This bibliography serves only as a general guide and entry point into the vast historiography of Victorian sciences. Many of the individual pages in the Victorian Web history science contain particular bibliographies. A few primary materials are below.

Secondary sources

History of science reference sources, by Doug Stewart.

Ackerknecht, Erwin. Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794-1848. 1967.

Allen, D.E. The naturalist in Britain: a social history London, 1976.

Appel, Toby. The Cuvier-Geofroy debate: French biology in the decades before Darwin, New York & Oxford, 1987.

Barber, Lynn. The heyday of natural history, 1820-1870 (1980).

Barrow, L. Independent Spirits: Spiritualism and English Plebeians 1850-1910. London 1986.

Baxter, Paul. ’Deism and development: Disruptive forces in Scottish natural theology’, Stewart Brown & Michael Fry eds., Scotland in the age of the disruption, Edinburgh, 1993, pp. 98-112.

Bebbington, David W. ’Science and evangelical theology in Britain from Wesley to Orr’, in David Livingstone, D.G. Hart & Mark Noll eds., Evangelicals and science in historical perspective, New York, Oxford, 1999, pp. 120-141.

Bebbington, David W. Evangelicalism in modern Britain: a history from the 1730s to the 1980s, 1989.

Becher, H.W. 'Voluntary science in nineteenth-century Cambridge,' British Journal for the History of Science, 19, 1986, pp. 57-87.

Becher, H.W. 'William Whewell and Cambridge Mathematics', Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 2, 1980, pp. 1-48.

Ben-David, J. The Scientist’s Role in Society. 1984.

Bowler, Peter. Evolution: the history of an idea. Berkeley, 1984.

Bowler, Peter. The Fontana History of the Environmental Sciences, 1992.

Bowler, Peter. Fossils and progress: paleontology and the idea of progressive evolution in the nineteenth century, New York, 1976.

Bowler, Peter. The Mendelian Revolution. 1989.

Bowler, Peter. The non-Darwinian revolution, 1992.

Brannigan, A. The Social Basis of Scientific Discoveries, chapter 6 (for a new view of G. Mendel)

Brooke, John H. ’Richard Owen, William Whewell and the Vestiges’, British Journal for the History of Science, 19, 1977, pp. 132-45.

Brooke, John H. & Geoffrey Cantor. Reconstructing nature: the engagement of science and religion. Edinburgh, 1998.

Brooke, John H. Science and religion: some historical perspectives. Cambridge, 1991.

Browne, J. Charles Darwin: voyaging. London, 1995.

Buchanan, R.A. The Power of the Machine: the impact of technology, from 1700 to the present. London, 1992.

Burkhardt, Frederick H., et al. eds. The correspondence of Charles Darwin, 11 vols., Cambridge, 1985-99.

Bynum, Browne, and Porter eds. Dictionary of the history of science. London, 1981.

Bynum, Porter and Shepherd eds. The Anatomy of Madness. 3 vols. 1985.

Bynum, W. Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Nineteenth Century. 1994.

Bynum, W. Porter R., and M. Shepherd eds. The Anatomy of Madness, 3 vols. 1985.

Cahan, D. 'The Institutional Revolution in German Physics, 1865-1914', Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 15, no. 2 1984, pp. 1-65.

Callender, L.A., 'Gregor Mendel: An opponent of descent with modification' History of Science, 1988, 26, pp. 41-75.

Cannon, S.F. 'John Herschel and the Idea of Science', Journal of the History of Ideas, 22, 1961, pp. 215-239.

Cannon, S.F. Science in culture: The early Victorian period, New York, 1978.

Cardwell, D.S.L. The Organisation of Science in England. London, 1972.

Clarke, E., & L.S. Jacyna. Nineteenth-century origins of neuroscientific concepts. Berkeley, 1987.

Cooter, R. The cultural meaning of popular science: phrenology and the organization of consent in nineteenth-century Britain. Cambridge, 1984.

