commentaries on Fred Barnard excellent illustrations for Dickens's Christmas Books; he includes each plate, provides an analysis, and adds comparisons to illustrations of the same scene by other artists. Examples of such comparisons appear in illustrations for A Christmas Carol and The Cricket on the Hearth .

Jacqueline Banerjee opened a new section on the architect Basil Champneys, providing a biographical introduction and two essays on the John Rylands Library with two dozen photos. She also created a biographical introduction for the Manchester sculptor John Cassidy, who did the sculpture at the Rylands and added more illustrations by the architects Edmund Blore and Thomas Allom.

Later in the month, following a trip to Birmingham for a Pugin Society expedition, came a new section on England's second city. New entries so far are on its Town Hall and some works by important Midlands architects Yeoville Thomason (the Council Office and Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery) and J. H. Chamberlain (the Chamberlain Fountain and the School of Art). Also, new works by important sculptors, like J. H. Foley's Prince Albert; Thomas Woolner's Queen Victoria in the Council House and Joseph Chamberlain on the Chamberlain Fountain; Thomas Brock's Queen Victoria in Victoria Square; Francis John Williamson's Joseph Priestley and Birmingham Encouraging and Advancing the Fine Arts; and Albert Toft's wonderful allegorical figures outside Birmingham's Hall of Memory. Pugin buildings yet to come! With the publisher's permission, she also put up a short extract of her new book on George Meredith, about his later poetry.

Montserrat Martínez García translated into Spanish additional chapters of Chris R. Vanden Bossche's book on Carlyle as well as essays on Carlyle and John Brown, Carlyle's racism, and a relevant book review.

Katharine Chandler, Reference Librarian in the Rare Book Room of the Free Library of Philadelphia, writes to say that her institution owns the original watercolor of Sir Samuel Luke Fildes's tribute to Dickens — The Empty Chair.

ERA Publishing House writes from Bulgaria wanting permission to use our illustrations for a translation of Dickens.

Many thanks to Anthony Pace, Superintendent of Cultural Heritage, Malta, for writing in about the misattribution of a church our Maltese section — and for introducing us, in the process, to another fine Maltese architect of the Victorian period. The correction and new information will be up very shortly.

The site has 63,912 documents and images as of the twenty-seventh.

July 2012

In response to students who write to ask if the materials on the site are vetted by referees, GPL explained the ways six categories of materials are accepted. He also finished creating our web version of Derek B. Scott's The Singing Bourgeois: Songs of the Victorian Drawing Room and Parlor and found some photographs of Venice's St. Mark's and the Ducal Palace dating back to 1966. In addition, he scanned and formatted 21 charcoal drawings and relevant text from F. Hopkinson Smith's In Thackeray's London (1916), a volume that includes interesting material on both the novelist himself and the settings of Pendennis and other works..

Landow also converted for the site several important essays on Victorian autobiography that first appeared in a volume he edited three decades ago — three general essays: Howard Helsinger's "Credence and Credibility: The Concern for Honesty in Victorian Autobiography," Elizabeth K. Helsinger's "Ulysses to Penelope: Victorian Experiments in Autobiography", and LuAnn Walther's "The Invention of Childhood in Victorian Autobiography," plus two on individual authors: Elizabeth K. Helsinger's "The Structure of Ruskin's Praeterita and Robert Patten's "Autobiography Into Autobiography: The Evolution of David Copperfield." In addition, he reformatted Peter L. Shillingsburg's Pegasus in Harness: Victorian Publishing and W. M. Thackeray, which first joined the Victorian Web more than a decade ago. Working on Pegasus in Harness provided much material for the technology and economics of authorship, and at the same time it shrunk the Victorian Web! The latest format for books absorbed more than one hundred notes that had become separate documents, so at month's end we now have 63,395 documents and images, down from 63,453 a week earlier.

Congratulations to Philip V. Allingham, who has been promoted to the rank of full professor at Lakehead University.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed "Cholera," "John Snow and Waterborne Diseases," and several essays on the architect Edward Blore, including a biography and photo-essays on Pitt Buildings at Cambridge University Press, his St John the Baptist Church in London, and Government House, Sydney. and Government House, Sydney, as well as his Worsley Hall, Manchester. Then followed some more work on the commentaries on Burlington House, home of the Royal Academy, and The Society of Antiquaries, and a biography of the architect/topographical illustrator Thomas Allom, together with two of his wonderfully atmospheric illustrations, Druids' Grove and Lymington Iron Works. Another subject was Stationers' Hall in London, where for many years all published material had to be registered.

Andrzej Diniejko created materials for a new section on George Moore that include a biography, chronology, and introduction to his works.

Katherine M. Miller reviewed Caroline Levine and Mario Ortiz-Robles's Narrative Middles: Navigating the Nineteenth-Century British Novel.

Caroline Hedregen-Dillon sent in a photograph of Baron Marochetti's tender La Bimba Dormiente(Sleeping Girl), very kindly providing an English summary of her recent essay on it in La Tribune de l'Art. Thank you so much!

Charles de Paolo, Professor of English at Manhattan Community College of the City University of New York, contributed "Pasteur and Lister: A Chronicle of Scientific Influence."

June 2012

Now that Derek B. Scott, our editor for music and popular entertainment, has received permission from his publishers to put The Singing Bourgeois: Songs of the Victorian Drawing Room and Parlor on our site, your webmaster has begun the process of scanning, formatting, and linking the text, which ranges from opera to parlor ballads and from the role of railroads in making pianos popular in middle-class homes to stories of the heroic battles fought by women composers. Thus far, the introduction and two chapters — The Foundations of the Drawing-room Genre and The Growth of the Market for Domestic Music — are online. The first chapter includes the following sections: The English opera, The cultivation of refined 'folk' airs, The respectable entertainer, and Access to music. As of the 28th, the last 9 chapters, glossary, and bibliography are also complete.

In addition, GPL put up another dozen or so tombs and funerary sculpture, working with Robert Freidus's photographs. Among the more interesting: the tombs of William Richard Sutton , Herbert George Warren, and Sir Horace Jones.

Jacqueline Banerjee, who's also been traveling on the continent this month, has created several photo essays on work by A. W. N. Pugin and his son Edward W. Pugin: (1) St Wilfrid's Church, Hulme, Manchester, an essay graced by more than a dozen of her photographs plus those of Pugin's stained-glass; (2) St Peter the Apostle's Church, Woolwich and associated buildings (exterior; interior); (3) Thanks to Catriona Blaker of the Pugin Society for her welcome assistance. JB also created a section on William Wilkinson Wardell, an architect who worked with Pugin, and the tomb with recumbent effigy of Canon Richard North that the architect's son designed and which William Farmer carved.

Diane Greco Josefowicz's reviewed Patrick Brantlinger's Taming Cannibals: Race and the Victorians (2011).

Vlad Brown, who requested and received permission to translate the introduction to the Victorian Web into Ukrainian, has put the translation on his site.

Thanks: to Peter Jackson for correcting a name in Kipling's biography; to Jacqueline Burrows for correcting an error in Tennyson's "Lady of Shalott;" to Philip Hart for telling us about another in the notes to In Memoriam, section 1; to Dorothy Fuldheim for pointing out that an off-site link no longer worked and suggesting a replacement.

As of the 25th, the site has 63,355 documents and images.

May 2012

Robert Freidus, our contributing photographer and an expert on funerary sculpture, sent along a DVD containing 1108 images a documents about grave markers, sculpture, tombs, mausoleums, and chapels in London cemeteries, which enabled your webmaster to create a homepage for mausoleums and others thus far for the Brompton, City of London, Golders Green, Nunhead, and Putney Vale Cemeteries. Jacqueline Banerjee wrote an introduction and history for Brompton.

Drawing on materials from H. R. Robertson's Life on the Upper Thames, GPL created several documents about rural occupations, including Polling the Willow, Osier Cutting and Peeling — rural work for men and women, Osier Peeling — rural work for men, women, and children , and The working conditions of shepherd boys. Eighty Picturesque Views of the Thames and Medway, another work made accessible by the invaluable Internet Archive, provideed more than 5 dozen beautiful images and interesting text about cities and towns along the river. Start here and take a tour.

After concluding his comparisons of Phiz's Household Edition illustrations for The Pickwick Papers with his earlier work and that of Thomas Nast, Philip V. Allingham scanned the images and wrote extensive commentaries for Sol Eytinge's 16 illustrations for the Diamond Edition of Martin Chuzzlewit, plus Fred Barnard's 5 Christmas Carol illustrations, which he compared to the originals of Leech and select illustrations for the 1868 Ticknor & Fields edition by Sol Eytinge (see, for example, He had been Tim's blood-horse all the way from church).

Despite major computer problems (everyone has them!), Jacqueline Banerjee completed her work on the Ford Madox Brown murals at Manchester Town Hall, and reviewed Julian Treuherz's lovely book about Brown, which she'd found so helpful for that project. She moved on from Manchester to Aldershot. and P. C. Hardwick's Royal Garrison Church there, and wrote an illustrated account of Prince Albert's brainchild, Aldershot Military Town in Hampshire. Since M. C. Wyatt's statue of Wellington was transported there from its original place on the Wellington Arch, this led to a short biography of Wyatt, and an item on his more successful equestrian statue of George III, nicknamed "The pig-tail and pump-handle" — find out why!

Next came an account of Greenwich, from the point of view of a Victorian enthusiast, with its splendid buildings containing (for example) a splendid Franklin Memorial, busts of Admirals Keats and Hardy, and a beautiful Victorian seashore painting — one of James Clarke Hook's "Hookscapes." She also wrote a photo-essay on the famous clipper ship, the Cutty Sark. Finally came an essay on Brompton Cemetery, to contribute to the most recent of your webmaster's fruitful collaborations with photographer Robert Freidus (see above).

Andrzej Diniejko, our contributing editor from Poland, contributed a biographical introduction and chronology for Amy Levy, the tragic late-Victorian Anglo-Jewish Poet and Novelist.

Montserrat Martínez García translated into Spanish the top level link lists for gender matters, and María M. Bautista did the same for 20 documents containing images of William de Morgan's ceramics.

Cambridge University Press would like to alert us to a recent initiative. It's collaborating with Cambridge University Library and other partner libraries to reissue a whole range of out-of-copyright works "of enduring scholarly value." The books are crisply and legibly printed, and would often be of special interest to our readers. For example, already available is the monumental "Library Edition of the Works of John Ruskin." More information at the Cambridge Library Collection minisite, or the Cambridge Library Collection blog.

Thanks to Cameron Norman, who reported a broken link in the list of comments about characterization in Great Expectations.

As of the 28th, the site has 62,877 documents and images.

April 2012

On April 1st (no fooling), the Victorian Web joined Facebook, and within the first few days we hd 30 likes — nice, but considering that we have more than 4,000 sites linking to us, we hope for a lot more. Check in on Facebook for announcements of new material and suggestions about what to check out.

Your webmaster continued to add to the Darwin section both essays (“'So it is with ourselves' — Darwin, evolution, and moral philosophy”) and selected passages (“Darwin on Mass Death”). In addition GPL and Robert Freidus continued their collaboration, adding a new section on W. Wheatley Wagstaff and three of his sculptures, a number of works by William Goscombe John (Merlin and Arthur,) Boy at Play, Thomas Henry Thomas (1834-1915), Age, Morpheus, The Boy Scout, Thirteen (Muriel), Lord Glanley of St. Fagans, R.G. Hill-Snook, JP, Lord Mayor of Cardiff, Sir William Reardom Smith, and George V and Queen Mary, — Thanks to the National Museum of Wales and the sculptor's heirs for permitting us to put photographs of these works online. Other works from the National Gallery of Wales include William Reynolds-Stephens's Portrait of a Lady, Herbert Wards's The Idol Maker.

The Thames project continued with with addition of 23 lithographs by T.R. Way and 43 watercolors by Mortimer Menpes, an artist who began as one of Whistler's disciples. In addition, the graphics section grew with four dozen plates from the Halls's Thee Book of the Thames from its Rise to its Fall (1859) and G. A. Symington's Father Thames. Click here and take a tour of the River Thames by choosing the next button. Cityscapes in the painting section is another good place to explore.

Philip V. Allingham and your webmaster continued work on the illustrations for both the American and British Household Editions of Dickens's works, this month adding images by Phiz from the British version and extensive commentaries (including comparisons with earlier individual illustrations by Phiz himself and other illustrators, such as Thomas Nast) for another 35 plates. Thomas Nast's 52 illustrations also went online.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed "'All That Is Buried Is Not Dead': An Autobiographical Element in Olive Schreiner's Story of an African Farm," and formatted and illustrated an account of the architectural historian James Fergusson, whose fascination for early Indian architecture eventually led him to compile the first history of world architecture. But her major project this month involves Manchester. She sent in photo-entries on the following works of sculpture there: Hamo Thornycroft's South African War Memorial, William Theed's James Watt, Albert-Bruce-Joy's Oliver Heywood, Edward Onslow Ford's Victoria Monument, and Thomas Woolner's beautiful weaving roundel. She followed with essays on the interior and exterior of Waterhouse's Manchester Town Hall, which she illustrated with her photographs, and with a contribution of great important to the site's section on painting — an introduction and commentaries on Ford Madox Brown's twelve Manchester Town Hall Murals. Thanks to the Manchester authorities who provided the photographs and permission to use them.

Amitav Banerjee contributed a review of Jules Stewart's Prince Albert: A Life, and in that connection JB added pictures of, and commentaries for Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, and also the Prince Consort's Library in Aldershot.

Pleased with our review of their new biography of Prince Albert, I. B. Tauris publishers would like us to announce the addition to their catalogue of reissues of Lytton Strachey's biographies, Queen Victoria and Elizabeth and Essex: A Tragic History, both highly readable and now with illustrations. They write: "I.B.Tauris are endeavoring to bring books by this famous writer of the late Victorian age back onto the market and back in the spotlight." A worthy aim, especially as inspection copies reveal that the reissues are well-produced, with additional illustrations.

Hristo Boev from Romania contributed Anorexia Mirabilis Decoded: Rereading Female Corporeal Consumption in Florence Dombey, Amy Dorrit, Dora Spenlow and Agnes Wickfield.

H.W. Ellis writes from Australia, "I was searching for the line 'but it's thank you Mr Atkins...' and your site came up and I must compliment you on the content. I believe the Mr Tommy Atkins came from the use of Tommy Atkins as the sample name in "How to fill in your pay book" which is also why British soldiers are called Tommy." Wikipedia's article on the BriBritish Army suggests that this is a likely explanation. Thanks!

Dr. Melisa Klimaszewski of Drake University writes to point out that documents in the Neovictorian section on Carey's Jack Maggs do not appear at the end of links. Turns out a single missing ">" produced a blank page. Easily fixed. Whew! Thanks, Melissa! Malcolm McKee points out an historical error in one of our articles written in 1988. Time to fix it!

As of April 30th, the site had 62,334 documents and images.

March 2012

Reading Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle on his iPad while exercising led to your webmaster expanding the Darwin section, creating a new sitemap (or homepage), and writing “Darwin on the pains and pleasures of travel,” “The hills are shadows, and they flow from form to form, and nothing stands — Ruskin,Tennyson, and Darwin as Sages,” “'The warfare is too bloody to last': Exterminating Indians in Argentina,” “'I never saw a more cheerless prospect': Darwin climbs a mountain and tells us what he sees,” “How did the stones get there? A Darwinian Act of Interpretation,” and “‘I shall never again visit a slave-country.’” Drawing chiefly upon works made available on line by Internet Archive, your webmaster also added 60 plates of works by Samuel Prout and drew upon Hatton's Club-Land to expand the section on Victorian clubs. a new section on cityscapes the Various works, such as Tony Grubhofer's London and the Hall's book on the Thames, led to new material on the River Thames in the visual arts, ships (for the technology section), and churches in art, which consists chiefly of etchings but also includes examples of drypoint, drawings, and watercolors). Working with Philip Allingham, GPL created a section with 57 documents containing the 1873 illustrations of Pickwick Papers that Phiz did for Dickens's posthumous Household Edition.

Philip V. Allingham completed work Sol Eytinge's illustrations for Pickwick Papers and began commentaries for the Household Edition version, writing them for the uncaptioned first page depicting Pickwick and the pugnacious cabman, “What! Introducing his friend?,” “Mr. Snodgrass and Mr. Winkle had each performed a compulsory summerset with remarkable agility,” “The horse no sooner beheld Mr. Pickwick advancing with the chaise whip in his hand, &c,” “Mr. Wardle looked on, in silent wonder,” “Mr. Tupman looked round. There was the fat boy,” “Sam stole a look at the inquirer.,” “Take this little villain away, said the agonised Mr. Pickwick,” “Permit me to introduce my friends,” “The door was just going to be closed in consequence,” “"Who are you, you rascal?" said the captain, administering several pokes to Mr. Pickwick's body,” “"Heyling!" said the old man wildly. "My boy, Heyling, my dear boy, look, look!",” “Standing before the dressing-glass was a middle-aged lady in yellow curl-papers,” “Before Mr. Pickwick distinctly knew what was the matter, he was surrounded by the whole body, and kissed by every one of them,” “Seated on an upright tombstone, close to him, was a strange unearthly figure,” “Mr. Pickwick . . . . went lowly and gravely down the slide, with his feet about a yard and a quarter apart,” “An admonitory gesture from Perker restrained him,”

Jacqueline Banerjee spent the first part of the month working on Leeds, writing about Leeds architects George Corson, who designed the Central Library, School Board Offices, and Grand Theatre) there; and R. D. Chantrell, who designed the parish church of St Peter, Kirkgate. Amongst other landmark buildings in Leeds, she discussed E. M. Barry's Leeds Grammar School, and Alfred Waterhouse and his son Paul's buildings for what would become the University of Leeds. In connection with the latter, she also looked at the Victoria Building at Liverpool University. Stephen Richards and Gary Jenkins both helped by contributing pictures for some of these — thanks! She nextm contributed two places in Delhi connected with the Raj, Flagstaff Tower on North Ridge, and the Durbar Memorial in Coronation Park.

JB then wrote two reviews of new books, Building a Great Victorian City: Leeds Architects and Architecture 1790-1914 and Fleshing out Strachey: A Review of Magnificent Obsession: Victoria, Albert and the Death that Changed the Monarchy, by Helen Rappaport (2011).

With help from Sarah Hughes of the education department at Truro Cathedral, she finally identified the carvings on the cathedral's West Front, some of them at least by Nathaniel Hitch. Thank you to Sarah, too. JB also wrote a short biography of the architectural sculptor Thomas Earp, and a somewhat longer one of the architect Alfred Waterhouse.

GPL created a new sitemap (or homepage) for Manchester when JB turned her attention to that city, creating photo-essays for Thomas Worthington's City Police and Sessions Court, his Albert Memorial, Matthew Noble's Wellington Monument and Oliver Cromwell, Edward Hodges Baily's Thomas Fleming, Albert Bruce-Joy's John Bright, Sir Francis Chantrey's John Dalton, Sir Alfred Gilbert's James Prescott Joule, William Theed's Sir Rowland Hill , John Bright, and Humphrey Chetham.

Andrzej Diniejko created a section on Olive Schreiner including a life and works and a discussion of The Story of an African Farm just in tome for the Victorian Web to provide an appripiate place for Liz Stanley's announcement of the University of Edinburgh's Olive Schreiner Letters Online project.

Diane Greco Josefowicz, our new Science and Technology Editor, created the “Submarine Telegraphy Timeline” and added nineteenth-century cartoons and lithographs, including “The Laying of the Cable -- John and Jonathan Joining Hands” and “The Atlantic Cable” and “ample Case Showing Sections of Atlantic Cables.”

Peter King of the Voysey Society writes to announce a new website that will offer material on the life and works of the great architect-designer.

Laurence Constanty-Roussillon completed her translation of the first chapter of Ruskin — “Ruskin le mot-peintre, and Vanessa Ly from Paris sent in a translation of Les femmes à l’ère victorienne - la question du statut social et économique : classe sociale et travail

Thanks to Beth Lawrence for suggesting that we add Elisha Otis and his invhention of the elevator safety brake (1853) to the technology timeline. Correction by John Yeadonz

As of the 26th, the site had 61,584 documents and images.

February 2012

This month saw a several large collaborative projects go online, the first set of which contributes to the many commemorations of the bicentennial of Dickens's Birth on 7 February 1812. Philip V. Allingam has created "2012: Events Marking the Bicentennial" to put in one place the announcements we have received and events he has attended. We're doing our part with Philip Allingam and Jacqueline Banerjee's's photographs of Rochester and othrer Dickens-related places, and your webmaster has formatted more of Montserrat Martínez García's translations of the site's biographical materials for Dickens. Andrzej Diniejko contributed “Charles Dickens as Social Commentator and Critic,» which discusses Oliver Twist, through Nicholas Nickleby, A Christmas Carol, The Chimes, Dombey and Son, Bleak House, Hard Times, and Little Dorrit.

