The "golden era" of medical-hygiene studies of disease came to fruition as the biological cell-based germ theory of fermentation, contagion, putrefactionm and change replaced erroneous chemical-based notions of continuing "spontaneous humoral generation." Parallel advances in Microscopy, Histology, Pathology and Staining with chemical dyes were all instrumentally necessary and supportive.

1810. French pathologist and microscopist Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), at the La Charité Hospital in Paris, with some 900 post-mortem results, identified various types of lung phthisis, and affirmed the importance of the presence of small lung-tissue nodules "as being peculiar to consumption", CF: 226.

1810. Spotted Fever. Nathan Strong (1781-1837), alma mater Yale and Williams, a member of the Connecticut Medical Society, studied the elusive disease now known as cerebrospinal meningitis. See Weichselbaum. Strong's work was published as An inaugural dissertation on the disease termed Petechial, or Spotted Fever, pp. 52. Hartford: Peter Gleason. First presented to the Connecticut Medical Society. Cf. Ricketts, exactly a hundred years later.

c.1828. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876)introduced the new technical terms bakterium/bakteria to replace the vaguer "germ" and "miasma."

1829. Cholera epidemic reaches Europe from Bengal, India, 1816-26; Russia and Hungary; Germany 1831; Paris and London 1832, and via shipping-lanes on to New York and beyond. These and similar events beyond medical control were among the great fears of the time. Asiatic or genuine cholera returned to Europe in 1837 and 1849 with ready transfer to North America, and only in 1883 would induce determined scientific-bacteriologic resolution, see Robert Koch, CF: 259. For pre-bacteriological treatments see G.E. Winslow, Essay on the Nature, Symptoms and Treatment of Asiatic Cholera,1832, 1st edn. pp. 70. New York: Sleight & Robinson; and E.A. Parkes, Researches into the Pathology and Treatment of the Asiatic or Algide Cholera, 1847. London: John Churchill.

c.1830. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876), turned to the study of microscopic organisms in water, soil, and dust describing many new types of unicells, Protista, diatoms and general infusoria. He also demonstrated that sedimentary rocks, such as chalk, are composed of microscopic shells of ancient creatures. Around this time, c.1828, Ehrenberg also introduced the new technical terms bakterium/bakteria to replace the vaguer "germ" and "miasma."

1831. Cholera. J.R. Lichtenstadt. Die asiatische Cholera in Russland in den Jahren 1830 und 1831.... Berlin: Haude & Spener.

1833. Johannes Peter Muller (1801-1858) was made Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Humboldt University of Berlin. His significant students included Schwann, Remak and Virchow. By 1844 Muller would complete his great work on Handbuch der Physiologie der Menschen, 4 vols. (Handbook of Human Physiology). Reink Books, 2015, paperback. (In German).

1835. Ehrenberg coined bacillus for the spore-forming short rod-like organisms.

1837. Typhus epidemic in Philadelphia. In 1846-49 typhus would decimate the population during the Great Irish Famine, and via the immigrant shipping would travel to New York and the quarantine "Fever sheds". No medical help or understanding of typhus would be forthcoming until 1910. See Howard Taylor Ricketts. F. Cramer, 1840, Der Abdominal-Typhus. Kassel: J. Krieger.

1839. Theodor Schwann demonstrates the cellular basis of the human and animal body.

c.1840. Johann Evangelista Purkinge (1787-1869) was a pioneer Czech experimental physiologist and histologist who created his own laboratory at Breslau University. Histology: from Greek "histos" = tissue, web; "logos" = account, discourse, study, had been coined c.1819. Purkinge in 1839 introduced the term "Protoplasma", from Greek "proto" = first, and "plasm" = mould or cast. He also left a legacy of new micro-anatomical structures (Purkinje cells in the brain, P. fibres in the heart), all supportive of the newly recognised Cell/Germ Theory.

1840. Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle offers his theory of contagion in Von den Miasmen und Kontagion.

1844. Agostino Bassi (1773-1856) was an Italian entomologist studying "mal de segno" or muscardine in the domestic silkworm industry from c.1807. By 1835 his results identified the living organism/contagion as a white powder of fungal spores, and he recommended isolation, hygiene methods and use of disinfectant chemicals. By 1844, after laboratory culture-studies of the potato, cheese and winemaking industries, together with human diseases of leprosy and cholera, Bassi was ready to generalise to humans his theories of pathogenic organisms in infectious diseases. The work of Bassi would greatly influence and aid Louis Pasteur, who in 1865 would begin studies which saved the French silk industry by curing its silkworm disease.

1844. Bubonic Plague. G.F. Grohmann. Das Pest-Contagium in Egypten u. seine Quelle.... Vienna: Kaulfuss Prandel & Co.

1847. Cranston R. Low and T.C. Dodds, Atlas of Bacteriology. Illusd. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone.

1846-53. Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle’s two-volume Handbuch der rationellen Pathologie offers concepts of "contagion vivum" and, "contagion animatum", making him the co-founder of the theory that microscopic organisms cause infections — that is, that they are the agents or vectors of infectious diseases. With his pupil, Robert Koch, he formulates the Henle-Koch Postulates of infectious diseases and their causes that allowed for bacteriology to become a scientific discipline based on empirical evidence.

1847. Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) was a German-Hungarian physician-obstetrician working at the Vienna General Hospital in 1847. His observations of bedside visitor-practitioner cross-contamination with puerperal (child-bed) fever led him to empirically introduce hand-washing and use of mild chloride-of-lime solution. The delayed wider knowledge and acceptance of the new organism/bacterial theories during his lifetime led to lack of recognition after his early death. Cf. Lister. Contemporaneously, in Massachusetts, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., MD Harvard 1836, also taught the then controversial idea that doctors themselves could carry puerperal fever from patient to patient.