Cooter, Roger, & Stephen Pumfrey. ’Separate Spheres and public places: Reflections on the history of science popularisation and science in popular culture’, History of Science, 22, 1994, pp. 237-267.

Cooter, Roger. Phrenology in the British Isles: an annotated, historical bibliography and index, Metuchen, N.J. & London, 1989.

Corsi, Pietro. Science and religion: Baden Powell and the Anglican debate, 1800-1860, Cambridge, 1988.

Coslett, T. The "Scientific Movement" and Victorian Literature. London, 1982.

Cunningham, A., and P. Williams eds, The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine. 1992.

Cunningham, A., & Nicholas Jardine. Romanticism and the sciences, Cambridge, 1990.

Davis, R. & R.J. Helmstadter eds. Religion and irreligion in Victorian society, 1992.

de Giustino, D. Conquest of Mind: Phrenology and Victorian Social Thought, London 1975.

Desmond, A., and J. Moore. Darwin. London, 1991.

Desmond, A. Huxley: the Devil's disciple. London, 1994.

Desmond, A. 'Redefining the X Axis: 'Professionals', 'Amateurs', and the Making of Mid-Victorian Biology: A Progress Report', Journal of the History of Biology, 34, 2001, pp. 3-50.

Desmond, A. The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London. London, 1989.

Desmond, Adrian & James Moore. ’Transgressing boundaries’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 3, 1998, pp. 147-168.

Di Trocchio, F., "Mendel's experiments: A reinterpretation." Journal of the history of biology. 1991, 24, pp. 485-519.

Egerton, F. ’Refutation and conjecture: Darwin’s response to Sedgwick’s attack on Chambers’, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 1, 1970, pp. 176-183.

Foote, George A. "The Place of Science in the British Reform Movement, 1830-1850." Isis, 42 1951, pp. 192-208.

Foote, George A. 'Science and Its Function in Early Nineteenth- Century England', Osiris, 11 1954, pp. 438-454.

Geison, Gerald L. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. 1996.

Gillispie, C.C. ed. Dictionary of scientific biography, 14 vols., New York, 1970-76.

Gillispie, C.C. Genesis and geology: a study in the relations of scientific thought, natural theology, and social opinion in Great Britain, 1790-1850, Cambridge, 1951.

Gillispie, C.C. The Edge of Objectivity: An Essay in the History of Scientific Ideas. Princeton, 1960.

Gohau, Gabriel. A History of Geology. Rutgers, 1990.

Goldstein, J. Console and classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century

Golinski, J. Making Natural Knowledge: constructivism and the history of science. Cambridge, 1998.

Golinski, J. Science as Public Culture. 1992.

Goodfield-Toulmin, J. ’Some aspects of English physiology: 1780-1840’, Journal of the History of Biology, 2, 1969, pp. 283-320.

Greene, J.C. Science, ideology, and world view: Essays in the history of evolutionary ideas, Berkeley, 1981.

Hays, J.N. ’The London lecturing empire, 1800-50’, I. Inkster & J. Morrell eds., Metropolis and Province: Science in British Culture 1780-1850, 1983, pp. 91-119.

Hessenbruch, A. ed. Reader’s Guide to the History of Science. 2000.

Heyck, T.W. The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England. London, 1982.

Hilgartner, S. ’The dominant view of popularization: conceptual problems, political uses’, Social Studies of Science, 20, 1990, pp. 519-39.

Himmelfarb, Gertrude, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. New York, 1962.

Hodge, M. J. S. 'The Universal Gestation of Nature', Journal of the History of Biology, 5, 1972, pp. 127-151.

Huff, T. E., The Rise of Modern Science: Islam, China and the West. 1993.

Hunt, B.J. 'Doing Science in a Global Empire’, Victorian Science in Context, ed. Bernard Lightman, Chicago, 1997, pp. 312-33.

Inkster, Ian and Morrell, Jack. Metropolis and province: science in British culture 1780-1850. London, 1983.

Irvine, William. Apes, Angels, and Victorians: Darwin , Huxley, and Evolution. New York, 1955.