Like the Rochester page in Dickens, that on London's Tower Bridge epitomizes the Victorian Web, since five people including early twentieth-century artists and photographers provided images and several people added text and captions. Equally important, it shows how we can take separate bits of data, such as images from the Internet Archive and the photo library's night picture and add them to Barry's text, cresting somethinng unique that uniquely connects various disciplines.

Your webmaster again worked with Robert Friedus, creating illustrated material on various London buildings and related architectural sculpture, including 23 Albemarle Street, 16 Clifford Street, Willing House (with A. Stanley Young's Mercury), 16 Brook Street, Emerson's Clarence Wing of St. Mary's Hospital. Sir William Reid Dick's bronze sculpture around the main entrance of Selfridge's Department Store and Gilbert Bayes's The Queen of Time above it. Thanks to Bob Friedus for obtaining permission from Amgueddfa Cymru Caerdydd — the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff — to permit the Victorian Web to include photographs of works in its collections and to David Anderson, Director General of the Museum, for providing photographs of sculpture and painting. Thus far GPL has put up three busts by James Milo Griffith, another three by John Gibson, Alice Meredith (Gertrude) Williams's Spirit of the Crusades, Jules Dalou's Portrait of a Man, and Frederick Sandys's painting Queen Eleanor.

Thanks to Kimberly Blaker of New Boston Fine and Rare Books for sharing an album dating from the 1870s that contains more than fifty photographs of Oxford and Cambridge. Formatting documents for them and creating new homepages for each university occupied a few pleasant days. Drawing once again upon Internet Archive version of The Studio, GPL next added 16 drawings of the two universities by Vernon Howe Bailey plus 8 studies by Herbert James Draper for Prospero Summoning Nymphs and Deities and a photograph of the artist in his studio. Various issues of The Studio also provided additional drawings by Bailey of London, 10 watercolors of Italy, Scotland, and England by Sir Edward Poynter, and 20 watercolors and drawings Eleanor, Fortescue-Brickdale and a half dozen paintings by Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer. When Logan wrote in to inquire about Charlotte Young, your webmaster discovered he had never connected her homepage to our list of authors and as part of doing so added more links, chiefly to works by Jacqueline Banerjee. Internet Archive version of The Art Journal provided Walter Crane's stained-glass designs and Byam Shaw's painting Notice Neptune, though . . . illustrating Browning's “My last Duchess.”

Drawing upon images and text provided by the Maas Gallery, GPL added the following works to out section on painting: an unknown artist's Ramsgate, and another's Lady of Shalott, John Brett's The Coast of Sicily from the Taormina Cliffs, for Laus Veneris, Oliver Clare's Primroses and Birds's Nests on a Mossy Bank, Sir Frank Dicksee's Sea and Sunshine, Lyme Regis, Baillie Hamilton's Sunset, Constantinople, J. D. Harding's Lake Lucerne , James Hayllar's The Wandering Minstrel in a Quiet Square, J.G. Marks's Forty Winks, William James Müllers's An Arab, Paul Falconer Poole's J.G. Marks's Girl with a Pitcher, Sir Edward John Poynter's study for tiles in the Grill-Room of the Victoria & Albert Museum.

Having completed his commentaries on the 43 illustrations of Pickwick Papers by Seymour and Phiz, Philip V. Allingam, who has been busy at Dickens conferences and celebrations in England and France, began scanning the images and writing commentaries for Sol Eytinge's 18 plates.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed the Cambridge Camden (later Ecclesiological) Society as well as the following photos and photo-essays on Scott and Skidmore's Memorial to Dean Ramsay in Edinburgh, a new section on Francis Skidmore, Nathaniel Hitch's statues on the West Front of Truro Cathedral, New Court, St John's College, Cambridge, by Rickman & Hutchinson, Goscombe John's The Late Dean Vaughan , St Christopher's Chapel, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children, London, by E. M. Barry and its stained glass by Clayton and Bell. In addition she created a new section on hospitals and an essay on Victorian architectural historians and theorists.

Diane Greco Josefowicz contributed “The Zodiac at Dendera and the debate over the age of the earth,” which summarizes her recent Princeton University Press book.

Noelia Malla García sent in her Spanish translations of more than 20 essays in the Wilde section, and GPL formatted, linked, and put them online along with Ana Abril Hernández's translations of the fifth chapter of Kincaid's Tennyson's Major Poems, Laura Masides's translations of the section on Felicia Hemans, and Montserrat Martínez García's biographical materials for Dickens.

Robert Ehrlich kindly wrote to identify the painter Thomas Langdon whom Ruskin mentions in the Hunt-Ruskin correspondence, which I first published in 1977.

Amy Byrk writes to recommend a link to the homepage for “What Victorians Wore: An Overview of Victorian Costume.” Thanks Ann! And thanks to Eve Beauchemin for correcting a typo! and to Roger Knights for pointing out run-on italics in Wilde's “Decay of Lying.”

As of the 27th, the site contains 60,644 documents and images.

January 2012

Welcome Diane Greco Josefowicz, PhD (MIT), who joins us this month as our Science Editor!

Your webmaster worked with issues of The Studio made available by the Internet Archive to create sections for the metalwork and enamels of Alexander Fisher, England's greatest master of both at century's end. In addition to the more than two dozen works in these parts of the site and half a dozen in his previously created sculpture section, the enamels and enamelists material contains Fisher's three-part “The Art of True Enamelling upon Metal” as well as Fred Miller's essay on him. As the month ended, he spent a day putting online another article from The Studio, Baldry's on the ecclestiastical art of W. Reynolds-Syephens. While searching for materials on Fisher, GPL found Stanley Nicholson Babb's gold medal bas relief Boadicea urging the Britons to avenge her outraged daughters, C. J. Allen's bust of an elderly woman, and Babb, and works by Gilbert Bayes (A Knight on His War Horse , Jason ploughing the acre of Mars, The Langham Collar, Pegasus).

After Clive Wilmer contributed his essay on the Ruskin-Whistler trial (see below), the need for a substantial section on James McNeil Whistler became apparent, and your webmaster spent a week or two creating one that thus far includes 10 paintings, 15 drawings and watercolors, 27 drypoints, etchings, engravings, and lithographs, and a gallery of portraits of the painting (including a bust new to the Victorian Web by Boehm) plus several essays. In addition, he added the following Martineau materials: her essays on Macaulay, John Wilson Croker, and John Gibson Lockhart, and her explanation of Unitarianism.

Philip V. Allingam has almost completed his large project of providing all the illustrations by Phiz and Robert Seymour for Dickens's Pickwick Papers. The project involves rescanning the images at higher resolution, adding scans of details, adding the texts illustrated, and writing extensive commentaries for each of the 43 plates. In addition PVA has begun to provide plates by other illustrators, such as the American Thomas Nast and even Phiz's own new versions of old subjects.

Before setting off for a vacation in India, Jacqueline Banerjee suggested that we create a new section for Queen Victoria, and created an index for our scattered material on her, adding detailed and simplified versions of her family tree, and adapting Lytton Strachey's analysis of the Queen and her reign for our website. She created a homepage for the Newcastle architect John Dobson, provided a biography for the Liverpool architect Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, and added the Plowden Buildings to our new "Legal London" section. Next came a series on J. L. Pearson's Truro Cathedral, the only new cathedral to have been designed in the nineteenth century, including a photo-essay on it, and discussions of Pearson's pulpit there, George Tinworth's frieze, and Nathaniel Hitch's carvings on the west front. More pictures were also added to Rowe's Corn Exchange in Cambridge. In addition, she helped your webmaster expand the section William Burges's Cardiff Castle with some of Bob Freidus's lovely pictures from there, providing extra commentaries for, in particular, the nursery and Lord Bute's bedroom and bathroom, rooms which we had not previously featured.

Finally, she suggested incorporating the complete text of Paul Waterhouse's 1897 entry in the Dictionary of National Biography on Sir Gilbert Scott, helping your webmaster adapt this valuable biography. It now includes links to his many works on our site and 20 photographs, making it much easier for us to grasp the scale of his achievement. One should point out in passing that these added links and illustrations exemplify how the Victorian Web versions of documents, which situate them within a network of meaningful connections, differ from those on the still-invaluable Internet Archive, which presents them as easily accessible isolated books. To take one example: the original text of the Dictionary of National Biography biography of the great architect mentions that he was a descendant of the “commentator Scott,” but few twenty-first-century readers will understand that Waterhouse refers to the enormously popular author of biblical commentaries found in many family Bibles throughout nineteenth-century Great Britain and the United States. Perhaps more than anyone else, this ancestor of the architect taught Victorians of many denominations how to interpret the Bible.

Before leaving for India JB also did a considerable amount of proof-reading, a boring but essential chore when our website is expanding so rapidly. Readers' amendments are warmly welcomed and credited!

Paul of CBS Radio Mystery Theater site sent along links to the old radio versions of works by Conan Doyle, Dickens, Stevenson, Stoker, and Wilde.

Clive Wilmer of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Master of the Guild of St. George, contributed two essays: (1) “The Falling Rocket: Ruskin, Whistler and Abstraction in Art” and (2) “‘No such thing as a flower such thing as a man’: John Ruskin’s response to Darwin.”

Ian Sherwood, Canon of Christ Church, Istanbul, kindly send along photographs of this George Edmund Street building, which is also known as the Crimean War Memorial. Vanessa Ly of Paris translated several documents in the French version of the Gender Matters section, including “Les femmes comme sujet dans l'art victorien - Représentations des femmes,” “Les diverses représentations de Judith,” and “La figure de la gouvernante, basé sur Les anges noirs de la nuit par Ronald Pearsall.”

Thanks to Anthea Lang for identifying the architects who added the spire to Pugin's St. Mary's Cathedral in Newcastle, and thanks, too, to Ana Mitric for correcting a broken link and to Desmond A.C. Reid for both correcting the title of David McGill's sculpture of St. Sebastian and sending along a photograph of the bronze version now “Kilmarnock, in the Dick Institute.” Bill Burns e-mailed to correct a next link. Thanks!

As of the 30th, the site had 59,917 documents and images.

December 2011

Your webmaster and Robert Friedus continued their collaboration with a range of material on architecture and sculpture, including adding photographs to our section Thomas Brock's Victoria Memeorial before Buckingham Palace: the gilded bronze Victory with Constancy and Courage, the bronze statues Manufacture, Naval and Military Power and Art and Science, marble bas reliefs Sea nymphs plus Alfred Drury's nearby amorini representing colonies and dominions (Canada, West Africa, and South Africa) and Francis Derwent Wood's Australia. Architecture and architectural sculpture include J. Daymond's Birds and vegetation on 86, St. james Street, London, and the work on The Oxford and Cambridge Club.

Their next joint project involved adding material about the sculpture and buildings of Cardiff to the section that Jacqueline Banerjee created. Using Friedus's photographs, GPL added Fehr's magnificent Welsh Dragon on the stone plinth that rises from the dome of City Hall, Hodge's Sculpture on the City Hall clock tower, Montford's Commerce and Industry and Music and Poetry, Poole's Unity and Patriotism and Nereids, Pomeroy's Tritons and Rivers, and McGill's Science and Education.

Following Dr. Banerjee's suggestion, GPL created a new section on legal London, adding his photographs of the Inner Temple Gardens to our series on the Royal Courts of Law, Lincoln's Inn and the Law Society. Using both their photographs, JB did the hard work of research and writing, creating documents for Smirke's Paper Buildings, Thomas Jackson's 1-4 Temple Gardens and E.M. Barry's Hare Court. She also added a building adjacent to the Inner Temple — Hamilton House, originally home to the Callender Cable and Construction Company.

M. H. Spielmann's British Sculpture and Sculptors of Today, which the Internet Archive had made easily accessible, has proved a treasure trove of information about sculptors and their works. Thus far GPL has added Spielmann's essays on both medallists and sculptor-silversmiths as well as using his text to createillustrated biographical introductions for William Robert Colton, Walter Crane, Alfred Drury, Edwin Roscoe Mullins, F. E. E. Schenck, George Tinworthk, and images and critical commentary to the sections on Albert Bruce-Joy, Henry Alfred Pegram, Lilian V. Hamilton, and Lady Feodora Gleichen.

Philip V. Allingham continued his major project or expanding and upgrading the section on Victorian book illustration with Phiz's work for Dickens's Pickwick Papers, creating new, more detailed scans, including the passages illustrated, and occasionally adding extended commentary. See, for example, The Trial, The Card-room at Bath, Mr. Winkle's Situation when the Door 'blew-to', Conviviality at Bob Sawyer's, and especially Christmas Eve at Mr. Wardle's. He and GPL added Daniel Maclise's sketch of Dickens with the two Hogarth sisters and his portrait of Catherine Dickens.

Jacqueline Banerjee wrote an illustrated essay on Ruskin and Lake Como and contributed photographs and discussions of works by Thomas Nicholls at Cardiff Castle (Chimneypiece frieze in the Winter Smoking Room, Robert the Consul on the chimneypiece of the Banqueting Hall, and The Three Fates on the chimneypiece of the Drawing Room). In addition, she created a section on the stained-glas designer H. W. Lonsdale, which thus far includes a biographical introduction and five of his works.

Working with photographs kindly submitted by Colin Hinson, as well as Robert Freidus, JB also contributed new commentaries on William Burges's two important Yorkshire churches: St Mary, Studley Royal and Christ the Consoler, as well as their fonts by Thomas Nicholls at St Mary and Christ the Consoler. She also made an index for the sculptor James Redfern, and discussed his lovelyreredos at Christ the Consoler, which Freidus had photographed. This was followed by an essay on Temple Church, London illustrated by both GPL's and her own photographs, and some Victorian colour illustrations; indexes for the architects James Savage and Anthony Salvin, and a commentary on the Round Church, Cambridge.

Amitav Banerjee, Emeritus Professor of English and American Literature, Kobe College, Japan, reviewed Tim Jeal's Explorers of the Nile: The Triumph and Tragedy of a Great Victorian Adventure.

William O. Beeman, Professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, shared the recordings of his performance of a half dozen parlor songs, including The Madman, The Last Link is Broken, Mr. and Mrs. Brown, Lenore (Thy voice is music to mine ear), and Woodman, Spare That Tree!. Derek B. Scott, our Music Editor, contributed performances of two more Victorian parlor songs: The Little Hero (lyrics by Arthur Matthison and music by Stephen Adams) and Ora Pro Nobis (lyrics by A. Horspool, music by T. Piccolomini).

Thanks to Mark Perlman for correcting a typo in one of the DuMaurier documemts!

Béatrice Laurent of l'Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, writes to invite readers of the Victorian Web to submit papers for a seminar entitled “Sleeping Beauties in Victorian Britain: cultural, artistic and literary explorations of a myth” at the 11th conference of the European Society for the Study of English, Instanbul, Turkey (September 4-8, 2012).

Gurpreet Gill, Coordinator for Course Materials at DeVry's Online Services, requested and received permission to link to our introduction to Herbert Spencer. Of course, one doesn't need permission to link to any document on a public website that is not password protected, but the courtesy of letting us know about the link is much appreciated.

As of 26 December, the site has 59,224 documents and images.

November 2011

The month began with your webmaster visiting Baltimore, Maryland, where he obtained material from both the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum and the wonderful Walters Art Museum whose website provides large images of its holdings and permits their reproduction under the Creative Commons License. Thus far, I have added five works by René Lalique to the Art Nouveau Jewelry section, others to that for Castellani Classical Revival and Archeological Jewelry (the Coral and gold bracelet with the head of Bacchus and two bacchantes is especially fine), Louis Majorelle's Art Nouveau wall cabinet, plus paintings by Sir Laurence Alma Tadema (The Blind Beggar, A Roman Emperor (Claudius), The Triumph of Titus: The Flavians, and Sappho and Alcaeus) and William Mulready's Othelo and Henry LeJeune's Ophelia.

Reading Stephen Jay Gould's fascinating Dinosaur in a Haystack prompted two brief pieces — "'Ringing down the grooves of change:' Tennyson's mistaken railway analogy" and "Tennyson and Evolution: Was he a proto-Darwinian or a proto-Gouldian?"

The September trip to London continues to furnish material, such as the sculpture on the Albert Memorial — Geometry, Physiology, Chemistry plus much of the Frieze of Parnassus that surrounds the base of the Memorial, including the sections containing H. H. Armstead's poets, composers, and painters, and J. Birnie Philip's great engineers of the Ancient World , architects, and sculptors. Architectural additions include The Pheasantry on King's Road in Chelsea, and the mosaics section now includes 20 representions of arts, crafts, and intellectual activities on walls of the Museum of Childhood, Bethnal Green, London. Additions to the section on stained glass include half a dozen works by George and Eve Ostrehan and 5 by Clayton and Bell.

The Academy Architecture and Architectural Review, which the Internet Archive has made easily accessible, continues to provide materials for our sections of both sculpture and architecture, including works by Alfred Drury (The Fine Arts, Science, Education, and and Local Government), Sir George Frampton (Two busts in wax of young women), Martin Harvey as Sidney Carton in “The Only Way”), and Edward VI), E. M. Rope (Laborare est orare and Children bringing Lilies to the Holy Child), Albert Toft (The Inception of the Modern World).

Your webmaster returned briefly to the UK for the annual meeting in Sheffield of Ruskin's Guild of St. George, of which had been elected a Companion. During his two days in Sheffield, he began a section on that city, which thus far contains photographs of E. W. Mountford's Town Hall and two dozen other buildings, chiefly examples of small factories or works and railway station. The Sheffield section also includes photographs of half a dozen examples of architectural sculpture by F. W. Pomeroy. The brief visit included four days in London that produced some interesting new material. After Jacqueline Banerjee gained permission to photograph Two Temple Place, Astor's mansion near Victoria Embankment, GPL contributed two and a half dozen images of the building plus others of its sculpture (Nathaniel Hitch's gilded bas reliefs of figures from history and literature, Sir George Frampton's nine gilded bronze bas reliefs of Arthurian heroines, Thomas Nicholls's carvings of The Three Musketeers by Dumas, frieze with 82 Shakespearean characters, , six statues with American literary associations plus Clayton & Bell's stained glass window depicting a Swiss landscape).

Thanks to Jonathan Ford, Secretary of the Athenæum Club, for generously sharing John Kenworthy-Browne's “A Temple of British Worthies: The Historic Portrait Busts in the Athenæum,” with readers of the Victorian Web and for granting permission to photograph and put online the Club and its sculpture. During a stay at the Athenæum, your webmaster photographed Thorvaldsen's Psyche, the Club's copy of the Belvedere Apollo, and various rooms, all of which produced a new homepage for the Athenæum and a photograph gallery. The web version of Kenworthy-Browne's “A Temple of British Worthies” contains an introductory essay, a section on the tradition of library busts, a discussion of making plaster casts as an essential part of the nineteenth-century sculptor's work, a catalogue of the library busts, and photographs of other busts at the Club plus documents, such as selections form the Minutes of the General Committee.

During the first two days of your webmaster's brief stay in England, when the Athenæum was full, the Reform Club nearby kindly provided a room and permission to photograph some of their sculpture. Thanks to Michael McKerchar, Club Secretary, for permission to photograph and include on our site busts by Matthew Noble (Cobden, Cromwell, and Palmerston) and John Acton-Adams (Gladstone and Brougham, and John Bright).

Robert Friedus and GPL teamed up again to put online Sir Aston Webb and William Robert Colton's Royal Artillery Boer War Memorial and Webb's Admiralty Arch and Sir Thomas Brock's statues there of Navigation and Gunnery.

Philip V. Allingham continues his series of extensive commentaries on individual illustrations of Dickens novels sending along images and essays for Sol Eytinge's Barnaby Rudge: Sim Tappertit and Stagg, Old Rudge, Mr. and Mrs. Varden and Miss Miggs, Joe Willet and Dolly Varden, Edward and Mr. Chester, Lord Gordon, Gashford, and Grueby, Mr. Haredale, Joe Willet and Dolly Varden plus illustrations to Hard Times: Thomas Gradgrind, The Horse-Riding Party, Mr. Bounderby and Mrs. Sparsit, Stephen and Rachael, Mr. Harthouse and Tom,, and Mrs. Bounderby and Sissy

Jacqueline Banerjee displayed her wide range of interests and expertise by contributing material on architecture book illustration, sculpture, and Victorian and Neo- Victorian fiction: For example, she contributed "Authenticism and Post-Authenticism: Wilkie Collins's Armadale and Michael Cox's The Meaning of Night and to accompany this five-part essay she created a section on a new illustrator, George Housman Thomas (1824-1868) also adding the frontispiece to Wilkie Collins Armadale plus six other illustrations. In addition, she contributed photo essays on two works by the great late-Victorian theater designer, Frank Matcham: The Hackney Empire and The Victoria Quarter, Briggate, Leeds plus the interior of Moore's Hop Exchage. Her work on sculpture appears in her contributions about Thomas Nicholls, which includes a biographical introduction, his animal sculpture and his Lefroy Monument in All Saints, Fleet, Hampshire. Finally, she collaborated with Ingrid Brown on a photo essay about St. Peter's School, Clifton, York.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed "W. Somerset Maughams Slum Novel Liza of Lambeth" and "Arthur Morrison's Slum Fiction: The Voice of New Realism."