1849. Cholera returned to London and Paris, and to Liverpool and the shipping-lanes to New York, Mississippi. In the poor crowded district of Soho, London, physician John Snow (1813-58) conducted epidemiological studies to 1854. Disease outbreaks were traced to shared yards and communal water-taps/stand-pipes, indicating a contaminated water-source. Confirmation and action would await the conclusive results of Koch three decades later.

1849. Anthrax, a scourge of cattle, was successfully first shown to involve short rod-like bacteria/bacilli in the blood, though without further evidence of causation, CF: 198, citing Pollender, Brauell. The matter was developed more thoroughly in 1863, ibid, citing Davaine, with transfer of the disease demonstrated experimentally via blood inoculations between infected and symptom-free animals. Cf. Koch.

1850. A. Haspel. Maladie de l'Algerie. Des causes, de la nature et du traitement des maladies endemo epidemiques de la province d'Oran, Vol. 1. Paris.

1851. First Cholera Conference/International Sanitary Conference, Paris. Later conferences would be Paris 1859, Constantinople 1866, Vienna 1874, Washington 1881 with first participation of the U.S., Rome 1885, Venice 1892, Dresden 1893, Paris 1894, Venice 1897, Paris 1903, Paris 1911-12. The Great War 1914-1919 interrupted these and many other collaborations. The question of quarantine regulations mainly occupied the 1851 and 1859 conferences.

1853. James Paget (1814-1899), FRCS, London medical practitioner. Lectures on Surgical Pathology delivered to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Reprinted London 1860, pp. 526. Modern EBook. Paget supported the new directions indicated by Schwann, Henle> and others.

1855. Robert Remak (1815-1865). German-Polish and Jewish embryologist-physiologist. Remak, who studied at the University of Berlin, became assistant to Johannes Muller and made pioneering contributions to histological technique, so essential to adequate microscopy of tissues infiltrated with pathogenic bodies. He employed blue copper sulphate in alcoholic vinegar to harden and stain dividing cell membranes. Independently of Rudolf Virchow Remak discovered that cells are formed by division of pre-existing cells, contrary to the then orthodoxy of Schwann, (Anderson, 1986). Such basic data were fundamental for the understanding of bacterial multiplication, survival and actions in the pathogenesis of disease. Anti-Semitism appears to have dogged Remak's advancement.

1857. Carl Zeiss (1816-1888), a German optical-instrument maker, established since the 1840s as Carl Zeiss Jena (today Carl Zeiss AG), produced his Stand I-compound model of 1857. He later worked closely with the glass-paste chemist Otto Schott, and the physicist-optical scientist Ernst Abbe (1840-1905), a co-partner in Carl Zeiss AG. The enhanced lighting accessories, such as the condenser of late-nineteenth century fully "bacteriological microscopes" - and also the improved oil immersion of specimens - are all accredited to Abbe by contemporary authorities such as CF: 28-32.

1858. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) studied in Berlin with Johannes Muller. Virchow became Professor of Pathology at Wurzburg in 1849, Berlin in 1857, and the Institute of Pathology. His influences included his "Assistant" Robert Remak, while his own celebrated works supported the Cell Theory, and influenced all later generations of bacteriologists. Die Cellularpathologie... 1858. Berlin: Hirschwald, new edn 1871. Virchow's pronouncements at the Second Cholera Conference, Paris 1859 (also called the Second International Sanitary Conference) were quoted verbatim by CF: 274, twenty years later.

1858. Joseph von Gerlach (1820-1896) Professor of Anatomy at Erlangen, made a pioneer contribution to histological staining by introducing carmine-gelatin from the crushed insect. Earlier attempts had included the weak saffron vegetable-dye. W. H. Perkin about this time was also producing "mauveine" dye (aniline-mauve ,Toluidine blue), and other durable coal-tar dyes would follow (basic/non-acidic dyes,gentian violet, methyl violet, methyl blue, fuchsin and Bismarck brown; with acid-fuchsin and eosin). See Loeffler, Weigert, Pfeiffer, Ziehl, Gram, Ehrlich and others to 1899.

1858. Louis Pasteur published Memoire sur la fermentation appelée lactique [Memoir on Lactic Fermentation]. —  the foundation stone of the cell theory, microbiology, and bacteriology.

1860. Elisha Harris MD, publishes The Utility and Application of Heat as a Disinfectant. Boston: Rand & Avery.

1861. Typhoid fever repeatedly flares up during the American Civil War to 1865. "Camp fever" killed more soldiers than did combat, in all wars to 1915, Western Front. See Almroth Wright.

1862. Louis Pasteur with physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) experiments on heat-control of microbial processes in milk and wine — pasteurization. He further generalised his ideas of beverage-souring to human diseases similarly caused by invisible microbes (yeasts, fungi, bacteria), influencing Joseph Lister. Pasteur decisively contradicts current ideas of spontaneous chemical generation of living organisms and advances the germ theory of unicellular microbes as agents of disease.

1863. A.S Packard (1839-1905) and G.F. Leuckart (1822-1898), Die menslichen Parasiten... (Parasites in Humans), 2 vols to 1876. Leipzig & Heidelberg: C.F. Winter. Packard, an entomologist-parasitologist and microscopist, was Professor of Zoology & Geology at Brown University, Providence-RI, 1878-1905. His studies in microscopic histology and pathology paralleled/complemented those in the emerging field of bacteriology. Robert Koch meanwhile, in 1863 was a student in his second year of Natural Sciences at the University of Gottingen.

