North Italian Romanesque
Arcades restricted to top of gables and apses. The character is less refined owing to the use of stone and brick rather than marble. Wide, flat, and severe facades are typical, covering the whole church, without marking in any way the difference of nave and aisles.
St. Zenone, Verona showing detatched campanile. Plate 96. [Click on image to enlarge it.]
A rose window (No. 96) and a porch resting, on lions are often the chief relief. Details show a breaking away from Classic precedent. In sculpture, him tiny and other scenes reflecting' the life of the northern invaders are frequent, and in these a grotesque element is prominent.
The churches were of the Basilican type, and were nearly all vaulted and to. Side aisles are often in two stories, the clerestory is omitted, the walls between the side chapels forming buttresses.
Major examples of North Italian Romanesque architecture
- S. Antonio, Piacenza (1122)
- S. Ambroglio, Milan (1140)
- S. Michele, Pavia (1188)
- S.Zenone, Verona 1139) — see above
- Palazzi Farsetti and Loredon and Fondaco dei Turci, Venice
Central Italian Romanesque
The Baptistery, Cathedral, and Leaning Tower, Pisa. Plate 91. [Click on image to enlarge it.]
Arcades in several stories were employed as an ornament to the façades (No. 91). Marble facing was carried to such an extent as to form a style in that material. The Basilican type was closely adhered to, and beauty and delicacy of detail were preferred to the invention of fresh architectural forms produced by a new system of construction. Detail much affected by Classic remains and traditions, which resulted in the production of carving and ornament of great refinement. At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly sculptured with figures existed, by whose study the Pisani were influenced.
The churches were mostly roofed with plain open-timbered roofs, the members of which were ornamented with bright coloring.
Major examples of Central Italian Romanesque architecture
- Pisa Cathedral (1063-92), Campanile (1172), Baptistery (1153) — illustrated
- S. Michele, Lucca (1188; façade 1288) >
- S. Martino, Lucca (1060-70) — West front; Pillar
- Pistoia Cathedral (twelfth century)
Fletcher, Banister, and Banister F. Fletcher. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method for the Student, Craftsman, and Amateur. 5th ed. London: B. T. Batsford, 1905.
Last modified 9 March 2014