Montserrat Martínez García continues her translations of the Victorian Web into Spanish, adding the fourth chapter of E. D. H. Johnson's Dickens — “Su arte narrativo.”

Paul Thompson of writes to suggest exchanging links, which we have done.

Alexander Ovsov has published a Romanian translation of our credits page at Web Geek Science).

Stuart Toms, the great-great-great grandson of the sculptor Theodore Phyffers, who first wrote to correct our error in the sculptor's name, next provided a biographical introduction for the sculptor.

As of the 28th, the site had 58,567 documents and images.

October 2011

Now that your webmaster is back from London (sigh), he has continued to work on material for the sculpture section gathered there — two dozen more monuments from St. Paul's Cathedral plus additions to the first, second, and third architectural sculpture galleries plus a brick panel for LeMay Hop Factors south of the Thames, an elaborately decorated domed building in Islington, a queen's head (from a Chelsea pub of that name) and a lovely statue of a girl offering wine set in a niche of a home in that area of London. Works from the center of London include Harold Parker's Australia House group and Bertram Mackennal's Phoebus and the Horses of the Sun.

Chelsea provided a particularly interesting addition to the architecture section, T. G. Somerford's Arts & Crafts Temperance Billiard Hall and the Poor Law Guardians' Offices, both on King's Road. Using Robert Friedus's photographs, he created a brief discussion of John Dando Sedding's Our Most Holy Redeemer.

Thanks once again to the Fine Art Society and Robert Upstone its Head of Modern British Art, who sent an electronic version of their 2010 exhibition catalogue, Lavery and the Glasgow Boys, which has permitted the creation of a new section on Scottish painting and new sections on the work of Sir James Guthrie, George Henry, Sir John Lavery, Alexander Mann, Arthur Melville, James Paterson, and Edward Arthur Walton plus single works by Joseph Crawhall, David Gauld, Sir John Watson Gordon, and Alexander Roche. "'the only thing worth living for' Art and the 'Glasgow Boys'" — the essay by Kenneth McConkey, who also wrote the individual catalogue entries — was especially welcome.

Philip V. Allingham continues his series of extensive commentaries on individual illustrations of Dickens novels by sending along image and essay for the first two by Sol Eytinge's for Barnaby Rudge.

Jacqueline Banerjee continued her series of photo essays on the architect, Henry Francis Lockwood (1811-1878), adding Salts Mill, near Bradford, United Reformed Church, Saltaire, Victoria Hall, Saltaire, Former Factory School, Saltaire, Dining Room and Sir Titus Salt's Hospital, Saltaire, and Examples of housing in Saltaire. She also wrote about the statue of Sir Titus Salt by Francis Derwent Wood, started a new section on the Yorkshire-born sculptor Thomas Milnes, including his bust of Sir Titus Salt, and his Wellington monument at the Royal Arsenal, London. Then came an introduction to the work of the Belfast-born sculptor Patrick McDowell, and an essay about Roberts Park, Saltaire. Some of her best photographs of Saltaire were generously provided by Saltaire photographer and blogger "jennyfreckles" and the eRiding Media Library. Many thanks to both! She also continued her series on Leeds architecture: Percy Robinson's Yorkshire Building Society, John & Joseph Leeming's City Markets, and George Smith's Thornton's Arcade, Briggate.

Andrzej Diniejko continued his series of photo essays on the gothic revival in Poland with the Holy Virgin Mary Cathedral in Radom as well as adding Jack London's Autobiographical Account of the East End Slums: The People of the Abyss to his section on slum fiction.

George Monteiro, Professor of English and of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies Emeritus at Brown University kindly gave permission to put up several of his essays, and thus far “Browning's 'My Last Duchess',” “A Proposal for Settling the Grammarian's Estate,” “The Apostasy and Death of St. Praxed's Bishop,” and “All the pretty sea-horses: Echoes and Traces of Robert Browning's 'My Last Duchess' in A Streetcar Named Desire” are online.

Montserrat Martínez García continues her translations of the Victorian Web into Spanish, adding the sitemap for religious tracts as well as an introduction, history, relation to gender matters, and the relation of Victorian novelists to religious tracts plus John Henry Newman's first of the Oxford Tracts. In addition, she translated “Dickens's Professional Career,” the first chapter of E. D. H. Johnson's book on the novelist. Finally, she provides photographs of the University of Cambridge, such as Punts on the River Cam near Clare College, the courtyard of King's, and First Court, Christ's College for which JB wrote the captions and GPL did the formatting. Cristina Cobo translated S.C. Hall's biography of Thomas Hood and “The Song of the Shirt

Bob Speel writes that he has created a new website on Victorian sculpture. Robert Friedus contributed more photographs of sculpture, including works by Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal (Edward VII and Lord Curzon), Baron Carlo Marochetti (Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde), Thomas Rudge (Finsbury War Memorial)

His photographs of architecture include H.R. Houchin and Frank Smee's 125, Cockspur and Richard Norman Shaw's 1 St. James Street, Reginald Blomfield's 20, Buckingham Gate, Henry T. Hare's Carnegie Central Library in Hammersmith and its sculptures by F.E.E. Schenck, P. Hoffman's Washington Hotel, R.H. Moore's Hop and Malt Exchange, a warehouse at 51-53, Southwark Street, Bermondsey, T. Goode & Co of South Audley Street — A building for China Merchants in the Queen Anne style with elements of Japonoiserie and St. James Court, which Pevsner describes as "giant" and "ostentatious." Other buildings include Albert J. Bolton's 87 to 102 Mount Street (including 26-33 South Audley Street), T. Chatfield Clarke & Son's 125-129 Mount Street, F.P. Cockerell's 1 South Audley Street, G.L. Crickmay's 2 South Audley Street, Lewis Isaacs and H. L. Florence's Connaught Hotel, three of Frank Matcham's London theaters: London Hippodrome, London Coliseum, and thre Richmond Theatre, C.J. Chirney Pawley, Alexander Graham, and Henry Bushell's St. James Court, 41-53 Buckingham Gate, W. H. Powell's 125-129 Mount Street, A.E. Purdie's Presbytery of the Immaculate Conception Church, James Trant Smith's 117-121 Mount Street, J.E. Trollope's 1-8 Carlos Placand Aldford House, an unknown architect's 17 Queen Street, Mayfair, and J.T. Wimperis's 4 Queen Street, Mayfair,

Thanks to Mark Preston for pointing out incorrect captions on the Albert Memorial friezes.

On the 30th the site had 57, 901 documents and images.

September 2011

This month opens with welcoming Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology at the University of Leeds as our new Victorian Web Music Editor.

Your webmaster is back in London where he took advantage of some lovely sunny days to photograph a dozen portraits on the façade of the Foreign Office by Henry Armstead or J. Birnie Philip and Frederick Thomas's series of eight great portraitists on the north-facing façade of National Portrait Gallery plus his portraits of Macaulay, Carlyle, and Stanhope over the entrance. He also contributed photographs for Sir Francis Chantrey's George IV and both the main statue and details of Boehm's Carlyle. In addition he added the following buildings to the architecture section: The Prince of Wales public house, Philip Webb's 35, Glebe Place, Chelsea home and studio for the painter George Boyce, John Lowe's 50 Glebe Place, Charles Rennie Mackintosh's only building in London.

During OpenHOuse London on the weekend of 17-18 September, when the usually inaccessible Foreign Office welcomes vimositors, GPL photographed much of the sculpture there, thus expanding the section he and Jacquekline Banerjee began some years back. First to go online are images of more than two dozen busts by Hugues Protat in the Durbar Court of those men who created and governed British India. Thanks to Hannah Talbot, Press and Communications Officer of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the Dean and Chapter, GPL obtained permission to photograph its eighteenth- and nineteenth-century sculpture and mosaics. Thus far complete and online: more than two dozen monuments in the aisles and crypt as well as a new section of Alfred Stevens's great Wellington Monument with both more sculpture and the Cathedral's Victorian mosaics to come.

Days when it was better to remain inside, he added photographs to our series on Blackfriars Pub (the major bas reliefs, Arts and Crafts metalwork, Music Making plus 11 works by Henry Poole), and a new photograph of Baily's Lord Nelson. When the sun had set, he took some night photographs, including the Michelin Building in Chelsea with its glowing yellow globes, and works from a private collection, including a bronze nude by an unknown sculptor.

A visit to London enabled photographing works in a private collection, which includes the following works: Baldwin's Newel Post by Gilbert Bayes, several works by Alfred Drury (a plaster version of Griselda, Mother and Child, and Sir John Alexander Cockburn ), Conrad Dressler's Young Maiden Holding a Ring, Putto by Onslow Ford, new pictures of The Victor by David McGill, several bronzes by Alfred Stevens (Lion and Two Young Boys), The Smith Award 1930 by Charles Leonard Hartwell, Kathleen Scott, Baroness Kennet's Seated Female Nude A Young Woman Enslaved by Love by A. B. Simpson, A Lioning Cat (Corky) by Hamo Thornycroft, Ellaline Terriss by Albert Toft, and two bronzes by Francis Derwent Wood (Mother and Child and Head of a Woman.

Continuing to work with both Internet resources and submissions from contributors, he added sculpture by Gilbert Bayes Amor Victor, Benjamin Clemens (Sappho), Lady Feodora Gleichen (Herr Kubelik and Memorial to Mrs. Duncombe), Charles Leonard Hartwell (As he rode down to Camelot) John Holmes (Vanity), four works by Andrea Lucchesi (Carthage BC 149, Vanity and Illusion, A Dancer, and The Sentinel), Harold Parker (The long, long Dreams of Youth and Ariadne), C. Rutland (Morpheus), William Burnie Rhind (Study for a Public Statue (of a Military Officer), King Robert the Bruce, and Wallace), C. Rutland (Morpheus). In addition, The Architectural Review provide new material on work by John Belcher, Thomas E. Collcutt, and Aston Webb

Jacqueline Banerjee continued her major project on the Yorkshire Dales in Victorian times adding illustrated essays about religion and education, which led in turn to a series on both Anglican and dissenting houses of worship in this area: Gilbert Scott's Restoration of Ripon Cathedral, A. B. Higham's St Margaret of Antioch's Church in Hawes, Wensleydale, the Reeth Evangelical Congregational Church in Swaledale, and the Wesleyan Chapel in Reeth, Swaledale. To this section she also added her photo-essay on a part-Georgian, part-neo-Gothic house in the Dales. In addition, she wrote an illustrated an essay on Lockwood and Mawson's Bradford Town Hall and William Burges's unsuccessful design for the Law Courts competition, which influenced it.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed to bioth the literature and architecture sections this money, adding Dziekoski's Holy Virgin Mary Cathedral in Radom (Koció Mariacki) to his section on the Polish gothic revival and The Record of Badalia Herodsfoot Rudyard Kiplings Only Slum Story.

Montserrat Martínez García began translating the Dickens section into Spanish by sending in her translations of all the top-level pages with their long lists of links.

Robert Freidus and GPL continued their collaboration adding both architecture, sculpture, and architectural sculpture. These contributions included the Guinness Trust Building in Hammersmith, W. R. Colton's Mermaid Fountain, Frank Matcham's Richmond Theatre, new photographs of Watts's Physical Energy and four detailed views of the base of Alfred Gilbert's Eros, and additional photographs of Gleichen's Artemis Fountain.

Anna Waymack sent in photographs and accompanying text about pre-Victorian mourning jewelry obtained from a collector who wishes to remain anonymous.

Daniela Jose Wiita, a new contributor, sent in “The title of Browning's 1836 poem and first use of the medical term ‘Porphyria’ (1889)“ to correct an earlier reading of the poem. Ingrid Brown, another new contributor, sent in a detailed study, “St. Matthias' Church and the Medievalism of Sir George Gilbert Scott.

Thanks to Molly Farrow and Vicki Carroll who e-mailed that the entire history section had disappeared! It's all due to what I'd call a too sticky touchpad: while moving my finger past the history folder while uploading new documents, I inadvertently moved the history section inside another one. It's easy to fix, fortunately, but really scary until one discovers where it moved this time. Thanks also to Denise A. Barnett to pointing out a problem with a document.

As of the 26 the site had 57,100 documents and images.

August 2011

Using the Internet Archive's out-of-copyright online version of the 1904-1907 issues of Alexander Koch's Academy Architecture and Architectural Review, your webmaster added early twentieth-century photographs of materials already on the site, such as C. J. Allen's Justice, William Robert Colton's The Wavelet, Stanley Nicholson Babb's Motherhood, Henry C. Fehr's Hesitation and Morning, Frank Lynn Jenkins's The Spirit of British Maritime Commerce and The Spirit of Steam Navigation, William Goscombe John's Memorial Relief to the late Canon Guy, D.D., The late Duke of Devonshire, K. G., A Maid so Young, and Hermes, Adrian Jones's Colonel Asfur Dowla and For the Faith, Brotherhood from Hamo Thornycroft's Gladstone Memorial on the Strand in London and The Drummer Boy from Sir William Goscombe John's The King's Liverpool Regiment Memorial. More importantly, this source provided enough material to create sections for sculptors entirely new to the Victorian Web or those for whom it had only a single item, such as Edith A. Bell (Naomi, Reverie, and Idleness), Benjamin Clemens (Immolate, Eurydice, and Andromeda ), Alexander J. Leslie (The Devotion of Menockeus, the Son of Kreon, Narcissus), Andrea Carlo Lucchesi (The Bud and the Bloom and Semita vitae, The Victory of Peace, A Valkyrie, and Carthage BC 149), J. Pittendrigh MacGillivray (Ottilie, Daughter of Lord M'Laren), Edith C. Maryon (The Triumph of Peace and (The Pixies' Ring), Alfred Bertram Pegram (Narcissus, Endymion, and Morning), Percy Portsmouth (Night, The Necklace , and Mirth, and Admiration), Oliver Wheatley (Awakening), L. Gwendolyn Williams (Peace), The Lorelei and Watching, Pandora, abd Virgin and Child). In addition sculptors were added for whom the site has only a single work, such as D. W. Stevenson (Lady Godiva),

Many items were also added to existing sections on sculptors, such as Gilbert Bayes (The Storm Ride, The Invocation, and Greek Dancer), Alfred Drury (Richard Hooker, Lieut.-Col. McCarty O'Leary Mural Tablet Mrs. Craigie (John Oliver Hobbes), and Saint George, Knowledge, and Inspiration), Henry C. Fehr (The Fallen Angel), William Silver Frith (Bishop Eliot Memorial), Charles Leonard Hartwell (Study for Part of a War Memorial, The Rising Tide, The Stalkers, and The Bathers), Albert Hemstock Hodge, (War, Rage, Pain), Commerce), Science), A Daughter of Neptune), and Boys with Goat and Turkey), Sir Edgar Bertram Mackennal (The Dancer, Figure of Glory for Islington War Memorial, War, The Truth-Seeker, Madonna and the Child Christ, Earth and the Elements, and Fame), Paul Raphael Montford (The Flow — model of a group for the Town Hall, Cardiff), E. Roscoe Mullins (Bless me, even me also, O my father , Sisters), Boy with Top), Man and his Burden, and Cain. My punishment is more than I can bear.), Frederick William Pomeroy (Memorial to John D. Sedding, architect of Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, London and The Late Dean Hale, Recombent Effigy in Marble for Rochester Cathedral), William Birnie Rhind (Sketch Model for the Statue of Colonel Light, Group, Military Memorial in Alloa, and Royal Scots Memorial in St. Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, Royal Scots Memorial in St. Giles' Cathedral, Models of Statues of "Agriculture" and "Iron Moulding", Models of Statues of "Pottery" and "Mining", Sketch Model of Allegorical Group for Public Building, Group of Queen Mary and two of her Supporters for the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, The Grand Marquess of Montrose, and Sketch Design of Frieze, Midlothian Countt Buildings), Albert Toft (The Cup of Immortality, The Cherry Girl, Children of the Sculptor, Feeding the Hungry, Maternity, and Clothing the Naked three panels from “a Memorial to the Late Queen in Nottingham”, Antigone, A Memorial to the Men of Birmingham who fell during the War in South Africa, 1899-1902, Mother and Child, and The Spirit of Contemplation), Arthur George Walker (Memorial to the late Marchioness of Lothian at Blicking, Death of the First-born, and The Dancer) Sir Francis Derwent Wood (Study of a Female Torso, Love and Life, Sacred and Profane, Atalanta, and Abundance),

Your webmaster, Jacqueline Banerjee, and Robert Freidus again worked collaboratively amplifying earlier projects, such as Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm's Charles Darwin, Sir Thomas Brock's Drury Lane Sir Augustus Harris and his Sir Richard Owen, Horace Jones's Temple Bar Memorial with new photographs of sculpture, such as Charles J. Samuel Kelsey's Queen Victoria and the Prince of Wales Going to St. Paul's, two reliefs by Charles Henry Mabey (Time and Fortune Draw a Curtain Over Temple Bar and Queen Victoria's Progress to the Guildhall London Nov. 9th 1837), Charles Bell Birch's Griffin (really a dragon), and an unknown sculptor's friezes representing science, art, peace, and war plus John Ternouth's The Battle of Copenhagen on Nelson's Column.

Meanwhile GPL and RF added examples of architectural sculpture on commercial buildings, including Hibbert Charles Binney's Justice robed with attendants, P. Lindsay Clark's four reliefs of bakers on the former Nordheim Model Bakery, Sir William Reid Dick's Female Figure holding a Globe on the London Bridge Approach, sculpture on the Royal Insurance Building by Drury, Mackennal, and an unknown sculptor, Sir George Frampton's Electricity and Engineering on Elektra House and his many works on Lloyds Register of Shipping, E. Roscoe Mullins's Putti and Shield on the Fine Art Society, Louis Frederick Roslyn's Commerce, Transport, Industry, and Communications on Norway House, A. S. Young's Prudence, Justice and Liberality on the Norwich Union Insurance Building, H. A. Peto and Sir E. George's 60-61 Piccadilly (the former Albemarle Hotel), J.E. Taylerson's sculptural decorations on Lloyds Register of Shipping, William Theed's Camels (20 Eastcheap), and the following work by unknown sculptors: two Atlantes on Temple Chambers, a Ram on the former Cooper's Wool Warehouse, female caryatids on 44, Old Bond Street,

Their collaboration also included architectural sculpture on government buildings, such as Joseph Durham's Queens Victoria, Maud, and Anne on the former Public Record Office (now part of King's College London), and Roslyn's freestanding . Work in churches includes Nathaniel Hitch's St. Ethelburga, Virgin and Child, Lancelet Andrews on J.L. Pearson's Church of All Hallows Barking, Frederick William Pomeroy's Memorial to John D. Sedding, architect of Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, London plus war memorials, including William Robert Colton's Memorial to Captain Frederick C. Selous in the Natural History Museum, H.T.H. van Goldberdinge's Memorial to Captain Charles Fryatt and Charles Leonard Hartwell's Memorial to Field Marshall Sir Henry Wilson — both in Liverpool Street Station — and Sir Edward Lutyens's Memorial for the 1914-18 War, Trinity Square Gardens.

Philip V. Allingham completed his major project of creating commentaries each of Marcus Stone's forty-odd illustrations to Dickens's Our Mutual Friend.

Jacqueline Banerjee has contributed a substantial essay, “Self-Presentation and Self-Realisation in Dickens's Nicholas Nickleby.” In addition to keeping track of book reviews and catching formatting and typographical errors, she wrote essays on two works by Emmanuel Luigi Galizia illustrated by 15 of her photos — The Addolorata Chapel and Cemetery, Paolo, Malta and The Turkish Cemetery, Marsa, Malta. She also contributed photographs and commentary for John Tweed's Joseph Cowen and Thomas Eyre Macklin's South African War Memorial, both in Newcastle, and Chantrey's George IV in Brighton. JB created an index with biographical introduction for William Haywoood, the architect and engineeer responsible for the Holborn Viaduct. She also added to the materials on the Watts Gallery at Compton, and worked with with GPL on J. L. Pearson's restoration of All Hallows, London (the oldest church in the City). JB also began a new section in "Places" on the Yorkshire Dales, for which she has created an introduction and a beautifully illustrated photo-essay, "The Yorkshire Dales in Victorian Times" and "The Settle-Carlisle Railway: Derby Gothic," a study of both the railway and the architecture of its stations.

Andrzej Diniejko created a new section, “The Gothic Revival in Poland,” writing (a) an illustrated introduction and added materials about (2) Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel and Florian the Martyr, (c) a neo-Gothic palace in Starawies, and (d) St. Michael the Archangel Parish Church in Starawies, all of which he illustrated with his own photographs. In addition, he contributed The English-style romantic landscape garden in Arkadia: Gothick ruins and the High Priests's Santuary and The Potocki Mausoleum, both illustrated with photographs by Anna Diniejko-Was.