1865. Jean Antoine Villemin (1827-92) was a French medical-bacteriologist and independent researcher of tuberculous disease in Paris, who had discovered bovine TB c.1854. He now demonstrated by inoculation into healthy animals the contagious nature of material from the pathological nodules, results later improved upon by Cohnheim and by Koch. See Guerin, who four decades later with Calmette would begin a thirteen-year long process of attenuation of the microbe via a series of some 239 isolations and re-cultures to produce a viable vaccine.

1867. Joseph Lister publishes "On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery", on the carbolic acid (phenol, C6H5OH) in the Lancet. Influenced by the "Germ Theory" of Louis Pasteur, Lister subsequently developed thorough-going aseptic-environment approach.

1867. Charles Murchison (1830-1879) publishes Die typhoiden Krankheiten...Die Epidemie des recurrirenden Typhus in St. Petersburg 1864-1865.... Braunschweig: Vieweg.

1870. Pedro Felipe Monlau, Elementos de Higiene Privada y el Arte de Conservar La Salud del Individuo, Escuela de Salerno y la Higiene en Refranes Castellanos, pp. 693. Madrid: Moya y Plaza. Includes "Atmosferologia", "Bromatologia" and "Ginastica", in a largely pre-bacteriological approach of historical interest.

1870. Ferdinand Julius Cohn (1818-1898), one of the "Fathes of Bacteriology," was the first to accord a separate status to bacteria, viewing them as part of the vegetable kingdom and re-shaping the early classification by Ehrenberg. Cohn introduced sterile culture-media, and classified bacteria by shape into four groups: cocci (spherical), bacilli (short rods), spirochaetes (spiral) and treponemes (thread-like). He demonstrated endospore formation in bacilli when their environment became life-threatening: the change being vegetative to dormant.

1871. See Weigert. "Ueber Bacterien in der Pockenhaut..." (Pockenhaut = Smallpox). Berlin: Hirschwald.

1872. Ferdinand Cohn. Untersuchungen ueber Bacterien (Investigations on Bacteria). Breslau: J. Kern.

1873. Charles Murchison (1830-1879) traces a typhoid outbreak in West London to a polluted source of milk.

1873. Gerhard Henrik Hansen (1841-1912 discovers the cause of leprosy — Mycobacterium leprae — which was subsequently stained and confirmed by Neisser in 1879 from samples provided by Hansen.

1873. Joseph Lister, A contribution to the germ theory of putrefaction...and to the natural history of Torulae and Bacteria. Lecture to the Royal Society of London, 7th April. Published by Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1876. Edinburgh: Robert Grant & Son. Lister's missive was against the more humoral theory of Sir John Scott Burden-Sanderson (1828-1905), "On the origin and distribution of microzymes (bacteria) in water", 1871.

1874. Christian A. Th. Billroth (1829-1894) detected chains of spherical organisms in surgical wound infections, and coined the genus name "Streptococcus". See Rosenbach.

1875. H. von Ziemssen (1829-1902) studied Medicine and Pathology at Greifswald, Berlin and Wurzburg. Professor of Pathology at Erlangen 1863, and Munich 1874 where he was also Director of the General Hospital. Cyclopaedia of the Practice of Medicine, Vol III: Chronic Infectious Diseases. pp. 672. English trans. by Albert Buck MD. New York: William Wood & Co. The volume deals with syphilis, glanders, anthrax, hydrophobia, migratory parasites, echinococcus (Tapeworm) and much else.

1875. From this time forwards histological staining becomes a major technique. "Rapid progress was now made; everybody began to stain; the isolated and the double staining were introduced, and...the art of staining has already reached a high state of perfection. The names of Weigert, Koch and Ehrlich are closely connected with these advances...", CF: 38 & 39-48.

1876. Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (1843-1910) showed both that the specific agent Bacillus anthracis was always present in the diseased animal and that the bacillus spores also produced anthrax — two observations that became part of the four "Koch's Postulates" for all disease-contagion with a bacterial aetiology. Koch also pioneered the culture of bacteria, special stains, vaccination.

1876. Attracted by Pasteur’s germ theory, John Tyndall studies fractional sterilization by heat, and heat-resistant spores. His early observation that moulds, such as Penicillium sp. , inhibit the growth of bacteria was a half century ahead of its time when it was repeated by Alexander Fleming in the 1920s.

1877. Edgar M. Crookshank (1858-1928), pupil of Lister, published Manual of Bacteriology, London: H.K. Lewis & Co. 3rd edn 1890; 4th edn, pp. 714, 1896.

1878. Cholera outbreak in Egypt sees Koch with Gaffky and others visit as observers.

1878. Pasteur publishes Germ Theory and its Applications to Medicine and on the Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery — A summary collection of three classic papers of his own and Lister's iconic contributions.

1878. Antoine Magnin (1848-1926), French botanist and Professor to the medical faculty, University of Lyon. Director, 1881-84, Jardin botanique de Lyon. 1908 President, Societé botanique de France. Les bacteries. English trans. The Bacteria, by George Sternberg, 1880. Revised edn 1884, pp. 227. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. This was the first textbook of bacteriology in the U.S., and was followed by Sternberg's own in 1892. See also the 1891 translation of Carl Fraenkel by J.H. Lindsay MD, Professor of Bacteriology at the University of Vermont and New York pathologist.

