Primary Works Cited

Booth, William. In Darkest England (London: Mc Corquirdale, 1890).

The British Workman. Ed. J. B. Smithies. London: S. W. Partidge & Co., 1855–92.

Brontë, Charlotte. Shirley. 3 Vols. (London: Smith Elder, 1849).

Carlyle, Thomas. ‘Signs of the Times’, first published in The Edinburgh Review 1829; rpt. in many modern editions.

Dickens, Charles. Bleak House (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1853).

Dickens, Charles. The Chimes (London: Chapman & Hall, 1844).

Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol (London: Chapman & Hall, 1843).

Dickens, Charles. David Copperfield (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1850).

Dickens, Charles. Dombey and Son (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1848).

Dickens, Charles. Edwin Drood (London: Chapman & Hall, 1870).

Dickens, Charles. Hard Times (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1854).

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. 3 Vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1838).

Dickens, Charles. Our Mutual Friend. 2 Vols. (London: Chapman 7 Hall, 1865).

Disraeli, Benjamin. Sybil. 3 Vols. (London: Colburn, 1845); edition used here: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Doré, Gustav, illustrator. Dante’s Hell (London: Cassell, Petter, & Galpin, 1866).

Doré, Gustav, illustrator. John Milton's Paradise Lost (New York: Peter Fenelon Collier, 1866).

Doyle, Richard. Manners and Customs of Ye Englyshe (London: Bradbury & Evans [1849]).

Doyle, Richard. Bird’s Eye Views of Society (London: Smith Elder, 1864).

Eliot, George. Adam Bede. First published by Harpers in New York in 1869 and republished, Edinburgh: William Blackwood [1878].

Engels, Friedrich. Die Lage der Arbeitenden Klasse in England. English version, New York: John Lovell, 1887.

Gaskell, Elizabeth. Mary Barton. 2 Vols. (London: Chapman & Hall, 1848).

Gaskell, Elizabeth. North and South. 2 Vols. (London: Chapman & Hall, 1854).

Good Words (London: Strahan, 1860–70).

The Graphic Magazine (London: Illustrated Newspapers, 1869–1900).

Hardy, Thomas. “Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” The Graphic (1891).

Jerrold, Blanchard, and Gustave Doré. London: A Pilgrimage. London: Grant & Co., 1872.

Kingsley, Charles. Alton Locke. 2 Vols. (London: Chapman & Hall, 1850).

Kingsley, Charles. Yeast. First published in Fraser’s Magazine in 1848 and in book-form, New York: Harpers, 1851.

London, Jack. People of the Abyss (New York: Macmillan, 1903).

Mayhew, Henry. London Labour and the London Poor 4 Vols. (London: Griffin & Bohn, 1861).

Punch (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1842–50).

The Quiver (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1866–9).

The Sunday Magazine (London: Strahan, 1864–70).

Wayside Posies, Ed. Robert Buchanan (London: George Routledge, 1867).


Cohen, Jane. Charles Dickens and His Original Illustrators(Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1980).

Cooke, Simon. ‘“Sustained Power”: The Life and art of William Small”’ IBIS (Imaginative Book Illustration Society) 6 (2018): 87–139.

Gilbert, Pamela K. Mapping the Victorian Social Body(New York: State University of New York Press, 2004).

Gilmartin, Sophie. ‘Frank Holl and The GraphicFrank Holl–Emerging from the Shadows (Compton: Watts Gallery, 2013).

Goldman, Paul. Victorian Illustration: The Pre-Raphaelites, the Idyllic School and the High Victorians. Aldershot: Scolar, 1996.

Korda, Andrea. Printing and Painting the News in Victorian London: The Graphic and Social Realism, 1869–1891 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015).

Reid, Forrest. Illustrators of the Eighteen Sixties. 1928; reprint, New York: Dover, 1975.

Treuherz, Julian. Hard Times: Social Realism in Victorian Art (London: Lund Humphries, 1987).

Social Commentary and Victorian Illustration: The Representation of Working Class Life, 1837–1880

Created 20 April 2019