Béatrice Laurent, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vauclause, translated into French the introduction to GPL's Oxford Past Masters Ruskin.

A Canadian collector who wishes to remain anonymous has kindly shared his late nineteenth-century painting by Pollie Clarke of Elaine

Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology, University of Leeds, has contributed another of his performances of a Victorian parlor song, his latest being “The Children's Home” (1881).

Lousia Hadley PhD contributed Tell us what really happened: Evidence and the Past in Julian Barness Arthur & George to our Neo-Victorian section.

Miss Rae from Hawaii pointed out a bad link to “The Reign of Law” by George Campbell, Duke of Argyll. Thanks!

As of the 29th, the site had 56,307 documents and images.

July 2011

Your webmaster and Robert Freidus continued to enlarge the section on architectural and other sculpture, adding Thomas Tyrell's Atlas, an unknown sculptor's Queen's Assurance Sign, John Broad's Japanese Man and Woman, J. Daymond & Son's 80 Fetter Lane, Francis William Doyle Jones's Chimera with Personifications of Fire and the Sea, Sir William Reid Dick's Boy with Goose, and work by unknown sculptors including that on pediment at Harrods, four Renaissance portrait Heads on a building in Cornhill, classically draped figures symbolizing telegraphy and writing, Salisbury House, putti on the King Lud Building, Fleet Street and Ludgate Circus, a bronze eagle over a doorway on King william Street, Athena with a medusa shield flanked by her eagles of wisdom on the same street, Male and female allegorical figures symbolizing commerce and manufacturing near Holborn Circus, Putti symbolizing Painting, Commerce, and Astronomy at 1 Bishopsgate, Atlas supporting the Earth (Trafalgar Square), Mercury with his caduceus symbolizing commerce (Temple Avenue and Tudor Street), Boar (former St. John Street pub), Britannia with a lion and putti with a wheel and scales (Threadneedle Street), Locke, Pestalozzi, and other portraits (former home of the College of Preceptors), Mary, Queen of Scots (Fleet Street), Two putti, garlands, and a lion head (former Whitehall Club), A painted lion and two painted Chinamen (Twinings's), Justice and Strength Trademark (7 & 8 West Smithfield), and Faith, Hope, and Charity on the City Temple near Holborn Viaduct.

Larger projects involved creating a list of architectural sculptors, a five-part list of the iconography they used, list of Italian sculptors with works in the UK, and groups of sculptural decoration of individual buildings, such as Elektra House by Belcher and Joass with works by Drury, Frampton, John, Pomeroy, and others; Stanley Hamp's Thames House and its sculptural decoration by Frank Lynn Jenkins (Abundance), Richard Garbe (The Fruits of Land and Water, Mercury and Pegasus, and Putti), William Bainbridge Reynolds (Galleon), and George Duncan MacDougald (Overdoor Group with Mercury); Sir William Tite's Royal Exchange with work by Sir Richard Westmacott's freize on the portico, Samuel Joseph's Sir Hugh Myddleton, John Carew's Sir Richard Whittington, William Behnes's Sir Thomas Graham, Railways and Shipping on the former offices of the London Chatham & Dover Railway, Charles Kelsey's statues representing Dublin, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and London on Smithfield Market, Spandrels men writing and receiving letters on the former General Post Office, King Edward Street, Putti and shields on Alfred Waterhouse's Prudential Assurance Building., the Smithfield Market War Memorial, four works by Charles James Pibworth, and a simple Drinking fountain by the Wills Brothers.

Non-architectural sculpture additions include Charles John Allen's Memorial to John Heminge and Henry Condell, the men who assembled the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays in 1623, Bertram Mackennal's Paul's Cross, George Herbert Tyson Smith's Birkenhead War Memorial and his Cenotaph in Liverpool.

GPL discussed the problems of creating an allegorical iconography for the new temples of capitalism, such as the Metropolitan Life Assurance Company building, and he, RF, and Jacqueline Banerjee worked together on Fehr's work on the Middlesex Guildhall in Parliament Square, London

Philip V. Allingham contributed Two Scenes of Urban "Refuges"  A Sign of the Hungry Forties: "Are There No Prisons, Are There No Workhouses?" with illustrations from The Illustrated London News, which GPL formatted and linked to PVA's A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year by Kenny Meadows and his illustrated comments on alcohol in Victorian Christmas celebrations and his scan of Eliza Cook's Christmas song. Using PVA's earlier contributions, including articles on Christmas in the Royal family, GPL created a sitemap for Victorian Christmas celebration. PVA also provided scanned images, represented passage, and extensive commentaries for more illustrations by Marcus Stone of Dickens's Our Mutual Friend,, including The Flight, Three-Penn'orth Rum, Mr. Fledgeby Departs on His Errand of Mercy. In addition, he wrote two essays on the symbolic covers of Dickens's novels when published in parts, one on Phiz's for A Tale of Two Cities and a second on Marcus Stone's for Our Mutual Friend.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed photographs, commentary, and formatting for Edward Hodges Baily's Thomas Bewick, John Thomas's Tympanum and panels beside the south (main) entrance to Leeds Town Hall and his Rachel, the Daughter of Laban with a Lamb at her Feet, Charles Leonard Hartwell's Newcastle war memorial and The Goatherd's Daughter, Henry Alfred Pegram's Hylas, and Baron Marochetti's Charity, and two leeds sculptors — Joseph Thewlis and Edward Caldwell Spruce. She also contributed photographs and commentary for R. R. Rowe's Corn Exchange in Cambridge, Leeds Town Hall, indexes for the sculptors Matthew Noble and C. L. Hartwell, Matthew Noble's Prince and Princess of Wales, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert in Leeds, and Marochetti's Duke of Wellington, also in Leeds.

She also wrote and illustrated an essay on the Bradford Wool Exchange to which GPL contributed a brief discussion of the Exchange's relation to Ruskin's “Traffic.” With the co-operation of the Natural History Society of Northumbria, JB then added an essay on the work of the botanist Margaret Rebecca Dickinson. One of her pictures of George Gilbert Scott's King's College Chapel in London was featured (with permission) on the front cover of the programme book for the Society of Biblical Literature's International Meeting at King's this month.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed an introduction to the life and works of W. E. Henley. While vacationing with his family in the Polish countryside he's searching for examples of the Gothic Revival and nineteenth-century iron-and-glass architecture for VW.

Dr. Pascal Debout of the Faculté de Droit, Université de Strasbourg, has completed his French translation of the third chapter of Landow's Past Masters Ruskin: Ruskin l'interprète de la société.

Christina Beardsley writes to provide links to the preface, introduction, and second chapter of her biography of the liberal Churchman Frederick W. Robertson; they have been added to the Robertson sitemap (homepage).

As of the 25th, the site had 55,260 documents and images.

June 2011

Your webmaster began the month by arriving in Rijeka, Croatia, where he's spending three weeks as a Fulbright Senior Specialist in Information Technology. While being shown around the beautiful city center by his host, Professor Marina Biti, Chair of Croatian Studies, he found analogues to British Victorian architecture in Rijeka, taking photographs of a public market to the section of iron and glass architecture and some beautiful Art Nouveau buildings on the Korzo, the main pedestrian shopping street. A few days after his arrival he gave a lecture at the University of Rijeka about the Victorian Web, and on the 5th he flew to Eindhoven, the Netherlands, for the ACM (computer science) HT2011 conference where presented a paper entitled “Victorian Web and the Victorian Course Wiki — Comparing the Educational Effectiveness of Identical Assignments in Web 1.0 and Web 2.0.”

Working with about 50 photographs contributed by Robert Freidus and a few of his own, your webmaster created “A British Pantheon: Painters, Sculptors, and Designers depicted on the façades of the Victorian And Albert Museum, London.” GPL and Freidus collaborated on many more documents containing photographs of sculpture, including Cecil Brown's Imperial Camel Corps Memorial, Mortimer Brown's Twickenham War Memorial, a new section on Charles Doman consisting of 11 works, smaller ones for Ernest George Gillick, Richard Reginald Goulden, John Hancock, Albert Hemstock Hodge, David McGill, and Herbert W. Palliser plus Sir Thomas Brock's Robert Raikes, Benjamin Creswick's Cutler's Hall Frieze, Aimé-Jules Dalou's Charity Drinking Fountain, Eugénie Maria Wynne, Monument to Charles Floquet (Paris), Monument to Louis Auguste Blanqui (Paris), Hamo Thornycroft's Richard Norman Shaw, Alfred Drury's War Memorial to London Troops, Sir William Goscombe John's Monument to Sir Patrick Playfair and two bas reliefs on the Queen Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, Adrian Jones's Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge, David McGill's Sir Wilfrid Lawson. With more of Bob Freidus's pictures, we opened a new site on Henry Charles Fehr, with several of Fehr's works in Leeds and London, including his statues of John Harrison and James Watt, and his war memorial in Leeds; also his freize on the Middlesex Guildhall. Freidus, GPL and JB collaborated on Richard's Westmacott's freize.on the Royal Exchange as well. Freidus also contributed series of photographs on Sir William Tite's Royal Exchange and john Gibson's National Provincial Bank of England, both of which have important programs of architectursl sculpture by Hancock and C. Mabey.

Philip V.Allingham contributed an essay on Dickens's religious beliefs and continued his major projects on commentaries about illustrations of the novels, adding a dozen images and commentaries about Marcus Stone's for Dickens's Our Mutuual Friend plus otherts for Sol Eytinge's illustrations for A Tale of Two Cities. He also sent in material from The Illustrated News on a raneg of subjects.

Earlier in the month Jacqueline Banerjee sent in Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud's sculpture of Mrs Siddons. JB's trip "up north" later in the month has yielded, so far, William Goscombe John's war memorial, The Response, in Newcastle; George Frampton's memorial to Queen Victoria in Leeds; and George Gilbert Scott's Leeds General Infirmary. She added (with permission from Orleans House Gallery) two of Richard Dadd's works, Portrait of Sir Thomas Phillips in Turkish Dress, and Crazy Jane. Jacqueline Banerjee formatted and added commentaries on these and three other works by different artists from the Lady Lever Art Gallery in Port Sunlight: Millais' Little Speedwell's Darling Blue and Apple Blossoms (or Spring); and Onslow Ford's Snowdrift. An earlier contribution from the turn of the month was on Archbishop Heber, sparked by Bob Freidus's photograph of Heber's fine monument by Chantry in Kolkata. JB would also like to thank Julia Bolton Holloway for a correction made then to her piece on "The English Cemetery in Florence." Permission was given to use some of JB's material on Richard Jefferies in the London Society Journal.

Mark De Novellis, Curator of Exhibitions and Collections at the Orleans House Gallery, Riverside, Twickenham, writes to tell us about the current exhibition of Richard Dadd's work at the gallery. Works from the Bethlem Art and History Collections Trust, West London Mental Health NHS Trust and private collections have all been brought together to chart this artist's early career, travels to Europe and the Middle East, mental illness and work created while at Bethlem and Broadmoor Hospitals. The exhibition is free, and lasts until 2 Ocober. More details on the exhibition website.

A collector who wishes to remain anonymous contributed photographs of two works by Alfred Drury (Griselda and A Seated Boy) and two by George Frampton (The Knight of the Once and My Thoughts are My Children) plus David McGill's The Victor.

Kristina Hochwender, PhD, Assistant Professor of English, University of Evansville, contributed a series of essays on Margaret Olphant and related novelists, including “The Clerical Novel,” Clerical Education in Margaret Oliphants Clerical Novels,” The Rector,” Mr Proctor Proposes,” Margaret Oliphant's Town of Carlingford,” and Oliphant's Salem Chapel.”

Viviane de Moraes Abrahão translated four essays from the section on Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, and Montserrat Martínez García continued her major translation work, adding sections on Victorian apocalyptics, prophetics, sermons, hymns, and religious tracts.

A new contributor, Hristo Boev from Constanta-Romania, sent in an essay on "Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization in Little Nelll's Death Scene — Deconstructing Little Nell."


Thanks to Todd Ramsey for taking the trouble to send along the updated URLs for more than half a dozen sites listed on the “Related Resources” page.

As of the 27th, the site had 54,456 documents and images.

May 2011

The Department of English at Brown University gave a retirement dinner for your webmaster on the 11th, he submitted his last grades on the 29th, and on memorial day he said a few words to the graduating English concentrators, thereby just about closing out his 39 years at the university (retirement comes officially at the end of the academic year — June 31st).

Your webmaster began this month the way he ended April, spending three to four hours a day — sometimes entire days and evenings — working with the wonderful torrent of images of Victorian sculpture and information about them that Robert Freidus has sent in from London. Working on them entailed resizing images, correcting their color and perspective, and removing distracting backgrounds plus creating and linking HTML documents for them. Bob sent in photographs of monuments and portraits by sculptors new to the Victorian Web as well as those of whom we already had many examples. His valuable contributions permitted creating a much larger gallery of statues of Queen Victoria as well as greatly increasing our section on British sculpture in India. His photographs — often multiple views of the same sculpture — include Gilbert Bayes's Diana; Sir Thomas Brock's The Black Prince; Sir William Reid Dick's Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Marquess of Willingdon, Harry Dwight Ripley Monument, and the Leverhulme WWI memorial, Alfred Drury's wonderful Circe and his Morning and Evening; John Henry Foley's Lieutenant General Sir James Outram, Calcutta; Edward Onslow Ford's Dancing and Linus; Sir George Frampton's Queen Victoria, Anthony Patrick MacDonell, Sir Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser; Lord Ronald Gower's Shakespeare Memorial; George Sergeant Jagger's George V; Goscombe John's Sir John Woodburn and panels for the Queen Victoria Memorial; George Henry Paulin's Kirkcudbright War Memorial and King Robert of Sicily), Frederick William Pomeroy's Curzon Memorial and Dean Hook; Thomas Tarran's Victoria; George Havard Thomas's Sir Spencer Harcourt Butle; more than a dozen works by Richard Westmacott, including his Warren Hastings and Lord William Cavendish Bentinck, both in Calcutta, and twelve example sof his funerary work in England and India; and John Warrington Wood's Sisters of Bethany, Frank Arnold Wright's Dawn.

Some items drew upon extensive material already on the site, such as Joseph Whitehead's Monument to John Rae, the Scottish physician who discovered traces of cannibalism in the remains of the ill-fated Franklin arctic expedition about which Philip Allingham had written a series of essays, including one on Dickens's response to the discovery. (GPL had also photographed Noble's Franklin monument. These kinds of convergences exemplify the kind of implicit collaboration in scholarship that sites like the Victorian Web do best.

Freidus also contributed photographs an dinformation about a large number of other items: C.O. Ellison & Son's Liverpool Ear and Infirmary and two works of high relief on its façade; a bust of Dwarkamath Tagore by Henry Weekes in the National Library, Calcutta; Matthew Noble's Monument to Archbishop Musgrave; William Reynolds-Stephens's Monument to Bishop Sir Edwyn Hoskyn; Monument to James Saumarez, Lord de Saumarez; Edward M. Richardson's Monument to James Jeremie; Peter Rouw's Monument to General Joshua le Marchant; George Frederick Morris Harding's Monument to George Kenneth Vansittart.

Freidus's photographs and information have also prompted the creation of a section for funerary sculpture, which began with two works by H. H. Armstead, nine by John Bacon the Younger and three by E. H. Baily, two by William Behnes, one by Joseph Edward Boehm, five by Sir Francis Chantrey, and Henry Alfred Pegram's Into the Silent Land, four by Ellen Mary Rope, two by Dorothy Anne Aldrich Rope, and one by John Steell — plus, of course, numerous works photographed earlier by Jacqueline Banerjee.

Philip V. Allingham contributed illustrated essay, “The Electric Telegraph, Telecommunications Wonder of the Railway Age: 1791 to 1852” and “The Laying of Submarine Cable — The Triumph of Brunel's "Great Eastern" on 27 July 1866” plus images of the great ship.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed an illustrated essay on Sir George Frampton's Liverpool Memorial to Sir Alfred Lewis Jones and added commentary and bibliography of several of Roibert Freidus's contributions. She next created a photo essay on William Hallett's St John the Baptist Roman Catholic Church in Brighton and another on N. H. J. Westlake's paintings and stained glass for this church plus John Edward Carew's sculptures, The Battle of Trafalgar, at the base of Nelson's Column, The Baptism of Christ and monuments to Maria Fitzherbert and the Rev. Edward Cullin. Additional work on architectiure included her photo-essay on John Francis Bentley's Interior Remodelling of St Botolph without Aldgate, London. In addition, she reviewed Michael Nelson's Queen Victoria and the Discovery of the Riviera and Ted Jones's A Short Notice of The French Riviera: A Literary Guide for Travellers.

More Spanish translations continue to arrive: Rocío Morales de la Prida sent in “Mujeres inglesas y hombres chinos: tareas domésticas en el Oeste americano,” an essay by Tamar S. Wagner on Catherine Hubback, Jane Austen's niece, and Marina Coma Díaz translated Stuart Currie's “George Whyte-Melville, Vampirismo, y La Guerra de Crimea. & Montserrat Martínez García translated three long, complex documents: Henry Melvill's “La muerte de Moisés” and Simón, el cireneo” plus a scetion from Images of Crisis, “El arcoíris: imágenes problemáticas de naturaleza problemática

Galina Miklosic writes from Minsk for permission, which she received, to translate our essay on Radcliffe's word-painting into Belorussian, which she then planned to post on her blog.

Penn Quinn writes to report a broken link on the Braddon sitemap. Thanks!

The site had 53,855 documents and images on the 30th of the month.

April 2011

After returning from Jyväskylä, Finland, where your webmaster gave several lectures, one about experimemts with this site, he devoted much energy to formatting material and correcting perspective and removing distracting bacgrounds from photographs by new contributors as well as continuing to mine Punch for relevant cartoons and caricatures. Drawing upon some work he had done last month, he put up five more contemporary photographs of Onslow Ford's sculpture.

Philip V. Allingham writes to announce his new book on illustrations of Thoomas Hardy's work. He, Stuart Durant, and GPL collaborated on adapting an image of “The Great Western Railway Terminus, at Paddington” for includion in the section on Victorian railway stations. He and GPL collaborated on two documents about polution of the Thames — “Charles Dickens and ‘the Big Stink’” and a transcription of an editorial from the 1858 Illustrated London News: “The Purification of The Thames.”

Jacqueline Banerjee began the month with two illustrated essays about works of C. H. Townsend (1) an adaptation of an article in The Studio about his Cliff Towers, Devonshire, and (2) the house today, which is now known as La Tourelle. Inspired by GPL's trip to Finland, she created "Charles Harrison Townsend and the Finnish Connection." Thanks to Professor Raine Koskimaa of the University of Jyväskylä for information about some of the buildngs photographed. She added William Butterfield's St Augustine's Church,Cardiff, and Sir Richard Westmacott's Monument to George III, The Copper Horse at Windsor. She also wrote “Edwin Seward and the Building of the Welsh Capital” and three of Seward's buildings — the Cardiff Union Workhouse, the Cardiff Royal Infirmary and the Morgan Arcade, this last with a photograph by Robin Drayton. Near the end of April, she contributed a review of Victorian Prism: Refractions of the Crystal Palace, edited by James Buzard, Joseph W. Childers, and Eileen Gillooly

Amitav Banerjee reviewed Shabrani Basu's Victoria & Abdul: The True Story of Queen's Closest Confidant, and John Sankey reviewed Penelope Curtis and Keith William's Modern British Sculpture, the catalogue for the recent exhibition at the Royal Academy.

Robert Freidus contributed photograph and captions for three works by Harry Bates — Hounds in Leash, Lord Roberts Memorial , and the Easter frontal in Holy Trinity Church, Sloane Square, London — two by Henry Alfred Pegram, Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey, RA and John Flaxman, RA, Alfred Drury's Inspiration, four by William Silver Frith (John Bacon and Grinling Gibbons, Power and Blind Justice, and Astor House Lamp Standards), and collaborated with JB and GPL on a series of photographs and commentary about Charles John Allen's Queen Victoria Monument in Liverpool. He also provided for Edward Onslow Ford's Sir Lakshmiswar Bahadur Singh, Maharajah of Darbhanga, William Reynolds-Stephens's Nineteenth-century Worship of Christ. Finally, he put us in touch with a collector who has contributed many images of Victorian sculpture. Thanks!