1879. Gonorrhoea. Albert Ludwig S. Neisser (1855-1916 identified the causative agent/microbe later named after him, "Neisseria gonorrhoeae".

1880. Koch moves to Berlin and the Imperial Dept. of Health, later becoming Professor of Hygiene, University of Berlin and Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases to 1904. His co-workers and/or students at this period would include Eberth, Gaffky and Hueppe; from1880-84 the talented Loeffler; Fraenkel, Petri, Pfeiffer, Wasserman and others.

1880. Typhoid. Karl Joseph Eberth (1835-1926). Professor Pathology, Zurich 1869; Halle 1881, was the first to describe a suspect rod-like bacillus in a case of typhoid, while assisting Koch in Berlin. George Th. Augustus Gaffky (1850-1918), also working in Koch's laboratory, confirmed this "Eberthella typhi" finding, which became known as "Gaffky-Eberth bacillus", and subsequently Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in commemoration of Dr.D.E. Salmon (see Theobald Smith). Gaffky became Director of the Berlin Institute for Infectious Diseases, 1904-13, following Koch.

1880. Tuberculosis. Julius F. Cohnheim (1839-1884), who studied "pus" and migration of protective white blood corpuscles (cf. Metchnikoff), also invented the freezing technique of preparing histological thin-sections for tissues or bacteria.

1881. Agar-agar, a tough gelatinous component of seaweed, replaces the earlier potato slice and animal gelatin for bacterial cultures. The Berlin laboratory of Koch was responsible, thanks to his assistant Walther Hesse (1846-1911), and the improvement quickly became widespread. Cf. Petri.

1881. Jean J.H. Toussaint (1847-90), Professor of Veterinary Pathology, University Toulouse, independently of Pasteur, produced an early anthrax vaccine. CF: 126 passim.

1881. Pneumococcus independently isolated by Pasteur in Paris and by Sternberg in the U.S.

1881. Robert Koch. Zur Untersuchung von pathogenen Organismen (On Investigations of Pathogenic Organisms). Berlin: Gerschel.

1882. Annus mirabilis for Bacteriology. Tuberculosis: the disease was then responsible for almost a seventh of all deaths, CF: 225. On 24th March 1882, in front of the Physiological Society of Berlin, Robert Koch "made the announcement that he had found the cause of tuberculosis, which was due to a peculiar bacillus of a special shape", op. cit., 226. Crucial to the lasting impression created by the news were the investigator's methodological rigour and certainty, ibid. Koch's crucial report was published as "Der Aetiologie der Tuberculose", 1882, Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 19: 221-230, with use of the new agar-agar culture medium. For this and related advances Koch would be awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1905.

1882. Phagocytosis: Elie (Ilya) Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the "Father of Immunology," formulated his celebrated theory of "phagocytosis" whereby macrophages (white blood cells, surround and engulf microbes or inflammation. In 1887 Metchnikoff had observed blood leukocytes migrating to and surrounding certain bacteria - a process later known as "leukocyte killing", and valuable in antiserum and acquired immunity studies. See Almroth Wright.

1882. Franz Ziehl (1857-1926), Professor Bacteriology, Lubeck. Ziehl was noted for his carbol-fuchsin stain developed for the tubercle bacillus. In 1883, together with pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854-1898), Professor Pathology at Rostock, the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain was perfected, still in use today for tubercular and other mycobacteria. The original Ziehl stain was prepared from 1g of fuchsin and 5g of carbolic acid/phenol in a 10% v/v solution of alcohol in distilled water.

1882. Carl Friedlander (1847-1887). German pathologist and bacteriologist who worked on the causes of pneumonia, particularly in fragile patients. i.e. the immuno-suppressed. Edwin Klebs in 1875 had noted a new bacterium, named "Klebsiella pneumonia" by Schroeter 1886 and Trevisan 1887, from the lungs of persons dying from pneumonia, but without asserting the causative link. Friedlander took a more positive stance, exciting some controversy, and "Friedlander's bacillus" was recommended by others. New stains were employed c.1883-7, including that of Gram. The Klebsiella sp. are generally associated with the mouth-nose and intestinal tract (Enterobacteriaceae), are Gram-negative and can be aerobic-anaerobic and have few nutritional special requirements - perfect credentials for an opportunist predator. Friedlander died prematurely, suspected of having contracted the very organism he studied so assiduously. Cf. Pneumococcus sp. 1881.

1882. Alexander Ogston (1844-1929). University Aberdeen MD 1866. Regius Professor Surgery 1882. He early introduced the antiseptic-carbolic spray of Lister into his Aberdeen operating-theatre, and became competent with the Zeiss microscope and the staining-techniques of Koch with the methyl-aniline blue dye. Ogston supported and employed Koch's Postulates, and distinguished the string-like Streptococci sp. from the clustered Staphylococcus sp., noting the golden-yellow growth in culture of Staph. aureus. Whilst many of his contemporaries remained sceptical, Lister encouraged him. Ogston served in the Egyptian War 1884, the First Boer War, and was advisor to the Army Medical Service in 1898.

1883. Appearance of the dedicated journal Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie und fur Mikroskopische Technik. Ed. Wilhelm Julius Behrens. Braunschweig: Harald Bruhn.

1883. Diphtheria. Edwin Klebs (1834-1913), a German-born physician and pathologist, who studied with Virchow, is often credited with the discovery of the causative agent of diphtheria, then called "Klebs-Loeffler bacterium", though recent studies grant Loeffler’s work more priority, as well a host of confirmatory studies, including those by , Roux and Yerlsin, such that "we regard Loffler's bacilli beyond doubt as the exciter of human diphtheria"(312).