Jacyna, L.S. ’The physiology of mind in Victorian Britain’, British Journal for the History of Science, 14, 1981, pp. 109-32.

Jacyna, L.S. 'Immanence and Transcendence: theories of life and organisation in Britain, 1790-1835,' Isis, 74, 1983, pp. 311-29.

Jacyna, L.S. Philosophic Whigs: medicine, science, and citizenship in Edinburgh, 1789-1848, London & New York, 1994.

Jardine, N., J.A. Secord and E. Spary eds. Cultures of Natural History. 1996.

Johnson, Richard. "'Really useful knowledge': radical education and working-class culture, 1790-1848", in J. Clarke, C. Critcher, and R. Johnson (eds), Working-class culture: studies in history and theory. London, 1979, pp. 75-102.

Jungnickel, C. and R. McCormmach. Intellectual Mastery of Nature, vol.1. The torch of mathematics 1800-1870; Vol.2. The now mighty theoretical physics 1870-1925. 1986.

Knight, D. The Age of Science: the scientific world-view in the nineteenth century. 1986.

Kohn, David, ed. The Darwinian Heritage. Princeton, 1985.

Layton, David. Science for the People: The Origins of the School Science Curriculum in England. New York, 1979.

Lenoir, Timothy. The strategy of life: teleology and mechanics in 19th century German biology. 1982.

Lightman, Bernard ed. Victorian Science in Context. Chicago, 1997.

Lightman, Bernard. The origins of agnosticism: Victorian unbelief and the limits of knowledge, Baltimore & London, 1987.

Livingstone, David, D.G. Hart & Mark Noll eds. Evangelicals and science in historical perspective, New York, Oxford, 1999.

Mackenzie, Donald. Statistics in Britain, 1865-1930: The Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge. Edinburgh, 1981.

Mauskopf, S.H. ’Marginal science’, in R.C. Olby, Geoffrey Cantor, J.R.R. Christie, & M.J.S. Hodge eds., Companion to the history of modern science, 1996, pp. 869-885.

Merrill, Lynn L. The romance of natural history, Oxford, 1989.

Millhauser, Milton. Just before Darwin: Robert Chambers and Vestiges, Middletown, Connecticut, 1959.

Moore, J.R. ed. History, Humanity, and Evolution, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 131-64.

Moore, J.R. ’Theodicy and society: the crisis of the intelligentsia’, in R.J. Helmstadter & Bernard Lightman eds., Victorian faith in crisis: essays on continuity and change in nineteenth-century religious belief, Stanford, 1990, pp. 153-86.

Moore, J.R. ’Wallace’s Malthusian moment: the common context revisited’, in Bernard Lightman ed., Victorian science in context, Chicago & London, 1997, pp. 290-311.

Moore, J.R. 'Socializing Darwinism: Historiography and the Fortunes of a Phrase', Radical Science Journal, no. 20, pp. 38-80; and in L. Levidow, Science as Politics, pp. 38-80.

Moore, J.R. The Post-Darwinian Controversies: a study of the Protestant struggle to come to terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America, 1870-1900, Cambridge, 1979.

Moore, James. ’Religion and science’, in David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers eds., The Cambridge history of science, 6, Modern biological and earth sciences, Peter Bowler & John Pickstone eds., Cambridge, 2002.

Morrell, J. and A. Thackray. Gentlemen of Science: early years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Oxford, 1981.

Morrell, J. "Individualism and the Structure of British Science in 1830." Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 3 1971, pp. 183-204.

Morrell, J. ’The chemist breeders: the research schools of Liebig and Thomas Thomson’, Ambix, 19, 1972, pp. 3-46.

Morrell, J. Science, culture and politics in Britain, 1750-1870, 1997.

Morton, Peter, The vital science: biology and the literary imagination, 1860-1900. 1984.

Morus, I., S. Schaffer, and J. Secord. 'Scientific London', London, World City, 1800-1840, ed. C. Fox, New Haven, 1992, pp. 129-42.