This new contributor who wishes to remain anonymous provided photographs, information, and corrections for the Harry Bates Æneid Triptych, after which he provided the basis of the text for the same sculptor's War and both text and image for William Augustus Guy Medal. This benefactor's other contributions this month include a bronze nude by an unknown artist and the material for a new section on the sculptor Charles John Allen, including the bronze Rescued and the plaster Maternity as well as photographs and information for the following works by Gilbert Bayes: Baldwin’s Newel Post, The Sea Maid’s Frolic, and Wings of the Wind. Next came Sir William Reid Dick's Arras, Mary Bennett's terracotta plaque of a seated farmgirl in reverie, Frank Bowcher's bas relief portrait of T. H. Huxley, Bertha Gabriella Casella's wax Euterpe, and Aimé-Jules Dalou's Le Jour de Rameaux à Boulogne and La Boulognese. Other contributions: Edward Onslow Ford's Bust of a Lady, Percival M. F. Hedley's Lily Elsie (in her role as Sonia in the Merry Widow), Charles Sargeant Jagger's Cathel and the Woodfolk, Eric Henri Kennington's T. E. Lawrence, George Frampton's James Fleming and St. Christina, Charles De Sousy Ricketts's Paolo & Francesca, Ellen Mary Rope's May Day Symphony and Mother and Child, Edward Poynter's Joseph Whitworth, Stanley Mace Foster's Edouard Lanteri, Edouard Lanteri's Richard Phene Spiers, Dr. Ludwig Mond, and William Blake Richmond, David McGill's Medallion for the Society of British Sculptors, Alfred Bertram Pegram's Mercury, Henry Alfred Pegram's Charles W. Wyllie, Frederick William Pomeroy and John Belcher's Dr. William Gandy, Lilian Simpson's Art Nouveau Book Cover and Atalanta, Theodore Spicer Simson's George Meredith, Reginald Fairfax Wells's Mother and Child.

Montserrat Martínez García translated “Las interpretaciones alegóricas de Ruskin sobre Turner” and several discussions of biblical imagery: “La aplicación de la tipología bíblica en Carlyle,” “Tipología secularizada en la ficción victoriana,” “La imaginería tipológica como comentario autorial,” and “La roca golpeada: uno de los usos victorianos más populares del simbolismo tipológico.” Diana C. Archibald, Associate Professor of English, University of Massachusetts Lowell, contributed “Charles Dickens and Liverpool's Adelphi Hotel.” Ana González-Rivas Fernández, Ph. D. shared “El sistema educativo y los clásicos grecolatinos en las obras de George Eliot.”

Lauren Palmor help out by e-mailing about a few duplicate (and broken) links. Thanks!

The site had 52,981 documents and images on as of the 25th.

March 2011

Your webmaster spent six days formatting and linking Victoria Parra Ortiz's Spanish translations of the more than 130 documemts in the Swinburne section, after which he formatted two sections on Ruskin translated by Montserrat Martínez García. Continuing to mine Punch, he added a dozen cartoons to Fads and Fashions, created section on various aspects of Victorian railways and, in the Arts and Culture section, added a new subsection on The Royal Academy and other galleries and numerous cartoons to Life with the Aesthetes. He spent the last five days of the month at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland — first at the Publishing Electronic Literature in Europe conference, where he spoke on “What Will the Scholarly Book Become in E-space — Experiments with the Victorian Web.” Afterwards he gave a public lecture, “What's Happened on the Internet since 2000? Web 2.0, Social Media, and what they have taught us,” after which he gave several talks on digital literature and culture for a graduate seminar.

Philip V. Allingham completed the plates and extensive commentaries for Fred Barnard's 25 illustrations for Dickens's Tale of Two Cities.

Jacqueline Banerjee, who reviewed Gavin Stamp's Lost Victorian Britain, also created a new section on the architecture and sculpture of Cardiff, which now (in addition to her earlier material on William Burges) includes William Frame's The Pierhead Building, The Norwegian Church, and Lanchester, Stewart and Rickards' Cardiff City Hall plus two war memorials: John Ninian Comper's Welsh National War Memorial and Albert Toft's South African War Memorial . Other sculptural works include four by Sir William Goscombe John — James Rice Buckley, Judge Gwilym Williams , John Cory, and Carved figures in reredos, in the Church of St John the Baptist

JB and Sarah Sullivan, a new contributor, undertook a large project — Blackheath Village, Surrey: Charles Harrison Townsend and the Garden City Movement. Sullivan also contributed Townsend's St Martin's Church, which JB formatted. Dr. Amitav Banerjee reviewed Robert Douglas-Fairhurst's Selected Edition of Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor.

William Denley Owen contributed “Presenting WRH Powell, Carmarthenshire's First Radical MP

Dr Carlos López Galviz, writes from the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, to announce what promises to be an exciting conference — “Asa Briggs: A Celebration (19 May 2011),

As of the 28th, the site had 52,424 documents and images.

February 2011

Your webmaster put up more examples of Norman-Shaw influenced housing for the well-to-do in Chelsea with Chelsea Court and 1-21 Embankment Gardens (Thanks to Dr. Banerjee for identifying the architect of the first). Continuing to draw upon the Internet Archive's text and image versions of Punch, he wrote “Sabbath Observance, Sabbatarianism, and Social Class” and added eight images and commentaries to our biography of John Bright and a half dozen to “Ritualism as well as many individual cartoons on sculpture, including generous ones (“Mr. Punch's design for a statue to Miss Nightingale”) and satirical ones (“The Napier Statue”) and a new section on Punch on railways and railway travel.

Jacqueline Banerjee began the new year with two substantial illustrated essays — “The Brownings in Florence” and “The English Cemetery in Florence and the Anglo-Florentine Community.” Mid-month she delivered an invited lecture in Malta, “Perspectives on Victorian Architectural Heritage in Sliema.” She also sent in photographs and text for 6 of George Tinworth's ceramic sculptures.

Montserrat Martínez García sent in her Spanish translation of another section of The Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin.

Christopher Rollason shared his reviews in both English and Spanish of Ana González-Rivas Fernández's El mundo clásico desde la mirada femenina: Margaret Fuller, Mary Shelley y George Eliot, and Katherine M. Miller reviewed Dallas Liddle's The Dynamics of Genre: Journalism and the Practice of Literature in Mid-Victorian Britain.

Malcolm Shifrin sent us an illustrated description of his site, Victorian Turkish Baths: their origin, development, and gradual decline, which appears in our sections on public health and social history. David Taylor kindly shared his illustrated essay, “The School House, Trumpington, by William Butterfield,” which JB and GPL formatted.

John Price Williams writes to provide the names of the architects who designed the extension to the building that houses the Royal Geographic Sociey. W.D. Owen writes to ask, “Why do you give Sir George Frampton the credit for the Arthur Sullivan memorial on the Embankment in London?? Surely it was the work of Sir William Goscombe John.” Read's Victorian Sculpture says Mr. Owen's correct. Thanks!

As of the 28th, the site had 51,926 documents and images.

January 2011

The New Year began with your webmaster in a very cloudy and often rainy London — one day of sun in three weeks. A quick run from his flat off King's Road — well, a very fast wheezy walk — to Sloane Square on morning after his arrival produced a set of photographs of Holy Trinity, the famous Arts and Crafts church. Even though the sun went behind clouds and a British telecom truck partially blocked the view of Newman's statue near the Brompton Oratory, your webmaster finally obtained a decent image. Rain and clouds didn't get in the way of photographing the newly restored interior Butterfield's All Saints, Margaret Street, which complemented last year's photographs of the exterior. Perhaps the most exciting discovery of this trip was stumbling upon Joseph Durham's Striking the Rock, a bronze sculpture for which your webmaster had been searching for more than three decades!

The one day when the sun shown in a cloudless sky permitted photographs of buildings throughout Cheslea and Kensington, including Norman Shaw's Clock House and the Old Swan House, both on the Embankment, and the Rossetti Studios, a purpose-built apartment block with artist's studios. These walks also produced photographs of an 1850 infant school still in use as well as St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Primary School, which may be by Pugin. (These buildings, plus Jacqueline Banerjee's earlier photos of schools built after the 1870 education act, prompted the creation of a new section on primary and seconday schools.)

Working with the Internet Archive of The Studio produced new images and material for a host of sculptors and their works, including Drury's works on the New War Office (Truth and Justice, The Sorrow of Peace, The Winged Messenger of Peace), Study for Eve, The Little Duchess, Spring, Sir Wm. Maccormac, a war memorial in bronze for New College, Oxford, electric light standards in the form of female nudes, and various saints, Pegram's Music and The Harvest, Toft's The Invocation, Spring, and Hagar, four new works by G. A. Williams of Liverpool, and Reynolds-Stephens's Guinevere's Redeeming and a fire screen.

New material on paintings includes Alma-Tadema's Portrait of E. A. Waterlow, Esq., A.R.A. (the first portrait by this artist we have), with work in different genres by Anning Bell — paintings and sculpture (in the form of painted bas reliefs). In addition to works in fine arts and fine crafts, we added a number of humbler objects, such as a Doulton salt cellar with heads of Disraeli, Salisbury, and Queen Victoria, a drinking fountain and cattle trough in Sloane Square, and a gallery of brick bas-relief wall decorations.

Partly as a means of bringing our reader's attention to Chesterton's ideas, partly as a means of experimenting with what hypertextual academic criticism might become, your webmaster created a kind of collage of twenty passages from C.K. Chesterton's writing, ranging from an attack on the 1832 Reform bill as a conspiracy by landed aristocracy and manufacturers of the North to keep working people from power to sometimes brilliant, often eccentric, and always interesting comments about Carlyle, Dickens, Macaulay, Ruskin, and Trollope.

Spanish translations continued to arrive, and the first week of the month saw Rebeca Cordero Sánchez's renderings of materials on the Arts and Crafts movement, Liberty & Co, and the paintings of Edward Lear. Susana Sánchez Renieblas also began translating the section on Walter Pater. The next week aw Camila Khaski Graglia's translation of the section on Eliza Lynn Linton plus a dozen illustrations of her work by Arthur Hopkins. Raluca Catalina Lazarescu translated the Harriet Martineau section, Natalia Mora López did G.P.R. James, and Viviane de Moraes Abrahão did part of that for Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna. Montserrat Martínez García (who recently earned her PhD with a dissertation on Scott) continues to be the queen of translators working under Asun López Varela, since she not only translated almost the entire large section on Victorian religion but has also just completed rendering into Spanish the Oxford Past Masters Ruskin.

One of the loveliest parts of the visit to London was attending the Thomas Hardy Society Wreath Laying at Westminster Abbey, 2011. Thanks to Jacqueline and Amitav Banerjee for inviting us to attend with them.

Philip V. Allingham completed his commentaries on 65 illustrations by Sol Eytinge for Dickens's Christmas Carol and David Copperfield. Next up, Little Dorritt.

Jacqueline Banerjee (who incidentally has an essay appear in The Times Literary Supplement this first week of January), completed essays with almost two dozen photographs of John Johnson's buildings and the pre-Victorian Bevis Marks Synagogue where Disraeli's birth was registered, and James Savage's St Luke's Church, Chelsea, perhaps the first gothic revival church in the UK. (GPL meanwhile created photographs and text for and Christ Church, Chelsea, originally and now once again the companion church of St. Luke's, which has excellent stained glass, including a panel with William Wilberforce, the champion of the anti-slavery movement.) Other contributions by JB included Sir John Soane's Museum and Sir William Reid Dick's statue of the architect plus am illustrated essay on James Henry Greathead, Tunnelling Expert and Railway Engineer. JB's major literary contribution of the month was her eight-part “The Struggle for Manhood in Victorian Fiction,” which looks at this issue in works by the Brontüs, Carlyle, Dickens, Hughes, Kingsley, Thackeray, and others. She also helped the cause by valuable proof-reading and correcting errors.

Andrzej Diniejko began a new section on the genre of slum fiction with an introduction and bibliographies of primary and sceondary readings. Thanks, too, for his proof-reading work by others on the site.

The Times had some nice things to say about the Victorian Web:

"The Daily Universal Register," Web Search: Victorian Web: An outstanding resource for literature and history students, this website also makes for fascinating reading from anyone interested in matters ranging from what aspects of Victorian culture have been lost with decimalisation to how people sent letters in those days and the rhyming slang of the day. As of this month, the site has nearly 50,000 documents.

(Tuesday December 28 2010, p.26)

Lauren Harmsen Kiehna writes from the University of Kansas to announce the 2011 Trollope Prize competition, which now has both undergraduate and graduate awards.

Dr. Kara Smith, Instructor of History at Georgia Perimeter College, writes to correct a name in the essay on Ricardo, and Carol Engelhardt Herringer, Chair, History Department at Wright State University, writes to do the same for the essay on Pusey. David Sawicki pointed out an incorrect date in Sir Joseph Bazalgette's biography. Thanks also to Alan Day who provided a changed link to a Columbia University site!

By the 30th of January the site had 51, 285 documents and images.

December 2010

By the twenty-seventh, the site had 49,975 documents. Looking through his library, your webmaster came upon a copy of The Diary of Alfred Domett, 1872-1885 obtained in Oxforfd more than three decades ago. Domett, who was the original of Waring in Browning's “What became of Waring?” provides often fascinating material about Browning's views of his contemporaries, early knowledge of Hebrew, and his surpringingly close relationship with Tennyson. He also includes an anecdote about Tennyson's shyness and interesting information about sculptors, such as J. H. Foley, Thomas Thornycroft, and Mary Thornycroft, and the physical appearance of public figures, such as Gladstone and T. H. Huxley. He also recorded his delight with Edinburgh.

After Jacqueline Banerjee pointed out in passing that the Internet Archive had portions of The Studio online, your webmaster drew upon it to add a series of materials to the site — "Sir George Frampton's house in St. John's Wood," a half a dozen drawings and a painting by Byam Shaw, and six paintings and two drawings by Solomon J. Solomon plus a fireplace by C. H. Townsend. The Internet Archive's digitized versions of the University of Toronto's copies of The Studio's provided the materials to create a Victorian Web translations of an essay on the Martin Brothers and Japanese pottery (with several dozen examples), Percy Bates's “The Late Frederick Sandys: A Retrospect”, and Baillie-Scott's essay “On the Characteristics of Mr. C. F. A. Voysey's Architecture” followed by the heavily illustrated “E. J. Horniman's ‘Garden Corner’ designed by C. F. A. Voysey;” These two articles plus materials from this periodical's illustrated review of the 1896 Arts and Crafts Exhibition, which included many illustrations of Voysey's textiles, wallpaper, carpets, and furniture, permitted the creation of a much-improved section about this major architect-designer.

Philip V. Allingham continued work on the illustrations of Dickens by Marcus Stone and Sol Eytinge, adding 50 new plates and thus far 10 sets of captions and commentaries for Stone's Our Mutual Friend.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed essays (illustrated with more than 30 of her photographs) about Pugin's St Augustine's Abbey Church, Ramsgate and the Grange, his home adjacent to the church. To these she added St. Marie's Grange in Wiltshire illustratedby a contemporary engraving. Catriona Blaker of the Pugin Society very kindly read these new contributions and provided corrections and new information. She also created a new section on the Arts and rafts architect Charles Harrison Townsend, including his Whitechapel Art Gallery and The Horniman Museum. In addition, JB provided new versions of works containing links to electronic texts for Hannah More and George MacDonald.

Montserrat Martínez García sent in Spanish translations of twenty more essays from the religion section, completing all the material on alternate traditions from atheism and agnosticism to spiritualism, socinianism, and Swedenborg. Emma Haley's translations of a dozen essays on Marie Corelli also arrived and are now online.

Jacqueline Banerjee did a photo-essay on G. E. Street's American Cathedral in Paris and opened new sites for the sculptor George Wade and the architect Charles Harrison Townsend.

Jonathan Potter contributed “Constructing Social and Personal Identities in Dickens.’ David Copperfield.”

David Skilton, Research Professor in English at Cardiff University, who e-mailed the correct spelling of Miss Richmal Magnall's first name, also provided her dates: 1769-1820. Thanks!

November 2010

Your webmaster spent the first week of the month converting (for the French section of the site) dozens of Olivier Pinel's documents about the people and events of the French Revolution, which he has generously shared with readers of the Victorian Web; 100s more to go. He also added “Richard Jefferies, Mystical Agnostic and Skeptic” and “Richard Jefferies and the Industrial Sublime.” He also formatted the Spanish versions of more than 50 essays related to religion in Victorian England that Montserrat Martínez García translated, including those on the Church of England, dissenters and evangelical protestantism, the Tractarians, and other denominations. Lora Grigorova from Portugal sent in translations of the 3 documents in the Hall Caine section, Zaire Willems did the same for the biography of F. W. Farrar, and Esther Fernández translated the biography of R. D. Blackmore and a dozen related documents. Meanwhile, Asun López-Varela, who heads the Spanish-translation project, translated the sitemap for Decorative Arts and Design.

Philip V. Allingham transcribed and formatted William Winter's reminiscence of the illustrator, Sol Eytinge, Jr., his long essay on Dickens, Eytinge's drawing of Dickens, and Lock and Whitfield's photograph of Wilkie Collins.

Jacqueline Banerjee, who reviewed Victoria & Albert: Art & Love (published by the Royal Colections), created a series of photographs with accompanying commentary on material related to Victorian railways: a signal box on the Lewes and Uckfield Railway, Frederick Dale Banister's Eastbourne Station in Sussex, and an 1851 advertisement for railway insurance. In addition to her biography of Marochetti and photographs of his home on Onslow Square, she added images and text for his Richard I, Coeur de Lion outside the House of Lords, The Assumption of Mary Magdalene (the grand altarpiece at the Madeleine in Paris), his bust of Sir Anthony Panizzi at the British Library, and examples of his designs for furniture and ceramics.

Mike Pratt, Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada, requested and received permission to place on his site Philip V. Allingham's “Dickens's Impressions of the Mississippi valley at Cairo, Illinois, the original of ‘Eden’ in Martin Chuzzlewit.” Meanwhile, PVA continues writing commentaries on Eytinge's illustrations for Our Mutual Friend.

J. Michael Desmond, Professor in the School of Architecture at Louisiana State University, asked for and received permission to use the site's photograph of St. Paul's, Covent Garen, in his book on the architecture of his university. Paul Bukhovko writes from Belarus for permisisn to translate our article “Charles Lyell” [his Belorussian translation]. Ashley Muir Bruhn of Sterling Publishing in New York asked for and received permission to reprint portions of PVA's “Some Early Dramatic Solutions to Dickens's Unfinished Mystery” in an edited volume of John Forster’s The Life of Charles Dickens. Thalia Allington-Wood from the Tate requested and received GPL's photo of the bust of John Robert Cozens on the façade of Royal Institute of Painters in London. Alex, the webmaster of, suggested an excange of links involving George Eliot's neighborhood.

The British Museum writes to invite our readers to a book-signing and Christmas shopping event on Thursday 2nd December in the British Museum Bookshop, from 6pm. On offer are complimentary seasonal refreshments, a discount on books on the decorative arts, a special selection of "authentic replica Victorian jewellery" and the chance to speak to the authors of a new book, Jewellery in the Age of Queen Victoria. The latter is evidently very wide-ranging, encompassing jewellery from Europe and America, and the roles of jewellery in fashion, literature and the culture generally. Sounds promising!

Danniel Dutton writes from the UK to let us know that the old off-site links to texts by George Eliot no longer work, Thanks! Mr. Dutton's e-mail prompted GPL to replace these links with ones to Project Gutenberg e-texts, after which he did the same for a dozen other authors. By the 29nd the site had 49,466 documents.

October 2010

The month, which marks the tenth anniversary of this quasi-blog within the Victorian Web, began with your webmaster in Bucharest, where he gave a talk on the American ceramicist-sculptor, Arnie Zimmerman at a conference on real and virtual cities at a Romanian center for semiotics. While in Bucharest he photographed an interesting nineteenth-century example of iron and glass architecture — the Macca-Vilacrosse Passage, whose name, date, and architect Prof. Mariana Net kindly provided. Just after mid-month more Spanish translations arrived, were formatted, and put online.

Philip V. Allingham scanned 17 illustrations for Sol Eytinge's for Dickens's Our Mutual Friend and provided htmls for the first 4.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed a substantial essay about Pugin's stained glass in St Augustine's Church, Ramsgate accompanied by 16 photographs, after which she created a section on William Henry Playfair, the most famous Scottish architect working in the classical tradition; he designed both the Royal Scottish Academy and the National Gallery of Scotland. Next came her essay and photographs of George Audsley's New West End Synagogue

Andrzej Diniejko traveled from Poland to Sardinia to deliver a lecture on the Victorian Web at the Convegno Italiano at the University of Sassari. Upon his return home he sent along an essay on the life and works of Frances Trollope.

Rosemarie Morgan of St. Andrews writes to to provide advance notice of Hardy at Yale II: (9-12 June 2011).

Mark F. Bean writes to provide a possible explanation for the odd name Catnach.

Christ Keenan of the Edison Innovation Foundation invited us to add a link to the organization's blog, which I have done. Pauline Hernandez wrote to say that the Waterloo link to material about Sherlock Holmes no longer works and suggested another site. Oliver Penil writes to give notice of his French site that lists all those guillotined during the Terror. Paul Thompson writes, “your website won Shmoop's Best of the Web award for Bleak House.” Thanks!

As of the 18th, the site had 48,912 documents and images.