1883. Max Joseph Pettenkofer (1818-1901) was a German chemist and hygienist who had known Leibig at Giessen. Professor Chemistry at Munich 1853; Professor Medical Hygiene 1865. As hygienist Pettenkofer championed "ground water theory" and sewage practices to explain the spread of Asiatic Cholera. From 1883-94 he edited Archive fur Hygiene. In 1894 he was succeeded at Munich by Hans Buchner as Professor of Hygiene. In 1892 Pettenkofer tested on himself a dose of the dangerous "Vibrio cholera" provided by Koch.

1883. New outbreak of Asiatic Cholera in India prompted German Imperial Government to organise a medical mission tasked to resolve the problem of causation. Koch was chosen to lead. Before long he was able to announce the proven causative links between the newly isolated spiral organism or Spirillum - the "Comma bacillus" or "Vibrio cholera asiaticae" - with its constant presence and symptoms in live victims, and its constant presence in intestines of the deceased. Supportive studies were soon forthcoming from others associated with Koch - Loeffler, Hueppe, Kitasato - as discussed by CF: 259-61, VII. Asiatic Cholera Bacillus. Koch was already theorising on the intestinal involvement of proteinaceous "toxalbumins" or active poisons produced by the cholera microbe, op. cit.: 275.

1884. While working with Carl Friedlander in Berlin, the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, developed the stain named after him that is composed of iodine and potassium iodide-arsenite treated with gentian-violet. The Gram stain proved particularly useful when studying medically pertinent organisms, which it separates them into Gram-positive and Gram-negative.

1884. Major-General Sir David Bruce (1855-1931) qualified at Edinburgh 1881 in Medicine and Bacteriology before joining the Army Medical Service. On the Mediterranean island of Malta in 1884 during an outbreak of undulating fever among the troops he succeeded in isolating the causative agent, a small gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, later named Brucella sp. Brucella melitensis and three other varieties infect humans, being facultative (= non-obligatory) intracellular parasites, causing chronic returning febrile illness. Bruce became Surgeon-General, 1914-1918.

1884. Friedrich Augustus Loeffler demonstrated the cause of diphtheria, which led to the antitoxin treatment of 1890 (see Behring). Loeffler also introduced special stains ("Loeffler stains"), "Loeffler's serum" for detecting bacteria, and founded the journal Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Parasitik (1887).

1884. Scarlet Fever, "Scarlatina". Friedrich Julius Rosenbach (1842-1923) studied medicine and bacteriology at Heidelberg, Gottingen, Vienna, Paris and Berlin. MD 1867. Mikro-Organismen bei den Wund-infections-krankheiten des Menschens. 1884. Wiesbaden: Bergmann. Also in 1884 Rosenbach isolated and named Streptococcus pyogenes, the infective agent in "Scarlet throat", and erysipelas. In dermatology he was known for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus (golden cultures) and Staph. albus (white cultures), as also for "Rosenbach's disease" or "Erysipeloid of Rosenbach", swollen red hands. Loeffler demonstrated that in scarlatina the streps were always present in the patient's throat.

1884. Tetanus. The ancient scourge of lock-jaw, muscle spasm was studied by Arthur Nicolaier (1862-1942) a German-Jewish physician and assistant to bacteriologist and pioneer hygienist Carl Flugge (1847-1923) at Gottingen. Nicolaier isolated a toxin-agent from anaerobic soil bacteria, and the anaerobic Gram-positive club-shaped bacillus was named Clostridium tetani by Flugge. "Flugge droplets" were demonstrated as leaving the mouth even during quiet speech, and were to lead to the adoption of surgical face-masks c.1897. The proof of the human aetiology of tetanus was given by Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato c.1889.

1885. Rabies vaccine. Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux make their celebrated first application of a vaccine described as for "canine madness (which is, perhaps, a bacterial disease), by the cautious inoculation of micro-organisms in various degrees of attenuation" (CF 140). The bacterial hypothesis proved to be wrong, and until 1896 and the pioneering bacteriophage work of Hankin, the terms virus, microbe, and bacterium were largely interchangeable and scarcely differentiated.

1885. Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919), a German physician & organic chemist, specialised in naturally-occurring toxins or "toxalbumins": skatole, 1877; cadaverine and putrescine (tetramethylenediamine), 1885. His work related to the chemical group of Ptomaines, and to bacterial food-poisoning such as Botulism. The following 25 years would see many advances - see 1909 below.

1885. G. Sims Woodhead MD, FRCP, Director of the New Laboratories, Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons, London; with A. W. Hare, Professor of Surgery, Owens College, Manchester. Pathological Mycology. An Enquiry into the Etiology of Infectious Diseases, pp. 174. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland. Reviews attached by the publisher included the "Lancet" noting "essentially a laboratory hand-book"; the "Medical Press" with "Bacillus culture is the humour of the age"; and the "Birmingham Medical Review" entering the caveat "Whatever may be the ultimate position of micro-organisms in pathology".

1885. E.E. Klein (1844-1925) was a Croatian-born researcher, MD Vienna 1869, who was invited to work in London in 1871. Being fully conversant with the continental studies of Koch, Klein has some credibility as a "father of British bacteriology", though his professional life was overshadowed by his active involvement in controversial vivisection experiments. He worked at the newly-founded Brown Animal Sanatory Insitution laboratory in London, and in 1873 became a Professor of Comparative Pathology and - unwittingly - a cause of the laudable Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876. He also held positions at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. In 1884 Klein and Heneage Gibbes (1837-1912), Professor of Physiology & Morbid Histology, Westminster Hospital Medical School, were sent to India with the British Cholera Commission. Their inability to see the value of the results achieved by Koch led to Gibbes in particular being outdated with regard to modern bacteriological developments. In 1885 Klein worked on scarlet fever in cows, isolating a number of types of bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes the causal microbe-agent. Klein tutored the better-known Ronald Ross (1857-1932), famous for microscopically detecting the non-bacterial parasite of malaria in the intestine of the mosquito, and awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine 1902.