Morus, I. 'The electric Ariel: telegraphy and commercial culture in early Victorian England', Victorian Studies, 39, 1996, pp. 339-78.

Morus, Iwan. "Currents from the underworld: electricity and the technology of display in early Victorian England", Isis, 84, 1993, 50-69.

Olby, R., G. N. Cantor, J. R. R. Christie, and M. J. S. Hodge, eds. Companion to the History of Modern Science, London, 1990.

Oldroyd, D. Thinking about the Earth: A History of Ideas in Geology, 1996.

Oppenheim, J. "Shattered Nerves": Doctors, Patients and depression in Victorian England. Oxford, 1991.

Orel, V. Mendel, Oxford. 1984.

Pelling, Margaret. Cholera, fever and English medicine, 1825’1865, Oxford, 1978.

Pickstone, J. 'Museological Science? The Place of the Analytical/comparative in Nineteenth-century Science, Technology and Medicine', History of Science, 32. 1994, pp. 111-38.

Porter Roy. 'Gentlemen and Geology: The Emergence of a Scientific Career, 1660-1920', Historical Journal 21, 1978, pp. 809-36.

Porter, Roy. The greatest benefit to mankind. a medical history of humanity from antiquity to the present. 1997.

Porter, Roy. Health for sale: quackery in England 1660-1850, Manchester & New York, 1989.

Porter, Roy. The Rise of Statistical Thinking 1820-1900. 1988.

Postlethwaite, Diana. Making it whole: a Victorian circle and the shape of their world, Columbus, Ohio, 1984.

Rafter Nicole Hahn ed. White Trash: the Eugenic Family Studies, 1877-1919. 1988.

Rehbock, Philip F. The philosophical naturalists: themes in early nineteenth-century British biology. 1983.

Reiser, Stanley Joel. Medicine and the reign of technology. 1978.

Richards, E. ’Huxley and woman’s place in science’ in J.R. Moore ed., History, Humanity and Evolution, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 253-84.

Richards, Graham. Mental machinery: the origins and consequences of psychological ideas, 1600-1850, Baltimore, 1992.

Richards, John L. Mathematical Visions: The Pursuit of Geometry in Victorian England. New York: Academic Press, 1988.

Richards, John L. 'Non-Euclidean Geometry in England, 1868-1883', in Barry Barnes and Steven Shapin eds., Natural Order Historical Studies of Scientific Cultiure. 1979. pp. 143-166.

Richards, R.J. Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary theories of mind and behavior. Chicago, 1987.

Richards, R.J. The meaning of evolution: the morphological construction and ideological reconstruction of Darwin’s theory, Chicago & London, 1992.

Robson, J.M. ’The fiat and finger of God: the Bridgewater Treatises’, in R.J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman eds., Victorian faith in crisis, Basingstoke, 1990, pp. 71-125.

Rudwick, M. ’Minerals, strata, fossils’, in N. Jardine, J.A. Secord and E. Spary, Cultures of Natural History. 1996.

Rudwick, Martin. 'Charles Darwin in London: The Integration of Public and Private Science', Isis , 73, 1982, pp. 186-206.

Rudwick, Martin. Georges Cuvier, fossil bones, and geological catastrophes: new translations & interpretations of the primary texts, Chicago & London, 1997.

Rudwick, Martin. The meaning of fossils: episodes in the history of palaeontology, New York, 1976.

Rupke, Nicolaas. Great chain of history: William Buckland and the English school of geology (1814-1849). Oxford, 1983.

Ruse, M. The Darwinian Revolution: science red in tooth and claw. 1979.

Russell, C.A. Science and Social Change, 1700-1900, London, 1983.

Rick Rylance. Victorian Psychology and British Culture 1850-1880. Oxford, 2000.

Sass, Louis. Madness and modernism, Cambridge, Mass., & London, 1992.

Schaffer, S. 'Babbage's Intelligence: Calculating Engines and the Factory System', Critical Inquiry, 21, 1994.

Schaffer, S. ’Natural philosophy and public spectacle in the eighteenth century’. 21, History of science, 1983, pp. 1-43.