September 2010

As of the 27th, the site has 48,873 documents and images. Your now-seventy-year-old webmaster is writing from Singapore where he and Ruth have flown for the 10th-anniversary celebration of the honors program at the National University of which he was the founding dean. While recovering from jetlag, he has continued work on the French translation of the site, which now consists of 800 documents. Upon his return from Singapore on the 16th, he formatted and uploaded the sitemap for «El Catolicismo romano en la Gran Bretaña victoriana» and twenty odd essays on Victorian Roman Catholicism and anti-catholicism, which includes a chapter from Josef L. Altholz's book on the Liberal Catholic movement in England.

Philip Allingham scanned the images and wrote the text to accompany a series of 14 illustrations by Copping and the Taylors of Dickens' Dream Childrren, a volume written by the novelist's granddaughter; he also scanned the book's introductions.

Jacqueline Banerjee created a sitemap for the architect John Francis Bentley (1839-1902) and an essay about his Westminster Cathedral, London, accompanied by 14 of her photographs plus text and images for Cardinal Wiseman's tomb there. In addition she wrote the texts accompanying Ipshita Banerji's images of the Glass House in the Lal Bagh Gardens, Bangalore, India, and St. Philomena's Church, Mysore; she did the same for Ramnath Subbarabam's images of the Victorian Memorial Hall in Calcutta. She also granted permission to publishers Thames & Hudson and The History Press for use of her images of Susan Durant's sculpture and of Holly Village, Highgate, respectively, in their forthcoming books.

Michael Uphill requested and received permission to include JB's photograph of St Mary Abbotts in his Tales from the London County Crypt — “about bellringers in London.“ Winn W. Wasson, who teaches Political Science at Ashford University in Iowa, requested and received permission material transcribed by PVA.

Christophe Semois wrote suggesting a link to his site, which features the Battle of Waterloo, and I have added it to the suggested reading that follows the biography of Wellington. Ruairidh Anderson writes from the U. K. to announce his Victorian-related blog, Songs from the Howling Sea: every Friday he releases “a free song about a character or event from London's Old East End.” His titles include “Murder and the Medical Profession,” “Part Time Entertainers And Raw Sewage,” and “Sunshine from the East.” Hubert Groult writes from France to request a link to his Wilde site. Ed West wrote to ask for permission to use "pictures for my blog about buildings demolished in the 20th century." Christopher Rollason shared his translation of Tennyson's "Crossing the Bar" with us.

Rachel Preen, Advertising Manager, Ltd, wrote while GPL was in Bucharest that the site had received a star rating from Schoolzone.

Jasmine Boni Ball of the International School of Florence writes, “I came across your site the victorian web and right now im writing a paper about 'what caused an increase in child labour during the victorian times/industrial revolution' was wondering if you could possibly give me some books or websites which would helped me with my historical investigation. I find the internet it quite limited and really need some strong primary sources." Here is GPL's response.

Anna-Maria Barz writes from Germany to let us know that a link in “Tennyson's Works” was broken: when a new version of Jim Kincaid's fine book was uploaded links to it weren't changed. Thanks, Anna-Maria!

August 2010

As the month ended, the site had 48,421 documents and images. Your webmaster continued work on the French version of the site, translating various documents in the Ruskin section, including his Oxford UP “Past Masters” Ruskin, John Ruskin et le conte de fées littéraire,” “John Ruskin sur fantasie dans l'art et la littérature,”, “Ruskin et Baudelaire sur l'art and l'artiste,” and “J. D. Harding et John Ruskin sur la variété infinie de la nature” — plus the usual documents conatining lists of links.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed her essay on John Johnson's St Mary's, South Tidworth, which included thirteen photos including those of Farmer and Brindley's stone carving and stained glass windows by the firm of Clayton and Bell. These new contributions led GPL to add Farmer and Brindley attributions to various documents, including those in the sections for the Foreign Office and the London Natural History Museum. JB also contributed a heavily linked essay and photographs on Pugin's tabernacle now in Southwark Cathedral. Malta Geografika reprinted, with out permission, one of JB's essays on Malta.

Catherine J. Golden and Michael Marx provided another Victorian valentine for the section on Victorian letter writing.

Simon Cooke greatly expanded our section on Victorian book bindings with his essays, “Book Bindings of the 1860s: the Christmas Gift Book” and “Dante Gabriel Rossetti as a Designer of Book Bindings” plus more than a dozen beautful photographs of this aspect of the decoratibe arts.

John Sankey reviewed Paul Murphy's Nineteenth-Century Irish Sculpture: Native Genius Reaffirmed, and Steve Donoghue kindly shared with us his review of Robert Hewison's Ruskin on Venice, which first appeared in Open Letters Monthly: An Arts and Literature Review. Thanks to Nigel Banerjee for suggesting it and to Jacqueline Banerjee for gaining permission from Mr. Donoghue. Cynthia J. Gamble shared with us “Disproving Ruskin's Advice: ‘Don't Go to Exhibitions’ — A Review of Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites at the Tate Britain.

Thanks to Constance Harsh, Professor of English, Colgate University, for providing the correct identity of the towers in the background of one of Phiz's plates for Martin Chuzzlewit. Thanks also to Merryn Somerset for explaining Hardy's reference to “Fosseway” in “A Trampwoman's Tragedy.”

July 2010

Your webmaster's Ruskinian pilgrimage ended on the 2nd, and for the next few weeks he continued to work on the hundreds of photographs of French gothic cathedrals and other buildings, the interior and exterior of Chartres being the last to see completion (and the stained class yet to come). In addition to continuing to format, proof, and link the lists of Ruskin's mentions of individual cities and structures scanned from the Library Edition, he continued what has probably been his single most difficult formatting and editing project on the Victorian Web — an annotated, heavily illustrated and cross-linked online edition of The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Unfortunately, Project Gutenberg has not yet added this work, and various online versions are often dreadful: the Hathi Trust's version, for example, spells Ruskin in various ways, including “Raskin” and “Iluskiu,” “St. Lô” appears as “st l6,” and “façade” as “fa9ade,” and it omits the crucial § in hundreds of cross-references, rendering them useless, since they appear to direct the reader to pages not sections in the text.

Taking a break from The Seven Lamps project, he created an online illustrated journal of the On the Old Road V trip, which pilgrimage James L. Spates, Professor and Class of 1964 Endowed Chair of Sociology and Chair, Urban Studies Program, at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, conceived and led. The illustrated journal awaits the contributions, comments, and photographs from other members of the group, who came from France, Switzerland, England, and the United States. Oh yes, by the 26st, the site had 47,355 documents and images.

On the 30th GPL uploaded the beginnings of French version of the Victorian Web, which thus far consists only of Susana Garcia Hiernaux's translations of materials on Bram Stoker, Swinburne, and Symons plus GPL's translations of various sitemaps and more than two hundred illustrated documents in the sections on architecture (the Houses of Parliament, Norman Shaw, and Waterhouse's Natural History Museum) and sculpture (e.g., the Albert Memorial and the works of Brock and Woolner). Translators — and corrections — most welcome!

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed her three-part essay, Letters in George Meredith’s The Ordeal of Richard FeverelPart I: Arson and Amor, Part II: In the Toils of the "System", Part III: The "Real" Reader — plus a set of topics to be investigated and additions to the Meredith Gallery: an 1862 photograph of Meredith with his son Arthur and a late letter from the novelist. In addition she reviewed Kathryn Ferry's The Victorian Home, one of many useful very short, heavily illustrated books published by Shire. JB also provided photographs and text for the burial stone of Richard Anning Bell and the memorial one for F. W. Pomeroy, did the same for a particularly exciting building — the Shah Jahan Mosque (1867), Surrey, the first mosque in Northern Europe. Continung her work on nineteenth-century sculpture, JB added four new works to the John Gibson section.

Lord Norton used JB's photo of The Buxton memorial and credits her on the House of Lords Blog.

Philip V. Allingham scanned and edited Skinner Prout's 1849 Illustrated Londion News illustrated article, “Scenes on Board an Australian Emigrant Ship” including images of shipboard life and an image of the a settler's hut in Australia. Having provided the contemporary context, he wrote “Skinner Prout’s ‘Scenes on Board an Australian Emigrant Ship’ and David Copperfield,” all of which prompted GPL to create a new sitemap, “Emigration in Victorian Britain.” In addition, PVA scanned the images and accompanying text for ILN articles on four shipwrecks. He continued to mine Illustrated Londion News, producing “Old Style — The Mail Coach,” “New Style — The Mail Train,” and “Dickens's attitude towards the Age of Steam.”

Catherine J. Golden continues to add to her section about the Victorian revltion in letter writing with essays on condolence letters, “Prepaid Stationery and the Penny Black,” and “Valentine.’s Day: Love and Derision ‘By the Bushell.’” Having received permission from the Museum of London to reproduce in the Victorian Web George Elgar Hicks.’s The General Post Office, One Minute to Six she provided a substantial essay on the painting, and she also obtained permission to put online an image of one of the infamous Mulreadies, which GPL used to create details to illustrate her essay. Near the end of the month she sent in Michael Marx's photos of valentines and mourning stationery.

Graham Lupp is a successful Australian painter whose widely diverse artworks involve a great many interests and extensive travel overseas. Originally an architect, Graham also has a keen interest in Victorian Australian architecture, and has proposed sending along “Postcards from Oz” at irregular intervals, and he has already contributed enough material for GPL to create a section on Australian architecture (be sure to take a look at his painting of a window in the local Bishop's Victorian home.

Jeremy Gerrard contributed “The Morality of Sacrifice in Little Dorrit.”

Christian Myhre Nygaard of, a Danish English-language online tv station, invited the Victorian Web to add a link to Gibraltar, an English territory with southern characteristics, which we have done in British Empire sitemap. Keither Duffy writes to let us know about the East Durham History Project to which we have added a link in the places section. Gary Crawford writes to let us know that the URL for Le Fanu Studies has changed. Thanks.

Dr Alexandrina Buchanan, Lecturer in Archive Studies at the University of Liverpool, writes in with information about the retsoration of St. Catherine's Chapel, Ely Cathedral.

Alberto Rinaldi e-mailed from Trossingen, Germany, “we have the pleasure to inform you that ‘The Victorian Webs’ has been selected as the Weekly Link Award winner for this week (July 11-17, 2010). Matthew Koyle pointed out a broken link in the index of authors, and Clare Imholtz wrote to correct an error in the introduction to the illustrator Gilbert. Thanks!

June 2010

In preparation for a voyage to France with fellow Ruskinians — the fifth version or stage of On the Old Road conceived and led by James L. Spates, Class of 1964 Endowed Chair of Professor of Sociology at Hobart and William Smith College — your webmaster scanned twelve plates from The Seven Lamps of Architecture, creating larger scanned images for individual parts of multi-section plates and adding the passages in which Ruskin discusses them. Whenever the Victorian Web had other relevant drawings and watercolors, GPL linked them to these plates as well. During the two-week Ruskin pilgrimage, he took more than a 1,000 photographs of buildings Ruskin described in Bayeux, Caen, Chartres, Coutance, Lisieux, Rouen, and St. Lô. Jim Spates, Cynthia Gamble, Pierre André Mentent, and Norma Wilson identified the architectural details Ruskin drew and about which he wrote. Standing before the buildings Ruskin escribed, Jim read from Ruskin's published writings, letters, and diaries, and Cynthia informed many of our excursions with cutting-edge scholarship by reading from her extensive transcriptions of unpublished manuscript materials. The site now contains photographs of the present condition of the detail at St. Lô to which Ruskin devoted Plate II as well as a better preserved analogue. Similarly, we now have an image of the original window tracery at Bayeux Cathedral that appears in Plate III and what he called the "foam bubbles" in the Plate VII.

The non-Ruskinian discoveries included buildings in Caen that resemble those Samuel Prout drew in Lisieux and a reconstruction (on the grounds of William the Conqueror's castle) of a medieval derrick used in stone quarries (for the technology section). This discovery prompted GPL to rewrite the discussion of ages of technology originally written in 1988, renaming it “Five Ages of Technology.”

The latest catalogue from London's Maas Gallery, whose contents they genrously shared with our readers, provided images and text for paintings and drawings by Jerry Barrett, Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale , Edward Burne-Jones, Herbert Dicksee, and William Etty. In addition, the catalogue contained two beautiful ink-and-watercolor drawings of pre-Victorian steam engines, one of which also contained a cut-away drawing of a paddle-wheel warship. These last two images prompted the creation of a section on steam power, just as the other Maas images led to creating sections for several artists new to the site and removing the list of individual artists from sitemap for Victorian painting and puttng it in a separate document.

Jacqueline Banerjee created a section on the Irish sculptor Albert Bruce-Joy, which includes a biography and status of Alexander Balfour and James Whiteside.

Catherine J. Golden, Professor of English at Skidmore College, who prompted GPL to create a new section, “The Victorian Revolution in Letter Writing, ” contributed her introduction to the subject and her essays — “Sir Rowland Hill,“ “The Portable Writing desk — the Victorian laptop,” and “Postal Products: Postage stamps, Stationery, Letter Racks, Paper Clips, Ink Wells, Desk Sets, Portable Writing Desks.” Thanks to Michael Marx for his excellent photographs accompanying the essays. JB has sent in additional photographs of Post Boxes, and GPL has continued to mine the Victorian Web for examples of ink wells, desks, and writing tables. JB reminded him that she had earlier sent in a photograph of the Perkins D cylinder Printing Press on which the first stamps were produced, and she also provided an image of Marcus Stone's illustration of Nora bent over her letter (from Trollope's He Knew He was Right), which, she pointed out, works well with Ellen Moody's 2007 essay, “Partly Told In Letters: Trollope's Story-telling Art.”

Carla Maria Gnappi, PhD, of Parma, Italy, contributed “Science and Technology in Victorian Utopias.” gave one of its awards to “David Ricardo's Contributions to Economics,” an essay that dates back to 1995.

Thanks to Alice Horne for correcting a misspelled name in the section on Great Expectations and to Marc B. Goldstein for correcting a real howler in “The Lady of Shalott.” Andy Wood, Hon. Secretary, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, corrected the birthdate of Alfred East, explaining “I am reliably informed that even during Sir Alfred's lifetime the date was often wrongly given.”

May 2010

Glorious May continues with site having grown to 46,355 documents. Drawing upon M'Clintock and Strong's nineteenth-century Evangelical Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature — the ten volumes of which David Cody, a researcher who worked on the original Intermedia project, gave him two decades ago — your webmaster added susbtantial materials to the religion section, including a ten-part essay on John Wesley, substantial discussions of George Whitefield, Socinus, and Socinianism, and three substantial essays on tracts and the tract movement. After Ohio University Press granted permission for the Victorian Web to translate into html its online PDFs of the introduction and first chapter of Megan A. Norcia's fascinating X Marks the Spot: Women Writers Map the Empire for British Children, 1790-1895 (2010) your webmaster spent several days scanning, modifying, and formatting the many, many endnotes for the VW version.

After Catherine J. Golden, author of Posting It: The Victorian Revolution in Letter Writing (2009), met with GPL to discuss ways of creating a section in the Victorian Web on the subject of her book, which will link to social history, gender matters, economics, technology, and politics, he retitled the section on printing as “Printing, publishing, letter writing, and the beginnings of telecommunications” and put up a new sitemap for Victorian letters as a social and tecnological practice to which Professor Golden contributed an introduction. GPL next devoted most of a week to formatting the materials, particularly the Victorian ones, in Eunice and Ron Shanahan's “Letters from the Past,” separating the letters and commentaries into sections containing for Victorian and earlier letters.

Jacqueline Banerjee added to our writers of children's and historical literature with “Notice of an essay on Emma Marshall ”, and sent in an illustrated essay on the Holborn Viaduct in London, one of the engineering feats of the age, which facilitated access from the West End of London to the East. She also added many new images of the work of the sculptor Henry de Triqueti, including the Triqueti Marbles in the Royal Albert Chapel, Windsor, and reviewed a new book on his work, with several additional images of his sculpture.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed “Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and the Intellectual Ferment of the Mid- and Late Victorian Periods” and “Ambivalent Victorians in Modern and Postmodern Perceptions. A Review of The Victorians in the Rearview Mirror by Simon Joyce (2007).”

Adrian Lipscomb, who earlier provided our biography of the military painter, William Simpson, provided materials to open a new section on portrait miniatures and one of its practitioners, Maria Eliza [Burt] Simpson, which includes almost a dozen of her works, a biographical essay, and photographs of the artist.

Jeanette Edgar from Blackwell, The Arts & Crafts House in Bowness-on-Windermere, writes to announce William Morris: A Sense of Place, an exhibition that will run from 26 June to 17 October 2010. The Watts Gallery e-mailed a notice of its exhibition of “Photographs of Sir Hubert von Herkomer and his family from the Rob Dickins Collection.

April 2010

As of 26 April, the site had 45, 928 documents and images. Your webmaster created a folder for Sarah Waters in the Neo-Victorian section of the site, to which Devon Anderson contributed “‘The flesh made word’: Fingersmith and the Textual Body, ” Amy Farley “Violating Female Function: The Rewriting of the Female Form in Fingersmith,” and Stefanie Sevcik “Writing, Reading, and Erasing Identities in Fingersmith.”

Jacqueline Banerjee added photos of Galizia's Maltese houses in the Moorish style and completed her section on Victorian Malta with the last of her three-part discussion, “Architecture and Civil and Military Engineering Projects,” the three parts of which include almost 3 dozen of her photographs. In addition , she also sent in photographs, texts, and fully fomatted html for St Michael and All Angels, Brighton, by G. F. Bodley and William Burges; and sitemaps for works by Sir Jeffry Wyattville and A. J. Humbert, two architects who worked on the royal estates at Windsor and Sandringham respectively.

Stuart Durant contributed “A Selection of Great Victorian Railway Stations.” Raymond E. O. Ella kindly provided a photograph of Thornycroft's bust of John Ella and information about the Victorian musician and composer. Teja Varma M.A., an M.Phil candidate at the University Of Delhi, contributed “No Escape to be Had, No Absolution to be Got”: Divorce in the Lives and Novels of Charles Dickens and Caroline Norton.

The section on Neo-Victorians grew as Stefanie Sevcik wrote “The Undelivered Message: French Theory and Biographical Research in A.S. Byatt’s Possession,” Amy Farey “The Public Eye & Narrative Ghosts: Textual Connectivity in A.S. Byatt’s Possession,” and Devon Anderson “‘For the sake of truth alone?’: Taking Possession of the Female Diary.”

Deborah McDonald, who some years back generously shared with readers of the Victorian Web some of her materials on women's work and Victorian feminism, sent along announcement of her new book entitled The Prince, His Tutor and the Ripper. After conferring with her pubisher, she shared her introduction and material upon homosexuality at Eton.

Rose Hepworth and Rachel Pearce, of the Arts Society, Newnham College, University of Cambridge, requested and received permission to use one of our scanned images.

Paul Thompson writes that th site has received best-of-the web awards from PC Magazine for the sections on Jane Eyre, An Ideal Husband, and Dracula.

Thanks to Miles Tittle who correctly identified the subject one of Morris's illuminated manuscripts and to Dan, who provided a corection to a broken link.

March 2010

Perhaps the most important news of the month was the request from the Library of Congress on 29 March to archive the Victorian Web for its historical importance. As of 29 March, the site had 45, 795 documents and images. Your webmaster redesigned and reformatted James Kincaid's Dickens and the Rhetoric of Laughter, and continuing work on the Spanish vesion of the site, formatted the materials on Emily Brontë, Catherine Hubback, and A. C. Benson. The first stages of the Great Expectations project saw completion: this experiment in collaborative scholarship and learning with web-based texts will link (1) the text of the novel, (2) previously published scholarly texts, encluding entire books, (3) dozens of illustrations, (4) contemporary reviews, and (5) student-created annotations that take various forms, including essays and reading and discussion questions. This web version of the novel derives from the Project Gutenberg EBook version that “An Anonymous Volunteer” and David Widger created. Thus far the text, several dozen illustrations, and a few dozen student commentaries are online.

Jacqueline Banerjee added to her work on Edinburgh architecture with a new section on William Hamilton Beattie (1842-1898) that includes his North British Hotel (now the Balmoral) and Jenners Department Store. Next came British Victorian architects in Malta: William Scamp, who designed St Paul's Anglican Pro-Cathedral in Valletta and The old naval bakery, now the Maritime Museum in Vittoriosa and E. M. Barry's (now-destroyed) Royal Opera House, Valletta, after which she wrote two illustrated essays on the Victorian British in Malta — the first on the historical background, the second on society and culture in Victorian Malta — with a third on architecture and civili engineering projects to come.

After completing the commentaries and scans for all 40 of the Phiz illustrations for David Copperfield, Philip V. Allingham sent in more than a dozen scanned images for several Hogarth series, including The Rogue's Progress, England and France, and Beer Street and Gin Lane, and the four-part Election series.