1886. E.M. Crookshank, An Introduction to Practical Bacteriology. Based Upon the Methods of Koch. Illsd. 1st U.S. edn. New York: J.H. Vaill.

1886. Theodor Escherich, (1857-1911). German-Austrian pediatrician and bacteriologist. MD 1882. Professor Pediatrics at Graz 1890. In 1884 Escherich was in Naples during the cholera epidemic. His bacterial research was conducted at St. Anna's Children's Clinic, Graz. His specialty were the faecal Enterobacteria, and he pioneered familiarity with the coliforms, now named after him - Escherichia coli, or E.coli. He also campaigned for breast-feeding of infants. Die Darmbakterien des Sauglings (The Intestinal Bacteria of Infants). 1886. Available as EBook.

1886. Theobald Smith (1859-1934) succeeded in isolating the gram-negative bacillus responsible for enteric-typhoid-disease.

1886. William Halstead (1852-1922). Professor Surgery at Johns Hopkins University Halstead established the first School of scientific surgery in the U.S. By 1890 he had introduced sterile operative procedures with use of rubber gloves.

1887. Loeffler, Geschichte zur Bakteriologie (History of Bacteriology), Vol. I. The pioneering work was recommended by Bulloch (1938).

1887. Elie (Ilya) Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the "Father of Immunology," observes blood leukocytes migrating to and surrounding certain bacteria - a process later known as "leukocyte killing" — and valuable in antiserum and acquired immunity studies. See Almroth Wright.

1887. Meningitis. The bacterium "Diplococcus intracellularis meningitides" was first isolated by Viennese pathologist-bacteriologist Anton Weichselbaum (1845-1920), from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients diagnosed as with bacterial meningitis. The causative agent would be renamed Neisseria meningitides in 1901 by Albrecht & Ghon. In 1895 Weichselbaum's standard book would be well received: Grundrisse der pathologischen Histologie, 1892. English trans. Elements of Pathological Histology, pp. 456 with 220 Figs. 1895. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

1887. Richard F. Pfeiffer (1858-1945) was a German physician and bacteriologist who worked for a number of years with Koch, and became Professor of Hygiene at Konigsberg 1899. He was notable for his new concept of endotoxins; for his observation of bacteriolysis; and for his histological stains. Pfeiffer's work on the cholera vibrio was favourably reviewed by Fraenkel in CF: 281ff. In the 1890s Pfeiffer also introduced a typhoid vaccine independently of other workers. Cf. Almroth Wright.

1888. The Pasteur Institute, founded in Paris in 1887, begins to function from November 1888. Collaborators of Pasteur include Emile Roux, who from 1889 would teach the world-first microbiology course "Cours de Microbie Technique". Emile Duclaux and Charles Chamberland , Jacques-Joseph Grancher and the gifted Elie Metchnikoff" were early colleagues there. See also Alexandre Yersin below.

c.1888. The Petri dish. Julius Richard Petri (1852-1921), a German bacteriologist and assistant to Koch, utilised in the Berlin Imperial Health Office laboratories, his celebrated glass-plate, two-part lidded "Petri dish", specifically designed for the use of agar-agar in the culture, identification and study of micro-organisms. Petri had qualified in 1876 at the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy for Military Physicians, continuing with active military duties to 1882. He published his innovation in 1887: Eine kleine Modification des Koch'schen Plattenverfahrens (A small modification of Koch's plate-method), Centralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde, 1: 279.

1889. Carl Fraenkel and Richard Pfeiffer, Mikrophotographischer Atlas der Bakterienkunde, pp. 48+74 Plates. Berlin: August Hirschwald. Fraenkel (1861 Berlin - 1915 Hamburg) was MD Leipzig before studies with Koch in Berlin. In 1891 he became Professor Bacteriology at Konigsberg; 1895 Marburg. In 1887 he had published his Grundriss der Bakterienkunde. Berlin: Hirschwald. 3rd. edn. 1890. English transl. here cited as "CF". His broad interests and studies covered cholera, diphtheria, Gonokokken, Menginokokken, and even typhus: Ueber den mikroskopischen Nachweis der Typhusbacillen in Blutpraparaten>, 1906. (On the Microscopical Proof for Typhus Bacilli in Blood Preparations). Cf. Ricketts.

1889. Nicholas Senn (1844-1908). Professor of Surgery & Surgical Pathology, Rush Medical College, Chicago. Surgical Bacteriology. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers. 2nd edn. 1891. Cf. George Sternberg.

1889. Founding of the Society of American Bacteriologists. See their "Journal" from 1916.

1889-90. Sergei Nikolai Winogradsky (1856-1953). Russian, born Kiev. Alma mater University of St. Petersburg, he was an agricultural-soil bacteriologist. At Strasburg in 1887 he discovered "sulphur bacteria". At Zurich by 1890 he had discovered the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Nitrosamonas sp., Nitrococcus sp. and Nitrobacter sp., which underlie the nitrate-nitrite and amino acid-protein cycles of soil and plants.

