Despite the compromise beliefs of geological specialists since
the end of the eighteenth century, the most common views about the history of
the earth and of life on earth during the early Victorian period were derived
from the creation stories in the Bible. It is useful to compare these stories
to the geological stories told by nineteeth-century geologists- almost all of
whom were sincere Christians of one stripe or another.
Modern biblical scholars have identified an author for the first verses of Genesis as an unknown writer (called "P") of the priestly tradition writing sometime in the 6th century BCE. The second creation story in Genesis (2:4 to 2:25) was apparently written by a 9th century writer. There are are a few minor discrepancies between the two stories. Both authors tell a story derived from a late 12th-century BCE Babylonian creation myth Enuma Elish.
Book 01 Genesis
001:001 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
001:002 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
001:003 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
001:004 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
001:005 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
001:006 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
001:007 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
001:008 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
001:009 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
001:010 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
001:011 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
001:012 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
001:013 And the evening and the morning were the third day.
001:014 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
001:015 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
001:016 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
001:017 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
001:018 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
001:019 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
001:020 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
001:021 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
001:022 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
001:023 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
001:024 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
001:025 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
001:026 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
001:027 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
001:028 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
001:029 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
001:030 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.
001:031 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
002:001 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
002:002 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
002:003 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.
002:004 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,
002:005 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
002:006 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
002:007 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
002:008 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.
002:009 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
002:010 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
002:011 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;
002:012 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
002:013 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.
002:014 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
002:015 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
002:016 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
002:017 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
002:018 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
002:019 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
002:020 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
002:021 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;
002:022 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
002:023 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
002:024 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
002:025 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.
003:001 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
003:002 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:
003:003 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.
003:004 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:
003:005 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
003:006 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.
003:007 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
003:008 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.
003:009 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?
003:010 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.
003:011 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?
003:012 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.
003:013 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.
003:014 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:
003:015 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
003:016 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.
003:017 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;
003:018 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;
003:019 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
003:020 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.
003:021 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.
003:022 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:
003:023 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
003:024 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.
004:001 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.
004:002 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
004:003 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.
004:004 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:
004:005 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.
004:006 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen?
004:007 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.
004:008 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.
004:009 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?
004:010 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.
004:011 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;
004:012 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.
004:013 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.
004:014 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.
004:015 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, engeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.
004:016 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
004:017 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.
004:018 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.
004:019 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.
004:020 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.
004:021 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
004:022 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
004:023 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.
004:024 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.
004:025 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.
004:026 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.
005:001 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;
005:002 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
005:003 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, and after his image; and called his name Seth:
005:004 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters:
005:005 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.
005:006 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:
005:007 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:008 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.
005:009 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:
005:010 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:011 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died.
005:012 And Cainan lived seventy years and begat Mahalaleel:
005:013 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:014 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.
005:015 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:
005:016 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:017 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.
005:018 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:
005:019 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:020 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.
005:021 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah:
005:022 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:023 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five
005:024 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.
005:025 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech.
005:026 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:027 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.
005:028 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:
005:029 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed.
005:030 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:
005:031 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.
005:032 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
006:001 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
006:002 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
006:003 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
006:004 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
006:005 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
006:006 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
006:007 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.
006:008 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.
006:009 These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and
perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.
006:010 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
006:011 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
006:012 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
006:013 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
006:014 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.
006:015 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.
006:016 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.
006:017 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
006:018 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.
006:019 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.
006:020 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.
006:021 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.
006:022 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
007:001 And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
007:002 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.
007:003 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.
007:004 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
007:005 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.
007:006 And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.
007:007 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.
007:008 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth,
007:009 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
007:010 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.
007:011 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
007:012 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
007:013 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;
007:014 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.
007:015 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.
007:016 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in.
007:017 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth.
007:018 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters.
007:019 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.
007:020 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
007:021 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:
007:022 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.
007:023 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.
007:024 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.
008:001 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged;
008:002 The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained;
008:003 And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated.
008:004 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
008:005 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.
008:006 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:
008:007 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.
008:008 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground;
008:009 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.
008:010 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;
008:011 And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.
008:012 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.
008:013 And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.
008:014 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
008:015 And God spake unto Noah, saying,
008:016 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.
008:017 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.
008:018 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him:
008:019 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.
008:020 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
008:021 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.
008:022 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.
- Bishop Colenso and the Literal Truth of the Bible
- An introduction to Essays and Reviews (1860)
- The Higher Critics
- Evangelical acceptance of non-Darwinian Evolution
Kee, H.C., et al, The Cambridge Companion to the Bible, New York, (1997).
What does the Bible say about creation? Comparing/contrasting the two creation stories in Genesis www.religioustolerance.org. Web. 18 January 2012.