Andrzej Diniejko contributed two substantial essays: “Harriet Martineau: a Radical Liberal Social Commentator” and “Hannah More, Conservative Social Reformer,” introductions to the major works of both once enormously influential authors. (Diniejko's essay on More prompted GPL to look through bookshelves for his copy of S. C. Hall's A Book of Memories of Great Men and Women of the Age where he encountered an illustrated biography by the editor of the Art Journal, which he then scanned and translated into html.)

Sarah Zweifach contributed an interesting brief essay entitled “Saint or Sinner On the Scaffold? Public Shame in Great Expectations, Jane Eyre, and The Scarlet Letter ” that draws upon work in psychology and law. Kasper Nijsen from Amsterdam sent us Swinburne's Masterly Hand: Wagnerian Leitmotifs in "Tristram of Lyonesse". Stuart Durant, who wrote both “The Life and Work of Christopher Dresser, 1834-1904” and a chronology for the famous designer to the catalogue of the 1972 Fine Art Society exhibition, contributed “Christopher Dresser and Interior Design.” Ayla Lepine, Visiting Lecturer, Courtauld Institute of Art, wrote an extensive introduction to the life and works of the architect, George Frederick Bodley (1827-1907). Philip Ashby-Rudd and Emma Trehane contributed “Never-Land, Lulworth Cove and the intellectual circles of J. M. Barrie, Thomas Hardy, Alfred Fripp, Sir Frederick Treves and Gerald Du Maurier” with photographs by John Bickerton.

Lucia Hernandez writes from “Hampstead Theatre about Andersen's English (7 April-8 May 2010), a play that presents an important moment in Hans Christian Andersen’s relation with Charles Dickens. It is a haunting and wistfully funny new play about family secrets, loneliness and love.”

Don LePan, President of Broadview Press (which publishes out so many wonderfully annotated editions of Victorian works, wrote to say that the title of Robert Buchanan's “The Fleshly School of Poetry: Mr. D. G. Rossetti” had a typo — “Fleshy” instead of “Fleshly” One Tim [] wrote to inform us that the link to "Maxwell on Molecules" from the chemistry page didn't work — thanks for that! — and that "the entire chemistry section is very limited. These issues, he advised, "should be immediately addressed as is your civic duty." It's always nice to hear from the young.

February 2010

By the twenty-second the site had 45, 403 documents and images. Continuing to work on the Spanish version of the site, your webmaster has thus far translated and uploaded 1,100 documents — a number really not all that impressive once one realizes that they all appear in sections on architecture, decorative arts, and illustration and thus contain comparatively little text! The long-planned recreation of The “In Memoriam” Project on the web has seen the first stage completed: all 133 sections of the poem have been formatted and linked to lists of almost every appearance of 20 images, symbols, and motifs, such as “ dream,” “hand,” “time” and “widow” (when words repeat within a lne or two, they are not linked). Recreating The “In Memoriam” Web, which Jon Lanestedt of the University of Oslo and GPL published in 1992 with Eastgate Systems, presents major problems on the WWW, since it lacks several key features of Eastgate's Storyspace, among them (1) the ability to create and overlay many small annotation windows, and (2) invisible links that readers can easily locate by pressing a key combination. Of course, using Java and other software, one could replicate some of these features, but the WWW's lack of standardization means that the resulting documents will not function in most web browsers. Stay tuned.

Philip V. Allingham has brought up to 37 the extensive commentaries for Phiz's illustrations of David Copperfield.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed biographical material for the neo-classical sculptor John Gibson, and biographical material and an index for the engineer and architect Captain Francis Fowke; images of and commentaries on F. W. Williamson's Shrubsole Memorial in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, Captain Fowke's Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh (to which Dave Henniker of Edinburgh Photography kindly contributed an interior view); and William Leiper's impressive Dowanhill Church in Glasgow. Also, an extended discussion of Gerald du Maurier's illustration for Chapter 18 of George Meredith's Adventures of Harry Richmond.

Andrzej Diniejko, our new contributing editor for Poland, wrote Shirley as a Condition-of-England Novel.

Drew Gibbons writes from snowy Virginia (!) that "the information under your 'how to cite' section is in need of updating. The MLA 7th ed., now in force, has made a number of changes, and the site is not reflecting them." As soon I can make it to the library, I shall up date the directions. Christopher Wieninger writes to let us know that Chris Redmon's Sherlockian site has moved to Ashley McConnell writes to correct the assertion that Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts "the first woman to be given a peerage," so I have added "Victorian" before "first woman."

Etienne Ma of Brown University pointed out two bad links in the sitemap entitled "The Social Contexts of Charles Dickens Writing," one it turns out created by reformatting E. D. H. Johnson's Charles Dickens: An Introduction to His Novels, the other by standardizing the names of sitemaps — once again, editing the site seems to involve two steps forward and one back. Thanks to all.

January 2010

Your webmaster continued working on the Spanish version, formatting the section on Max Beerbohm, George Eliot, Mrs. Henry Wood, and translating sections of the decorative arts, including its sitemap and those for ceramics, and galleries and sections on the Cult of Japan, the Martin Brothers, William de Morgan, and C.R. Ashbee and the Guild of Handicraft (jewelry, metalwork, and furniture).

Jacqueline Banerjee created new sections on the architect David Bryce and the sculptors Amelia Robertson Hill and Behnes including a biuograpjy, photographs and discussions of his Colonel Leake and Sir Robert Peel; she also provided images and discussions of Gibson's Venus Verticordia William Huskisson; plus an illustration by Walter Crane.

Philip V. Allingham has now completed his detailed commentaries on the first 29 illustrations of David Copperfield by Phiz.

Dr Andrzej Diniejko, Senior Lecturer in English Literature and Culture at Poland's Warsaw University, contributed Benjamin Disraeli and the Two Nation Divide," and following our invitation, he reviewed Indiana University Press' Burden or Benefit? Imperial Benevolence and Its Legacies. Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology, University of Leeds, contributed to more of his BBc performances of Victorian music hall songs — "Pretty Polly Perkins of Paddington Green" and a Tyneside parody of it, "Cushie Butterfield."

Amy Brennan of the Scottish government's Culture, External Affairs and Tourism Directorate, wrote for and received permission to use one of Dr. Banerjee's photographs of a statue of Robert Burns. Dr. Andy Reid wrote for and also received permissin to use JB's photograph of the Viceroy's Lodge in Shimla, India, in a book on the "Tudoresque Diaspora."

V. Peidis kindly e-mailed to say that the one of our documents in the Feist collection of photographs had the wrong image and that the link in the gallery of statues of Queen Victoria did not work. Nathalie Chernoff of the University of Lancaster wrote let us know about a bad link. Kathy Webber wrote to correct a typo in Tennyson's "Crossing the Bar." Many thanks.

As of the 31st, the site had 44, 873 documents.

December 2009

Your webmaster continued working on the Spanish version of the site, creating 60 odd documents about Victorian architecture in the Straits Colonies and a larger number on iron-and-glass architecture and buildings in London. When Brian Gross, who's promoting The Young Victoria, wrote to announce this film, that he tells us "your readers would love," GPL created a document with links to the elegant official movie site and images from it. This month the Victorian Web received essays from new contributors in the UK, Poland, and Iran, and GPL began working with the authors to prepare their work for the site.

After reading David S. Reynolds's John Brown, Abolitionist (which his daughter gave him as a present), GPL added two essays on Puritanism, Cromwell, Carlyle, and John Brown: "The Influence of Carlyle's Portrait of Cromwell upon John Brown" and "'Abolition is the offspring of Puritanism:' John Brown, the Puritan Heritage, and the American Civil War."

Jacqueline Banerjee, who contributed two essays accompanied by two dozen photos of Castell Coch by William Burges, also added to her work on Winchester, including photographs and discussions for the Guildhall, the house where Jane Austen died, and the history and buildings of Winchester College. She also added an essay and 12 photographs of Burges's All Saints, Fleet and created a new section on the sculptor Thomas Campbell, which includes his bust of Sir Robert Smirke and his equestrian statue of Sir John Hope, fourth Earl of Hopetoun.

Philip V. Allingham completed the first 23 commentaries on the illustrations of David Copperfield by Phiz.

Dr Andrzej Diniejko, Senior Lecturer in English Literature and Culture at Poland's Warsaw University, contributed "Thomas Carlyle and the Origin of the 'Condition of England Question'" and "Carlyle's Belief in Meritocracy and his Captains of Industry."

The site, which had 43,995 documents and images as of the 28th, passed 44,000 by the year's (and decade's) end, after I uploaded essays by the three editors and Andrzej Diniejko.

November 2009

Your webmaster continued working on the Spanish version of the site, and with the help of Ana González-Rivas Fernández, Assistant Professor at Madrid's Universidad Complutense (who also provided the first Spanish translator's bio), he put up more material from the sculpture section. He also worked with various contributors creating or editing htmls, and he reforamtted several hundred documents about book illustration, in the process creating a small section on German book illustration. Professor López-Varela vetterd and then e-mailed Terri Ochiagha Plaza's translations of the materials on Thomas Hughes, and GPL devoted a day to formatting them, which are our first complete section in Spanish on an author.

Jacqueline Banerjee began the month with essays and more than three dozen photographs of William Burges's magnificent Cardiff Castle. Her next contributions included photographs and comemntary on Sir George Gilbert Scott's University of Glasgow plus his (and Armstead's) monument for Bishop Wilberforce and the choir screen in Winchester Cathedral, J. W. Simpson and Edmund John Milner Allen's Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, and James Walker's Victoria Bridge. She also contributed a series on Winchester Cathedral, including not only Scott's work mentioned above but also Chantrey's monument to Bishop Brownlow North and Jones's to C. B. Pigott.

Philip Allingham completed commentaries for the first dozen illustrations by Phiz of David Copperfield plus all the plates, which GPL color corrected and sized.

Simon Cooke added to his work about British illustrators with essays on Richard Doyle and William Small, and he provided scans of illustrations by them as well as some by Daniel Maclise and Arthur Hughes. GPL sized and edited the images and created htmls for all of them.

Julian Rubin writes, suggesting a link to a site about the roots of wireless communication in the Victorian period and wrote a description of it for our readers. John Sankey shared more of his photographs and discussions of Brock's sculpture, including his medallion portrait of Queen Victoria, busts of Sir Henry Tate and Sir Augustus Harris, and the statue of Richard John Seddon in Wellington, New Zealand.

Professor A. K. Bakshi, Director of the Institute of Lifelong Learning at the University of Delhi, has written and received permission to use some of our illustrations in educational materials.

Emma Trehane writes to inquire if any readers of the Victorian Web have information that connects the writer and playwright J.M.Barrie with Lulworth Cove in Dorset.

As of the 30th, the site had 43, 450 documents and images.

October 2009

After your webmaster returned from delivering a series of lectures on new media, hypertext, and their educational and political effects at Universität Bayreuth, Germany, he began laying the groundwork for Spanish and French versions of the site that will be part of a three-year project entitled "Studies on Intermediality as Intercultural Mediation." This project has been conceived, organized, and directed by Professor Asuncion López-Varela Azcarte of the Facultad de Filologia de Universidad Complutense de Madrid and supported by grants from her university and from Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid CCG08-UCM/HUM-3851) and the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación MICINN FFI2008-05388/FISO).. After each lexia (or separate document) is translated, two readers will vet it, after which it will appear in the non-English versions of the Victorian Web. Landow created icons once Alfonso Sánchez Moya and Maya Zalbidea Paniagua corrected his suggestions for icons texts. Using Google Translate, he created a draft of a Spanish version of the section containing 34 works of Thomas Woolner, the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor, which Ms. Zalbidea Paniagua then corrected, herself translating the documents on Raffles and John Stuart Mill — the first Spanish text documents to go online! Next, he translated two dozen documents for the Albert Memorial plus the works of Joseph Durham and those of Edward Hodges Baily, best known for his statue on Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square.

Jacqueline Banerjee begins the month with Frampton's statue of Quintin Hogg, William Brodie's of Thomas Graham, Francis Chantrey's George IV and James Watt, John Henry Foley's Field Marshal Lord Clyde, Carlo Marochetti's James Oswald and The Duke of Wellington, John Mossman's of the explorer David Livingstone and the poet Thomas Campbell, Hamo Thornycroft's William Ewart Gladstone. Glasgow architectural sculpture includes Richard Ferris's Faith and Fortitude and Paul Montford's Philosophy and Inspiration.

Her contributions to the architecture section include the following Glasgow buildings and fountains: Alexander Beith MacDonald's The People's Palace and Winter Gardens, several architects' Scottish Temperance League Building, the Doulton Fountain, and the Cameron Memorial Fountain. Her travels produced 11 photos of Cardiff Castle by William Burges.

John Sankey shared his photographs and discussions of Brock's Lister and Sir Richard Temple. Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology, University of Leeds, contributes another of his performances of Victorian popular music — the 1894 "If It Wasn't for the 'Ouses in Between".

Simon Cooke took time off from proofing his book on British illustrators that the British Library is publishing to send in introductions to the illustrations of Edward Burne-Jones, Arthur Hughes, Daniel Maclise, George Pinwell, and James Macneill Whistler.

Dr. Albrecht Geck, Privatdozent at the University of Osnabrück, writes to say that his book, Autorität und Glaube (Authority and Faith), in which a Victorian Web image of Tom Tower, Oxford, appears has just been published by Universitätverlag Osnabrück. Dr. Kurt Harris Chair, English Department, Southern Utah University, writes to let us know that he has created a Thackeray site.

Bruce Bumbalough, Watauga, Texasm writes to point out a broken link in the general bibliography section, and Shelley B. Aley, Associate Professor at James Madison University, writes to point out that one of our contributors used a portrait of the wrong Alexander Bain. Thanks.

September 2009

Before setting off for London, George Landow created a section and sitemap for Dombey and Son, adding a brief essay, "Toodle the Railway Man — Occupation as Character." After Marjorie Bloy, Senior Researcher for the Victorian Web back in 2000-2001, wrote to let us know the new URL for one of the sites she had linked, GPL changed 21 documents. Arriving in London, your webmaster took numerous walks around Trafalgar Square and down Piccadilly and and High Holborn, ultimately creating photographs and texts for Staple Inn, Waterhouse's Prudential Assurance Building, the Royal Academy, a night view of the National Gallery, and the following sculpture: George Gamon Adams's Charles James Napier, Behnes's Major General Sir Henry Havelock, and the World War I memorial in the Prudential Assurance Building, Toft's The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) Memorial on High Holburn, and good deal of architectural sculpture. In the process, he created a sitemap for war memorials, reformatting documents in that section and doing the same for the section on the nude in art.

After packing up and moving to Gower Street next to UCL, your webmaster created photographs and accompanying htmls for Sir Richard Westmacott's Duke of Bedford memorial and one of his favorite London buildings — the Arts and Crafts classic Mary Ward House, named after Matthew Arnold's famous novelist-niece and the first school with classrooms for disabled children. A visit to the V&A furnished information about the relations of Art Nouveau and dance, and photographs of Dalou's Bacchanal, a better version of Watts's Clytie, Drury's The Age of Innocence, and two fairy paintings by Joseph Severn and one by Etty. Taking a tour of Buckingham Palace permitted GPL to photograph the rear of the palace, back garden (really lawn), and the lake and create a sitemap for the palace, and while there he was able to take some additional pictures of the magnificent Victoria Memorial. Going to the Saturday food market near London Bridge produced photographs of the Globe Tavern, a 1872 pub, and the iron and glass markets, and walking to that a Spitalfield's Charles Harrison Townsend's Bishopsgate Institute. Walking around central London produced photographs of Sir Francis Chantrey's William Pitt in Hanover Square, statues of Science, Commerce, and Art on 70-71 New Bond Street. The section on iron-and-glass architecture and that on railway stations continues to expand with photographs of the entrance to the old Metropolitan Railway, Liverpool Street and Waterloo Stations (thanks to station reception for granting a photography pass).

When OpenHouse London 2009, which took place on the weekend of the 19th and 20th, permitted access to buildings not usually open to visitors, GPL took a series of photographs of some important churches: A visit to G. E. Street's St. Mary Magdalene in Paddington produced many images of the church, its sculpture, Salviati's mosaics, Holiday's stained glass, and J. N. Comper's Chapel of the Holy Sepulcher with its magnificent reredos and organ. A visit to E. B. Lamb's Parish Church of St. Martin (which Pevsner described as London's "craziest Victorian church") produced another large series. Another series of images made possible by OpenHouse London was Norman Shaw's Hampstead home and studio for Kate Greenaway. Walking from Belsize Park to Primrose Hill to Bloomsbury led to photographs of the Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Fountain in Regent's Park, and a quick ride on the tube to Oxford Circus produced the last series from this trip — an essay and a dozen images about Butterfield's All Saints, Margaret Street — he (almost) hidden treasure. This illustrated essay represents a new approach to putting large numbers of images about a single building or sculpture online: instead of creating an html for every image with approximately the same essay, it uses thumbnails linked to larger images rather than to htmls containing images. Will readers prefer it? Will the smaller number of html documents make it harder to find on Google, Bing, and other search engines?

More photos of stained glass and mosaics to come. . .

Philip V. Allingham and GPL completed the series of 28 illustrations by Fred Barnard for Dickens's biography in the Household Edition. PVA is at work on commentaries.

Jacqueline Banerjee added photographs and accompanying text for Lewis Vulliamy's Law Society, William Burges's Park House in Cardiff, Wales, and John Prichard and J. P. Seddon's Llandaff Cathedral, including stained glass windows by Morris and Burne-Jones and Sir William Goscombe John's statue of James Rice Buckley. Next follow a series on Waterhouse's Lloyds Bank in Cambridge and Edward Buckton Lamb's St. Simon and St. Jude.

David Humphreys, who writes, "when I teach the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy, I use your image of Pygmalian(sic) and Galatea," kindly corrected the spelling in Gérome's painting to "Pygmalion." Normand Theriault e-mailed to let us know that the image of Tennyson's family tree had gone missing, and GPL replaced the corrupted image. Thanks. On 28 September the site has 42, 551 documents.

August 2009

George Landow spent most of the first two weeks of the month scanning, proofing, formatting, converting notes, and linking the first two chapters of Janet Larson's Dickens and the Broken Scripture, one of the most difficult such web conversions he'd ever done. He also mined Little Dorrit for Dickens's description of the India Docks and his views of the transformative power of Victorian railways and his dislike of medievalism on both aesthetic and political grounds.

As part of his work on Barnard's illustrations of Dickens, Philip Allingham contributed "The best of all Dickens illustrators:" A 1908 Review of A Dickens Picture Book" that summarizes late-Victorian views of the novelists's illustrators. He also sent in scans of a Barnard illustration that accompanied this review and another of George Cruikshank's The Ragged School, Smithfield, which contribution prompted GPL to create a sitemap and bibliography for ragged schools.

Jacqueline Banerjee contributed a review of a new book on London's Changing Riverscape, by Charles Craig and others, also adding photographs and accompanying discussions of Wapping Pier, London, E1, the West India Docks, Chamberlain's Wharf., Metropolitan Wharf, Columbia Wharf, and Oliver's Wharf to our new section on industrial architecture.

Next, she sent in photos and commentaries for monuments and memorial sculptures, including Robert Smirke's Wellington Monument, Goscombe John's Memorial to the Engine Room Heroes in Liverpool, the text for the Port Sunlight Memorial near Liverpool, and the Bellot memorial in Greenwich, by Philip Hardwick (which addition occasioned a great deal of reorganizing of the Hardwick family's index by GPL). She also added photographs of Thornycroft's Alfred the Great, and she and GPL added John Sankey's photographs and discussions of the following sculptures by Thomas Brock: Thomas Hughes, Gladstone, Brigadier General John Nicholson, Sir Rowland Hill, Sir Isaac Pitman, and Edwin Austin Abbey. To close out the month JB sent in and essay and 15 photographs of St. Fin Barre's Cathedral in Cork, Ireland, and following her two near-perfect templates GPL created the last 13 htmls.

Michael Philips, who wrote to inform us that he "produce[s] video guides of buildings and landmarks for," invited us to link to his 120 videos of Belfast, such as this one for Lavery's Pub. Henry Reichold writes to inform readers of the Victorian Web about his detailed view of the Albert Memorial.

Ruth Howard, Curator, Vale and Downland Museum, writes for permission to use Dicky Doyle's The Battle of Ashdown that serves as an illustration in Tom Hughes's The Scouring of the White Horse. Magnús Einarsson write from Iceland for permission to use Tenniel's illustrations for the Alice books in "a sociology textbook" he is writing "for students in secondary school." (Some others also wrote for permission, which was denied, to use our materials for commercial purposes, in large part because we do not want the Victorian Web to compete with for-profit sources of images.

A young man named Todd wrote to "thank you for your Victorian Web website. My teachers touched on the Industrial Revolution as part of our history classes but for some reason or another they didn't explain how truly grim those times were." You're most welcome!

