Now, as it is not given unto every man to be a poet, there was clearly a brilliant commercial career before the man who would put on the market a quantity of passable sentimental verse, accompanied by appropriate designs — in a word, valentines as we know them. — W. G. Fitzgerald (1895)


Bradford, Emma, ed. Roses are Red: Love and Scorn in Victorian Valentines. London: Albion Press, 1986.

“A Chat about Valentines.” London Society 5 (1864): 178-83. Hathi Trust Digital Library online version of a copy in the Cornell University Library.

Dickens, Charles and W. H. Wills. "Valentine's Day at the Post Office." Household Words: A Weekly Journal. March 30, 1850: 7-12.

Golden, Catherine. Posting It: The Victorian Revolution in Letter Writing. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2009.

Greenaway, Kate. Language of the Flowers. 1884. New York: Avenel Books, n.d.

Holder, Judith. Sweethearts and Valentines. New York: A & W, 1980.

Hyde, J. Wilson. The Royal Mail: Its Curiosities and Romance. London: Simpkin, 1889.

Mancoff, Debra N. Love's Messenger: Tokens of Affection in the Victorian Age. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1997.

Created 12 February 2023