Schaffer, S. ’The nebular hypothesis and the science of progress’, in James Moore ed., History, humanity and evolution, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 131-164.

Schott, H. ed. Franz Anton Mesmer and die Geschichte des Mesmerismus, Wiesbaden, 1985.

Schweber, Silvan. 'The Origin of the Origin Revisited', Journal of the History of Biology, 20, 1977, pp. 229-316.

Scull, A. Madhouses, Mad-doctors and Madmen: The social History of Psychiatry in the Victorian era. Philadelphia, 1981.

Scull, A. The Most Solitary of Afflictions: Madness and Society in Britain 1700-1900, London 1993.

Secord, Anne. "Corresponding interests: artisans and gentlemen in nineteenth-century natural history", British Journal for the History of Science, 27, 1994, 383-408.

Secord, A. 'Science in the Pub', History of Science 32, 1994, 269-315.

Secord, J.A. ed., R. Chambers. Vestiges of the natural history of creation and other evolutionary writings, 1994.

Secord, J.A. ’Behind the veil: Robert Chambers and Vestiges’, in James Moore ed., History, humanity and evolution, Cambridge, 1989, pp. 165-194.

Secord, J.A. Controversy in Victorian geology: the Cambrian-Silurian debate, Princeton, 1986.

Secord, J.A. 'The discovery of a vocation: Darwin's early geology,' British Journal for the History of Science. 24, 1991, pp. 133-57.

Secord, J.A. Victorian Sensation: the extraordinary publication, reception and secret authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Chicago, 2000.

Shapin, Steven and Barnes, Barry. "Science, nature and control: interpreting mechanics' institutes", Social studies of science, 7, 1977, 31-74.

Sheets-Pyenson, Susan. "Popular science periodicals in Paris and London: the emergence of a low scientific culture, 1820-1875", Annals of science, xlii, 1985, 549-72.

Showalter, E. The female malady: women, madness and English culture 1830-1980, London 1987.

Sindling, Christiane 'Claude Bernard and Louis Pasteur: Contrasting Images through Public Commemorations', Osiris, 14, 1999, pp. 61-85.

Smith, Crosbie. and M. Norton Wise, Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin. Cambridge UP, 1989.

Smith, Crosbie. The science of energy: a cultural history of energy physics in Britain, Chicago, 1998.

Snelders, H.A.M. ’Romanticism and Naturphilosophie and the inorganic natural sciences 1797-1840’, Studies in Romanticism, 9, 1970, pp. 193-215.

Stephen, Leslie ed. Dictionary of national biography. 63 vols., 1885-1900.

Stocking, G. Victorian Anthropology. 1987.

Stoehr, Taylor. Hawthorne’s mad scientists: pseudoscience and social science in nineteenth-century life and letters, Hamden, Conn., 1978.

Super, R. H. "The Humanist at Bay: The Arnold Huxley Debate" in Nature and the Victorian Imagination. ed. U.C. Knoepflmacher and G.B. Tennyson. Berkeley, 1977. pp. 231-245.

Temkin, Oswei. 'The Role of Surgery in the Rise of Modern Medical Thought', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 25, 1951, pp. 248-289.

Topham, J. ’Science and popular education in the 1830s: the role of the Bridgewater Treatises’, British Journal for the History of Science, 25, 1992, pp. 397-430.

Topham, J. ’Science, natural theology, and evangelicalism in early nineteenth-century Scotland: Thomas Chalmers and the Evidence controversy’, in Livingstone, Hart, & Noll, eds., Evangelicals and science in historical perspective, New York & Oxford, 1999.

Topham, J. 'Scientific Publishing and the Reading of Science in Early Nineteenth-century Britain: An Historical Survey and Guide to Sources', Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 2000, pp. 559-612.

Topham, Jonathan. "Science and popular education in the 1830s: the role of the Bridgewater Treatises", British journal for the history of science, xxv, 1992, 397-430.