Brad Henry writes to point out that "In the opening sentence of your introductory article, 'this' century should of course be 'the last.' A common error among those of a certain age . . . (and of which I am one, so no offence intended)." None taken . . . and thanks. A quite grumpy Denis Green wrote to point out multiple typos in a scanned document — it seems the wrong version might have gone online erasing the proofread one. Michael Wyman writes with corrections to our essay on toy theatres and a citation to Google Books. Nancy Koester, Ph.D., writes to correct information about Annie Field. Thanks to all.

On August 31 theVictorian Web had 41,969 documents.

July 2009

Since both George Landow and Jacqueline Banerjee were on cruise ships during the last week of June — Banerjee on a cruise around the UK and Landow making his way from Nice to Paris by way of the River Rhône from Arles to Avignon, Lyons, and Tournon — little new material went online, but both took many photographs. GPL added a series of 10 photographs of Lyon's gothic revival Basilica de Notre Dame de Fourvière and its sculpture and another six of l'Église Saint-Ambroise in Paris. After finding two fifteenth-century sculptural allusions to Genesis 3:15's "bruising the serpent's head" in Viviers, he added them to the religion section under typology and created a new sitemap for that image so important to Hopkins and Browning. Similarly after coming upon Paul Auscher's 1904 Felix Potin Building on the Rue de Rennes in Paris, he added it to the section on Art Nouveau architecture and then created a new sitemap for it.

GPL's second visit in less than a year to the magnificent Musée d'Orsay — yes, a dirty job but someone's got to do it — added to the material on Art Nouveau design, including three examples of Hector Guimard's ironwork, another of his wooden chimney surround plus furniture by Van de Velde, Biegas, and Eckmann, and a wonderfully goth belt buckle featuring a bat.

After the Dutch architect and architectural theorist Lars Spuybroek kindly sent along a copy of his The Architecture of Continuity (Rotterdam, 2008), GPL, who is in the process of writing a brief essay on Spuybroek as a twenty-first-century Neo-Ruskinian, composed "Lars Spuybroek on the principles of Art Nouveau, " "Why Art Nouveau 'had to be short-lived'," and "Gaudí led the gothic away from revivalism."

JB's first July contribution took the form of identifying one of GPL's photographs taken a few years ago as Edinburgh's Buccleuch and Geyfriars Free Church of Scotland. Next came new photographs of Goscombe John's Edward VII and John Gibson's Suffer Little Children to Come to Me plus a new work by Gibson — his monument to Margaret Sandbach. Other works of sculpture include Joseph Durham's Florizel and Perdita and his Monument to Prince Albert overlooking the harbour, St Peter Port, Guernsey, which last contribution prompted GPL to put up his photograph of the original cast, which stands on a much more elaborate base near Royal Albert Hall; he then reorganized the Durham home page. She also sent in photographs on Francis Derwent Wood's Psyche and Fiametta and Sir William Goscombe John's William Edward Hartpole Lecky, M.P. and J. H. Foley's O'Connell Monument, plus a series of photographs of Fowler and Baker's Forth Bridge in Scotland accompanied by an essay. Let us not forget her series on the wonderful Glasgow School of Art!

JB's additions to the architecture section include 14 photographs of St. Matthew's Church on Guernsey and accompanying essay, St. John the Baptist and St. Augustine Church in Dublin, St. Colman's Cathedral in Cobh, Ireland, the Campanile at Trinity College, Dublin

On Fiammetta and half a dozen other photographs Ruth M. Landow, a new contributor, used her Photoshop skills to remove distracting backgrounds. Thanks!

Frank M. Turner, the John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale and the Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, contributed a long, detailed, and very favorable review of Shanyn Fiske's Heretical Hellenism: Women Writers, Ancient Greece, and the Victorian Popular Imagination. Jessica Courtney contributed "The development of the English language following the Industrial Revolution," which GPL formatted and edited. Thanks to Dr. Catherine Watts, Principal Lecturer, School of Language, Literature and Communication, University of Brighton, for recommending this essay.

Christina Beardsley, whose biography of F. W. Robertson the Lutterworth Press (UK) will publish, offered additional information and a correction that GPL added to our biography of the famous Anglican minister. Thanks!

Dr. Albrecht Geck, Privatdozent at the University of Osnabrück, Germany, wrote for permission to use our scan of Eastlake's drawing of Tom Tower, Oxford, for his book Authority and Faith "on the correspondence between Pusey and Tholuck," which Vandenhöck & Ruprecht in Göttingen will publish this September. Casey Reas of UCLA Design Media Arts writes to request permission to use "your photo of a Jacquard Loom" in FORM + CODE in Design, Architecture, and Art, which Princeton Architectural Press will publish in September.

By the 27th the site had 41,817 documents.

June 2009

After Jacqueline Banerjee sent in a photograph of a London-built hansom cab, pointing out that we had no sitemap for transportation, Landow created one, added his own photo of the York-London mail coach, and created a sitemap entitled "Omnibuses, Coaches, Carriages, and Other Horse-Drawn Vehicles," to which he linked four documents containing passages in which coaches play a significant role from Dickens's Pickwick Papers, Martin Chuzzlewit, and Bleak House.

Philip Allingham completed most of the task of scanning all 61 plates and related images of Fred Barnard's illustrations of David Copperfield and creating HTML documents for each plate: Allingham scanned all the images, GPL resized, straightened, and otherwise adjusted each image and also created an HTML template, which PVA then filled out. Extensive commentaries come next!

JB, who reviewed of The Statues of London, by Claire Bullus and Ronald Asprey, sent in some images of more recent sculptures as well as those of Stephen Poyntz Denning's painting entitled Queen Victoria, Aged 4, Sir John Steell's sculpture of Allan Ramsay, The Hub, Edinburgh, which has a Pugin spire; the National Portrait Gallery; and Burlington House in Piccadilly. JB sent in Punch cartoons on the subjects of bicyclists and the exclusion of women from universities.

She did not neglect London: the site now boasts new photographs of and essays about London's Old Bailey plus Frederick W. Pomeroy's two sculptures for it: Fortitude and Truth flanking a recording angel above the City of London Arms, and Justice.

JB also continued her series of photographs of Liverpool architecture and sculpture and accompanying essays, including those for with several on St. George's Hall, The Picton Reading Room, The Walker Art Gallery.and The William Brown Library and Museum (now the World Museum). The additions from Liverpool to the sculpture section include bas reliefs on the façade of St. George's Hall by Conrad Dressler and Thomas Stirling Lee, and John Warrington Wood's three works for the Walker Art Gallery — Michelangelo, Raphael, Queen Victoria visiting Liverpool in 1851.

Dr Neil S. Sturrock, Vice-Chairman CIBSE Heritage Group, kindly shared with us a great deal of new material on building services engineering, including a history of St. George's Hall and a heavily illustrated essay, "David Boswell Reid's Ventilation of St. George's Hall, Liverpool" (the world's first air-conditioned building) and others on Reid, including a biography and a study of his work on the Houses of Parliament. GPL then created sitemaps for both St. George's and this pioneering engineer.

Emily Doran writes from the Royal Academy of Arts in London to announce J. W. Waterhouse: the Modern Pre-Raphaelite, an exhibition running from 27 June to 13 September.

Annette Magid writes to invite papers for her Wilde session at the 2010 Northeast Modern Language Association meeting in Montreal

Eleanor Scoones, Assistant Producer at Silver River (an independent television production company in London making a new 4-part series on the history of the Grand Tour for Channel 4), wrote for — and obtained — permission to use GPL's photograph of the frieze on the Athenaeum Club: "We will be filming at the Parthenon in Greece and whilst there we would like Kevin McCloud to refer to a small black and white print of the photograph as he explains that the AthenaeumÍs frieze was copied from the Parthenon."

Angela Hazelton writes to point out that the url for one of our external links to material about the Great Exhibition had changed. Jennifer Green similarly points out that the link to a Carnegie-Mellon site on feminism no longer works and suggested another instead [A decade later Ryan W. wrote to update the URL]. Amanda Bierly wrote while I was on the way to Avignon that a typo in Terpening's biography of Richard Strauss gave an incorrect date. Thanks!

May 2009

Your webmaster created a sitemap for cultural institutions in London and edited a number of student essays for the site, including David Goff's "On Process and Persistence: Visions of Time in Pre-Raphaelite and Decadent Works," Olivia Harding's essay about fantasy ("The Ordinary and The Extraordinary"), Matthew Surka's "Pip Learns to Reject the Goddess of Getting On," "Surprizes and Surprizers in Great Expectations and Jane Eyre, " and "Celebrity, the Victorian Audience, Dickens, and Ruskin," Elizabet Piette's "London in Wilde and Dickens," "Life in Nineteenth-Century Prisons as a Context for Great Expectations," and Brian Alexander's "'Breach of Promise of Marriage': Miss Havisham and a late-Victorian lawsuit." After Joshua Vogel pointed out a broken link in the Freud section, I fixed it and reformatted the entire section.

As of the 25th, the site contained 41,325 documents and images.

Philip Allingham continued writing extended commentary on the illustrations by Phiz for Nicholaus Nickleby, and he also added an essay on Phiz's thirtieth plate for Martin Chuzzlewit.

Jacqueline Banerjee added "Women's Religious Orders in Victorian England," and she and GPL wrote "The Conventual Life and Victorian Culture." She also provided photographs of No. 17, Park Village West in Camden, London, which first housed these sisterhoods. In addition, she created a series of photographs and accompanying essays aboout items related to Crystal Palace Park in south-east London — eight of the Italian Terraces, three more of the Dinausaur Court, and another three of Woodington's bust of Sir Joseph Paxton. Next, JB provided photographs and text for Waterhouses's North Western Hotel and a discussion of the accompanying Lime Street Station, Liverpool, as well as the Crystal Palace Station in SE London.

Marie O'Brien, Collections Manager of the Saco Museum in Maine kindly provided a photograph of part of H. C. Selous's panorama illustrating Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. John Sankey shared with us a list of Brock's sculpture.

Luca Garuti, who is currently "studying at the University of Verona, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature," kindly e-mailed to point out that the documents for plates 6 & 7 in F. G. Kitton's illustrations of Dickens's The Mystery of Edwin Drrod had different text but the same image. Thanks!

April 2009

As of the 27th, the server tells me that we have 41,040 documents. Your webmaster spent much of the month preparing student work for the site and reorganizing and adding to the Beardsley section after receiving Yelena Primorac's "Illustrating Wilde: An examination of Aubrey Beardsley's interpretation of Salome."

Jacqueline Banerjee added two bas-reliefs at the foot of Nelson's Column: Woodington's The Battle of the Nile, and Watson and Woodington's The Battle of Cape St Vincent plus the Lewis Vulliamy's façade at the Royal Institution.

Pascal Debout of the Institut Charles Darwin International in Metz, Franz, writes to announce a Charles Darwin exhibition at the Park of Bagatelle in Paris from 29 May to the end of October 2009. Simon Cooke, who wrote his doctoral thesis on Henry Courtney Selous, contributed enough material to create an entire section for this important illustrator, including more than a dozen plates, biography, and a series of essays.

David Goff contributed A Mirror for Salome: Beardsley's The Climax, Athena's Gaze: Klimt and the Divine Artist, and "The Laws of Artifice: Aesthetic and Ego in Against the Grain." Steven De Luccia contributed Body as Metaphor in Dowson's "Nuns of the Perpetual Adoration", Mortality and Modernity Invade the Landscape [in Klinger's etchings]," and "Straddling the Margins of Society."

Mo Heard announces a 2010 essay contest on the subject of the magic lantern, shadow theatre, optical philosophical toys, panoramas, and dioramas.

Tony Willicombe of Penarth, Wales writes to remind us that Alfred Russel Wallace was a Welsh rather than an English naturalist. Trevor Brock, the minister of Great Victoria Street Baptist Church in Belfast, writes to correct the misidentification of photos of St. Patricks's Roman Catholic Church, and Paisley Mann writes to let correct a date in the DuMairier section. A reader identified only as Ferdi points out a typo in a date. Anne Rawkstar write from Malaysia to correct the Malay names of buildings in Kuala Lumpur. Thanks!

March 2009

The month began with 40, 572 documents on the site and ended with 40851 — these numbers thaks to Aloysius Tay Wee Kwok, IT Manager, University Scholars Programme at National University of Singapore, who kindly configured the main server to send weekly reports. George P. Landow and his students have created an annotated version of Carlyle's "Signs of the Times."

Phlip Allingham continues his commentaries on Copping's illustrations to Dickens's works.

Jacqueline Banerjee reviews Jeremy Paxman's The Victorians: Britain through the Paintings of the Age (2009) and the new third edition of Macmillan's London Encyclopaedia. In addition, she provides a series of photographs and commentaries on Morris's Red House and on the Palm House in Sefton Park, Liverpool, and a commentary on Richard Dadd's The Fairy-Feller's Master-Stroke. Her continuing work on sculpture includes a biography of Baron Henri-Joseph-François de Triqueti plus several of his sculptures, Flaxman's statue of Robert Burns, the Coade Lion on Westminster Bridge, new photographs of Gilbert's Queen Alexandra Memorial plus photographs and information about two works in London's Royal Insitution — J. H. Foley's statue of Michael Faraday and Thomas Woolner's medallion of John Tyndall.

Dr Hilary Grimes wrotes from Edinburgh Napier University to announce a new Robert Louis Stevenson Website. Deepti Kapoor writes suggesting linking to his site, which contains information of Jewish and Christian notions of passover as context for Rossetti's watercolor of that subject. Evelyn Rosenthal provided photographs of Teulon's St Stephen's Church, and Phil Beauchamp allowed us to use his photographs of George Heywood Sumner's sgraffiti in St Mary's Church, Sunbury.

David Goff contributed, "Burne-Jones and the Divine Unity," a discussion of one of Burne-Jone's late designs for a stained-glass nativity, "Companions for the Soul: Solitude and Kinship in [Christina Rossetti's] "The Thread of Life," and "Time and its Relics: Dante Rossetti's 'The Burden of Nineveh.'" Stephen Deluccia wrote "Setting, Perspective, and Context in The Annunciation, St Margaret's Church, Rottingdean," and Christina Rossetti's fragmentation of self

Rev. Simon Wooodley, the current rector of Bemerton, George Herbert's parish, writes to correct the spelling of the town in Dyce's painting of the poet in his garden there. Thanks!

February 2009

George P. Landow adapted several chapters from Gertrude Jekyll's works, including several dozen photographs, to create material on technology in the home, including Rushlight: How the Country Poor Lit Their Homes, The Evolution of the Fireplace, What the housewife used to cook meals: fireplace hangers, pot cranes, fire and cup dogs, tongs and other implements plus a section on rural working-class housing with an essay, "Cottages and Farms, especially in Old West Surrey." In addition, he created a section in photography containing a selection of her work in that medium plus several articles adapted from her writing about agricultural labor: ""From Hand Labour to Machine Work in agriculture": Work and New technologies in the Victorian Era," "Harvesting Corn," "Dibbles, Flails, and Wooden Ploughs," and "Country Occupations: Mowers, Sawyers, Cider-Makers, Copse-Cutters, Hurdle-Makers, Heath-Turf Cutters."

Philip V. Allingham scanned, partially formatted, and wrote the introduction and captions for both 14 illustrations Harry C. Edwards created for the American publication of Hardy's "Mastr John Horseleigh, Knyght" and the 30 illustrations Harold Copping created for Dickens's works.

Jacqueline Banerjee began the month by contributing Godfrey Sykes's monument to William Mulready at Kensal Green cemetery and Sir John Steell's bust of Florence Nightingale, as well as some more work on the public sculpture of Liverpool: Charles Bell Birch's sculptures of Major-General Earle and Disraeli, Sir Thomas Brock's Gladstone Memorial, Sir George Frampton's memorial statues for Canon Thomas Major Lester, Sir Arthur B. Forwood, and William Rathbone, Albert Bruce-Joy's Alexander Balfour, and Frederick William Pomeroy's Mgr. James Nugent and replicas in Liverpool of two famous London statues — Sir Alfred Gilbert's Eros and Frampton's Peter Pan.

Her contributions to the architecture section include a series on Liverpool: The Albert Dock and its Traffic Office (soon to be the home of the International Slavery Museum Research Institute and Education Centre) along with Gladstone's birthplace and other houses in Rodney Street, Liverpool.

Derek B. Scott, Professor of Critical Musicology at the University of Leeds, sent in his performance of "Ben Bolt," the song Trilby sings in DuMaurier's novel of that name. Anna Twomey sends in a description of her research on "the culture of working-class autodidacts," asking readers of VW for any suggestions (her e-mail address appears in her project description).

Students in Landow's courses at Brown University created several dozen essays and questions sets for George MacDonald's Phantastes and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre. David Goff contributed "Stopped in Motion: The Individual in Egg's Travelling Companions, "Truth and Falsehood in Ruskin's Modern Painters," and "Time and its Relics: Dante Rossetti's 'The Burden of Nineveh'" while Stephen DeLucia contributed "The interplay of form and content in 'The Palace of Art'" and "Symbolism Prefiguring Typology in The Girlhood of Mary."

Some time ago Vara Neverow sent along a copy of her Harcourt edtion of Virginia Woolf's Jacob's Room, which used several of our images. Julie F. Codell, Professor of Art at Arizona State University, writes to report a batch of bad links that her students encountered in the list of Pre-Raphaelite associates. Thanks!

The month ended with 40,572 documents on site.

January 2009

George P. Landow began the month by sending an updated copy of the site to our mirror at Nagoya University, Japan, which Professor Mitsu Matsuoka has administered for the past few years. By the 26th 40,026 documents resided on the site. Some news related to the Victorian Web: After your webmaster decided to take offline its sister site, Postcolonial Literature and Culture, Professor Yew Kong Leong [lyew at] volunteered to run the site on servers to which he has access. Those university teachers from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States who kindly wrote when the site disappeared will be very grateful. Thanks Leong!

GPL, prompted by the new section on Gertrude Jekyll (see below), used several of her books, including Old West Surrey (1904), to create long-needed material on housing for the rural working classes ("Cottages and Farmhouses"), rural clothing, including documents with Jekyll's photographs of the countryman's smock, countrywomen's headgear, and pattens, footwear to raise one above the mud. Hannah B. Higgins sends along a copy of her new The Grid Book (MIT Press), which contains GPL's photograph of a Jacquard loom.

Philip Allingham contributes a brief essay to accompany Fred Barnard's Mrs. Gamp, on the Art of Nursing, an illustration to Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit, plus commentaries on two illustrations of the same novel by Phiz. He also wrote a detailed discussion of the wrapper for serial issues of David Copperfield, examining how Phiz created his pictorial introduction to a novel about about which the novelist had uncharacteristically told him very little.

Jacqueline Banerjee sent in multiple photographs of Thomas Thornycroft's equestrian statues in Liverpool of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; John Gibson's Suffer Little Children to Come to Me, Alexander Munro's bust of Josephine Butler accompanied by a biography of this important campaigner for women's rights, and Augustus Welby Pugin's gothic revival hall chair. Continuing her indefatigable proofreading, she caught a number of damaged images, errors, and inconsistencies.

Ray Sachs sent in the latest news on the Crystal Palace Campaign accompanied by both an 1864 plan of the park containing the palace plus a half dozen images of the master plans submitted to Bromley Council's Planning Development Committee. C. Aitchison Hull writes from the UK to notify our readers of her new site on the Victorian painter, Frederick Lee Bridell, and she also shared from her new book about Bridell a passage about the Anglo-American circle in Rome that included the Brownings. Vince Ciricola writes to let us know that his site to which his essay, "Sadi Carnot and the Conservation of Energy" links, has moved.

Christopher Arnander shared with us material about Gertrude Jekyll from his Jekyll Estate site, which enabled GPL to create a section for this painter, nature writer, and enormously influential garden designer to which which GPL added bibliographies and an essay, "Gertrude Jekyll's Word Painting."

Andrew Pinder, who writes from the U.K. to correct a factual error in the caption accompanying our photograph of Hangman's Cottage in the Hardy Gallery, also contributed an essay about the chronological setting of Hardy's "The Withered Arm, his views of capital punishment, and the Swing Riots of 1830" and The Dynasts: Dated, Durable, Defiant — A Performance Poet's Perspective.

Melisa Klimaszewski, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Drake University, and author of a forthcoming biography of Wilkie Collins, correctly identified the text inscribed on Holman Hunt's deathbed portrait of Charles Allston Collins as an edited excerpt from Charles' own A New Sentimental Journey (1859).

Dave Kruger points out a typo in Browning's "A Toccata of Galuppi's." Paula M. Krebs, Professor of English at Wheaton College, e-mailed with the information that two links in "Why did the British Empire expand so rapidly between 1870 and 1900?" had broken. Erl Johnston writes from Belfast to provide information about three Belfast buildings: he identifies one of our photographs as the former Diocesan Offices for the Church of Ireland designed by Lanyon, Lynn & Lanyon, points out that Samuel Stevenson designed the Technical Institution, and explains that it has been discovered that the Scottish Provident Institution is constructed of Glasgow Blonde sandstone. Thanks!

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Last modified 22 October 2020