1890. Henry E. Roscoe & Joseph Lunt, "Contributions to the Chemical Bacteriology of Sewage". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 49.

c.1890. Emile Roux (1853-1933). A French researcher in chemistry and medicine, early mentored by Duclaux who directed him to Pasteur. Roux worked in Pasteur's laboratory as an assistant 1878-1883, studying chicken cholera and anthrax. While working with Pasteur on rabies - "la Rage" - Roux submitted his thesis for MD 1883, becoming a recognised authority on immunology and medical microbiology. He was for the remainder of his professional life closely involved with plans and projects of the Pasteur Institute, Paris. In c.1890-91 Roux worked on an antitoxin to the diphtheria germ, parallel to the initiatives of Behring and Kitasato.

1890. Emil von Behring (1854-1917). German-Prussian military physician. Professor of Hygienics at Marburg. Behring was the acclaimed discoverer of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins, for which he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology-Medicine in 1901, though there is some controversy over his poor treatment of collaborator Ehrlich. See also Emile Roux, and Kitasato Shibasaburo. In 1902 Behring was made Foreign Hon. Member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.

1890. Kitasato Shibasaburo (1853-1931) was educated at Kumamoto Medical School, Kyushu, and Tokyo Imperial University From 1885-91 he studied with Koch in Berlin, growing the "tetanus bacillus (Kitasato)" in pure culture, CF: 332f. for 1889. The organisms are strictly anaerobic, spore-forming slender rods/bacilli and widely dispersed in soils. ("Clostridium tetani" and others). Kitasato was in 1890 a collaborator of Behring on working towards antitoxins for tetanus and diphtheria. Though proposed for the Nobel Prize, he was not selected. In 1891 he returned to Japan and founded an Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases.

1890. Albert Calmette (1863-1933), French physician and bacteriologist, returned to Paris from French West Africa after research on malaria, sleeping sickness and other tropical maladies. His medical habilitation had been with the School of Naval Physicians, Brest, and the Naval Medical Corps, Hong Kong. Assigned by Pasteur to lead a Pasteur Institute in Saigon, then French Indochina, Calmette's specialties were immunology and toxicology. In 1894, when back in Paris, he worked on a serum antitoxin for the plague bacillus of Yersin. As Director of the Pasteur Institute at Lille, Calmette organised an anti-TB dispensary, 1901; and a Ligue du Nord contre le Tuberculose, 1904. See Guerin.

1891. Koch became Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases, Berlin. His colleagues there would include Paul Ehrlich and August von Wassermann.

1891. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) was invited by Robert Koch to work at the Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 he would be given his own specialised section for Serum Research.

1891. R. W. Philip MD, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh & Victoria Dispensary for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest. Koch's New Treatment of Tuberculosis, pp. 36, sewn, 1 shilling (approx. 25 cents). Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland.

1891. Transactions of the Seventh International Congress of Hygiene & Demography. London, August 10-17. Vol. 2, Bacteriology. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.

1891. Walter Migula (1863-1938), a Polish-German botanist and bacteriologist, discovered the gram-negative, flagellated-motile rod-like microbe, bacillus "Pseudomonas sp", later renamed Pseudomonas pyocyaneas (aeruginosa), which is a dangerous "hospital pathogen"=

1891. Percy F. Frankland & Marshall Ward, First Report to the Water Research Committee on the Present State of Knowledge Concerning the Bacteriology of Water..., pp. 97. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 51.

1891. J. Buchanan, An Encyclopedia of the Practice of Medicine Based on Bacteriology. 3rd edn. New York: R.R. Russell.

1892. Bacillus influenza isolated by Pfeiffer. Originally known as "Pfeiffer's bacillus", and later as Haemophilus influenza, it was believed to be the cause of flu epidemics. The situation was shown to be otherwise following the major Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19. In 1899 Pfeiffer became Professor of Hygiene at the University of Marburg.

1892. Neisser continued his courageous and controversial studies of dermatology, sexually transmitted diseases, and the contemporary Prostituiertenproblem>: "Pathologie des Ekzems" (Eczemas, from Greek = "ekzema"). Archiv fur Dermatologie und Syphilis, Supplement: 116-161.

1892. George M. Sternberg (1838-1915) was a U.S. Army physician and considered to be the "Father of American Bacteriology". He had survived cholera but lost his wife in the Kansas epidemic of 1867. He subsequently worked on yellow fever, tuberculosis and typhoid, and in 1886 confirmed results flowing out of European centers. He became U.S. Surgeon General, 1893-1902, following his major book Textbook of Bacteriology, pp. 886. New York: William Wood. Also in 1892, during the cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany, Sternberg was placed in charge of the quarantine station for receiving immigrants on the New York dockside. He was the first U.S. bacteriologist to photograph the tubercle bacillus. Cf. Walter Reed.

1893. August Kohler (1866-1948). German zoologist and microscopist who developed advanced "Kohler illumination" for standard microscopes of the day, publishing his work in Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie, 1893, 10, (4): 433-40, with English summary in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1894.

1893. Vol. 1 appears of Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, with both Virchow and Metchnikoff contributing to the opening issues.

1893. Samuel Leopold Schenk (n.d.), German bacteriologist working in Vienna. Grundrisse der Bakteriologie fur Aertze und Studierende. Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg. English trans. Elements of Bacteriology for Practitioners and Students, pp. 310. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

1893. Percy Frankland, PhD, FRS. "Bacteriology in its Relations to Chemical Science". pp. 23. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Nottingham.