Turner, F.M. Between science and religion: the reaction to scientific naturalism in late Victorian England. 1974.

Turner, F.M. ’The Victorian crisis of faith and the faith that was lost’, in Turner & Bernard Lightman et al. eds., Victorian faith in crisis: essays on continuity and change in nineteenth-century religious belief. 1990, pp. 9-38.

Turner, F.M. 'The Victorian conflict between science and religion: a professional dimension', Isis, 69, 1978, pp. 356-76.

Turner, F.M. 'Public Science in Britain, 1880-1919', Isis, 1980, 71.

Turner, R.S. 'The growth of Professional Research in Prussia', Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 3, 1971, pp. 137-82.

Underhill, Paul. ’Alternative views of science in intra-professional conflict: general practitioners and the medical and surgical elite 1815-58’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 5, 1992, pp. 322-350.

Ward, Lorraine. 'The Cult of Pasteur: Pasteur Material at the Science Museum', Medical History, 28, 1994, pp. 52-72.

Williams, Elizabeth. The physical and the moral: anthropology, physiology, and philosophical medicine in France, 1750-1850. Cambridge, 1994.

Wilson, L.G. Sir Charles Lyell’s scientific journals on the species question. New Haven, Conn., 1970.

Winch, Donald. Malthus. Oxford, 1987.

Winter, A. Mesmerized: powers of mind in Victorian Britain, Chicago & London, 1998.

Winter, A. 'The construction of orthodoxies and heterodoxies in the early Victorian life sciences,' in Victorian Science in Context, ed. B. Lightman, Chicago, 1997, pp. 24-50.

Worboys, Michael. Spreading germs. disease theories and medical practice in Britain, 1865-1900. Cambridge, 2000.

Yeardon, J.D. Herbert Spencer: The evolution of a sociologist. 1971.

Yeo, Richard. ’Science and intellectual authority in mid-nineteenth-century Britain: Robert Chambers and Vestiges of the natural history of creation’, Victorian Studies, 28, 1984, pp. 5-31 and in P. Brantlinger ed., Energy & entropy. science and culture in Victorian Britain. 1989.

Yeo, Richard. Defining science: William Whewell, natural knowledge, and public debate in early Victorian Britain, Cambridge, 1993.

Young, Robert M. ’The functions of the brain: Gall to Ferrier (1808-1886)’, Isis, 59, 1968, pp. 251-268.

Young, Robert M. Mind, brain and adaptation in the nineteenth century: cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier, Oxford, 1990.

Young, Robert. Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture, Cambridge, 1985 .

Zittel, Karl A., von. Geschichte der Geologie und Paläontologie bis Ende des 19. Jahrhundert, 1899.


Primary materials

Abernethy, J. Physiological lectures, exhibiting a general view of Mr. Hunter's Physiology, and of his researches in comparative anatomy. Delivered before the Royal College of Surgeons, in the Year 1817, 2nd edn 1817.

Alexander, Archibald. Outlines of moral science, New York, 1854.

Alison, William Putney. Outlines of physiology. With an appendix, containing heads of lectures on pathology and therapeutics, Edinburgh, 1831.

Bernard, Claude. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by Greene HC. New York; 1865

Campbell, George. The reign of law, 1867.

Arnold, Matthew. 'Literature and Science' in R. H. Super ed., Complete Prose Works. Ann Arbor, 1977.

Babbage, Charles. The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, 1837.

Babbage, Charles. Reflexions on the Decline of Science in England 1830. New York, 1989.

Bree, C.R. Species not transmutable. 1860.

Bulwer, Edward L. England and the English, volume 2 "The State of Science." London, pp. R. Bentley, 1833.

Burton, Charles James. A View of the Creation of the World in Illustration of the Mosaic Record. London, 1836.

Carpenter, William Benjamin. Principles of general and comparative physiology, intended as an introduction to the study of human physiology, and as a guide to the philosophical pursuit of natural history, 1839.

Chalmers, Thomas. The adaptation of external nature to the moral and intellectual constitution of man, 2 vols., 1833.

