Eduard Hitschmann, as Director of the Ambulatorium clinic in Vienna,
seated in the middle between Ludwig Jekel and Wilhelm Reich
(assistant director), 1922. Source: Photograph by Ludwig
Gutmann (cropped), on Wikimedia Commons.
Click on the image to enlarge it.

Eduard Hitschmann, 1871-1957, was Vienna-born and studied medicine in the same University of Vienna year-group as Paul Federn, gaining his MD also in 1895. Whilst practising in general medicine, he was then introduced by Federn in 1905 to the novel ideas of Sigmund Freud, and to the regular meetings of the Wednesday Psychological Society. The new members loyalty was immediate and life-long, though he was not a creative or original thinker - orthodox was Freud's epithet for Hitschmann - and he preferred to extend his efforts in the direction of teaching and clarification.

Hitschmann, not entirely with Freud's approval, as early as 1911 presented the first general survey of Freud's new theory of neurosis. In later years he would make contributions to the psycho-biography of famous people [men! See Gender Studies], including the musician Schubert and the American psychologist William James, 1842-1910. In 1921, when Freud somewhat tardily agreed to the establishing of a walk-in Psychoanalytical Clinic in Vienna, it was largely through the efforts of Federn and Hitschmann that the appropriate authorities finally offered suitable quarters in the Garnissonspital or military [garrison] hospital. By May 1922 the new venture opened in the Pelikangasse as the Ambulatorium of the Vienna Psa. Society. Hitschmann became the Director, and a large room was also available for the ever larger meetings (still on a Wednesday) of the Vienna Psa. Society, (Jones, 1957, Ch. on Progress and Misfortune).

With the arrival of Nazi Germany and Austria, and the suppression of everything Jewish, in 1938 Hitschmann along with many others including the Freud family, left the continent for England where he stayed until towards the end of the Second World War, 1939-45. He was then able to proceed to the USA, and Boston MA, where he lived and published until his death.


Becker, Philip L. "Edward Hitschmann." In Psychoanalytic Pioneers. Edited by Franz Alexander et al. New York: Basic Books, 1966.

Hitschmann, Eduard. Freud's Neurosenlehre: Nach ihrem gegenwirtigen Stande zusammenfassend dargestellt (Freud's Theories of Neurosis: shown in summary form according to their status). Transl. by C. R. Payne. Introduction by Ernest Jones. 1911, New York. Moffat, Yard & Co., 1917. [Hitschmann's pedantic phraseology of the sub-title shows both his meticulous rather than creative mind, and also his desire to not offend a reluctant Freud.]

______. Great Men. Psychoanalytical Studies. Forward by Ernest Jones. New York: International Universities Press, 1956.

Jones, Ernest.The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Vol. III. London: Hogarth Press, 1957.

Created 28 February 2021