... when fear and guilt were making people acutely conscious of lower-class suffering, the role of the philanthropist took on an importance, even a necessity, which called for the rhetoric of heroism — Houghton 320.

A glittering imperial capital, a sprawling, congested metropolis, a source of pride, anxiety, fear and wonder all intermixed: London was the great laboratory of late-Victorian charitable activism. — Ginn 6

"The Philanthropists," by Sol Eyting, illustrates the episode in Dickens's A Christmas Carol in which Scrooge turns the philanthropists away.




Briggs, Asa. The Age of Improvement, 1783-1867. London: Routledge, 2014.

Burdett-Coutts, ed. Woman's mission; a series of congress papers on the philanthropic work of women, by eminent writers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons / London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., (?)1893. (Available in the Internet Archive)

Burk, Kathleen. "Peabody, George (1795–1869), merchant banker and philanthropist." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online ed.

Curtis, Merle. Foreword. George Peabody, A Biography. By Franklin Parker. Rev. ed. Nashville and London: Vanderbilt University Press, 1995. ix-x.

Darley, Gillian. "Hill, Octavia (1838–1912), housing and social reformer." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online ed.

_____. Octavia Hill: A Life. London: Francis Boutle, 2010.

Ginn, Geoffrey A. C. Culture, Philanthropy and the Poor in Late-Victorian London. London: Routledge, 2017.

Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Poverty and Compassion: The Moral Imagination of the Late Victorians. New York: Vintage, 1991.

Houghton, Walter E. The Victorian Frame of Mind 1830-1870. New Haven and London: Yale, 1957/

Oldfield, Sybil. Jeanie, an "Army of One": Mrs Nassau Senior, 1828-1877, The First Woman in Whitehall. Brighton and Portland: Sussex University Press, 2008 (review).

Owen, David. English Philanthropy, 1660-1960. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1965.

Prochaska, F. K. Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth-century England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980 (rpt. 2003).

Roddy, Sarah, Julie-Marie Strange and Bertrand Taithe. The Charity Market and Humanitarianism in Britain, 1870-1912. London: Bloomsbury, 2019 [Review.]

Last modified 24 May 2019