[Chambers, Robert.] Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation and other Evolutionary Writings (ed. by James A. Secord) Chicago, 1994.

[Chambers, Robert.] Explanations: a sequel to "Vestiges of the natural history of creation" By the author of that work, 1845.

Clifford, William K. "The Philosophy of the Pure Sciences" in Lectures and Essays , ed. Leslie Stephen and Sir Frederick Pollock. 2 vols. London, 1879. 1, 301-349.

Darwin, Charles. Darwin's Notebooks on Transmutation of Species (ed Sir Gavin de Beer) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical series vol. 2 no 2 London 1960.

Darwin, Charles.Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858 ed. by R.C. Stauffer Cambridge, 1975.

Darwin, Charles.The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A variorum text ed. by Morse Peckham, Philadelphia, 1959.

Darwin, Charles. The writings of Charles Darwin on the web.

Darwin, Charles.The Correspondence of Charles Darwin ed. by Frederick Burkhardt, S. Smith et al, Cambridge 1985 -.

Elliotson, John. Human physiology incorporating much of the elementary part of the Institutiones Physiologicae of J. F. Blumenbach, 5th edn 1840.
Graham, Sylvester, Letters on the science of human life, 1839.

Haeckel, Ernst. The History of Creation; or, the development of the Earth and its inhabitants by the action of natural causes (1868), trans. by . E. Ray Lankester, 2nd edition 2 vols, London, 1876.

Herschel, John. A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy. London, 1830.

Huxley, T.H. Collected essays, 1894-1908.

Huxley, Thomas Henry. Evolution and Ethics. With New Essays on Its Victorian Sociobiological Context. ed. James Paradis and George C. Williams. Princeton, 1989.

Johnson, T.B. Physiological observations on mental susceptibility; the influence of education on the varieties of the human race and the brute creation; interspersed with illustrative anecdotes and phrenological exemplifications. to which is added, and essay on hereditary instinct, sympathy, and fascination, 1837.

Lewes, G.H. 'Mr Darwin's Hypothesis' Fortnightly Review vol. 3 and 4 n.s. (1868): pp.353-73; pp.629-38; pp.61-80; pp.492-509.

Lewes, G.H. Problems of Life and Mind: The Foundations of a Creed 5 vols., no. publ. : London, 1874-79.

Lyell, Charles. Principles of geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation, 3 vols. 1830-3.

Lyell, Charles. 'Scientific Institutions', Quarterly Review, 34 1826, 153-203.

Malthus, Thomas Robert. Population: The First Essay. Ann Arbor, 1959.

Martineau, Harriet, & George Henry Atkinson. Letters on the laws of man's nature and development, 1851.

Maxwell, James Clerk. ’Molecules’, Nature, Sept. 1873, pp. 437-441.

Nichol, John Pringle.Views of the architecture of the heavens in a series of letters to a lady, Edinburgh, 1837.

Paley, William. Natural theology; or evidences of the existence and attributes of the deity, collected from the appearances of nature, 1802.

[Sedgwick, Adam.] Review of Vestiges, in Edinburgh Review 1845

Sylvester, J. J. "A Plea for the Mathematician." Nature, 1, 1869-1870, pp. 237-239, 261-263.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. My life, a record of events and opinions, 2 vols., 1905.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. On the Law which has Regulated The Introduction of New Species. 1855.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type 1858.

Weismann, August. Essays Upon Heredity. 1889.

Weismann, August. The Germ-Plasm. New York, 1893.

Whewell, William. Of a Liberal Education in General. London, 1845.

Whewell, William. Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. 1847. 3nd ed. London, 1867.

White, A.D. The warfare of science with theology in Christendom, New York, 1876.


See also:

History of science bibliography.

Online Bibliography for the History & Philosophy of Chemistry

History of science reference sources, by Doug Stewart.

History Journals Guide A useful bibliographic source. Find the links for historical journals all in one place.

History of Science and Technology: A Guide to Internet Resources.

Last modified 17 August 2002