1893. Georgy Gabrichevsky (n.d.). Russian bacteriologist. Rukovodstvok klinicheskoj bacteriologii. (Guide to Clinical Bacteriology for Doctors and Students). St. Petersburg: Ricker. German trans. by K. Gappina, Dorpat Veterinary Institute, pp. 172. An illusd. manual for laboratory use. See: 2016 Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow.

1894. Hans Buchner (1850-1902) was a German bacteriologist associated with Munich and "the Munich School" of bacteriology, CF: 285. Buchner studied medicine at Munich; MD Leipzig 1874 and served in the Bavarian Army. In 1880 he joined the University Munich as Lecturer and in 1894 succeeded Pettenkofer as Professor of Hygiene. Buchner early conducted experiments on the inhalation of anthrax spores by test animals, and in the field of cholera "The value of Koch's investigations was most actively disputed in Munich (by) Emmerich and Buchner" op. cit. 208, 285f. He is best known for immunological studies of blood serum, and the substance "alexin", later called "complement" by Ehrlich. He was the elder brother of Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, Edward Buchner, whom he assisted in the isolation of "Zymasegarung", Zymase fermentation (published 1903). The iconic "Buchner flask" was by a third worker, the (?unrelated) Ernst Buchner, chemist.

1894. Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), a Swiss-French physician and bacteriologist who worked with Pasteur and Roux in Paris, demonstrates the presence in rats of the the plague bacillus that Kitasato had isolated and thereby revealed how the disease was transmitted.

1894. Frederick G. Novy, Directions for Laboratory Work in Bacteriology, pp. 209. Ann Arbor: George Wahr.

1895. Harold C. Ernst, "Bacteriology", Annual of the Universal Medical Sciences, Vol. 4: 1-26. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

1895. A.C. Abbott (1860-1935). University of Pennsylvania bacteriologist. Professor of Hygiene & Director of Laboratory of Hygiene. The Principles of Bacteriology: A Practical Manual for Students and Physicians. 3rd edn, pp. 493. 1906, 6th edn, pp. 641. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers.

1895. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Vol. 9. pp.908. Paris: Masson. Includes contributions by Yersin, Metchnikoff, Calmette and Bordet. Yersin's paper was the second part of his "La peste bubonique" (with Calmette & Borrel).

1895. E.V. Freudenreich, ed. Dairy Bacteriology: a Short Manual. English edn. from the German. London: Methuen.

1895. Hermann M. Biggs. The New Treatment of Diphtheria. Century Illustrated Magazine, Vol. XLIX, no. 3 (January). The new anti-toxin serum treatment. See Roux and Behring.

1896. Ferdinand Adolf Hueppe (1852-1938) was a German MD and bacteriologist who studied at Berlin 1872-76. He worked with Koch in Berlin 1880-84; was later associated with the Chemischen Institut Fresenius at Wiesbaden, and became Professor of Bacteriology at Charles University Prague 1889-1912. "Hueppe's Rule" derived from his work on "hormesis", or the chemical stimulation and inhibition of bacteria. Die Methoden der Bakterien-Forschung 1885. Wiesbaden: Kreidel. English trans. by Hermann M. Biggs, 1886, The Methods of Bacterial Investigation, pp. 218 with 31 Figures. New York: D. Appleton & Co. See 1890. F. Hueppe and Else Hueppe, 1892. Die Cholera-Epidemie in Hamburg, 1892...der asiatischen Cholera. Berlin: Hirschwald. See also George Sternberg. Hueppe's maturely considered work was published in 1896 as Naturewissenschaftliche Einfuhrung in die Bakteriologie, pp. 268. Wiesbaden: C.W. Kreidel Verlag. (Natural Science Introduction to Bacteriology). English trans. by E.O. Jordan, Principles of Bacteriology, pp. 467 Illusd. Chicago: Open Court. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench & Trubner, 1899.

1896. Yellow Fever . Walter Reed (1851-1902), MD, Professor of Bacteriology at George Washington University and the Army Medical School, demonstrated that yellow fever was not spread by drinking local river-water, thus opening the way for a correct aetiology. During his service on Cuba in 1900 Reed demonstrated that the mosquito "Aedes aegypti” functioned as transmission vector for yellow fever".

1896. Bacteriophage Ernest Hanbury Hankin (1865-1939), who studied with Koch and with Pasteur, discovered the "bacteriophage," a small, non-bacterial organism.

c.1896. Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947). He graduated in Medicine 1883, Trinity College Dublin, and worked at the Victoria Hospital (Military) at Nettley, Southampton to 1902, and then at St. Mary's Hospital in London. Wright worked on typhoid vaccine and the measurement of protective "opsonins" in the blood, citing the avoidable loss of life in the Second Boer War, 1899-1901, to convince the government. During the 1914-18 Great War he was able to organise a research laboratory at the British Hospital No. 13, Boulogne, France, to produce vaccines for the troops/trench warfare situation. Cf. In 1919 Wright would return to St. Mary's Hospital London, where his work influenced Sir Alexander Fleming, the later discoverer of penicillin. Wright was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1906.

1896. Max von Gruber (1853-1927) was an Austrian medical scientist and bacteriologist. In 1884 he became Associate Professor and Head of the Hygiene Institute at Graz. From 1887 he was Professor of Hygiene at Vienna. His discovery in 1896, with his British pupil Herbert Durham (1866-1945), was of "specific serum agglutinins" reactive with bacteria for immunological-diagnostic purposes: "Ueber active und passive Immunitat gegen Cholera und Typhus, sowie ueber die bacteriologische Diagnose...", Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 9: nos. 11 & 12. Gruber's earlier work was on the distinctions between the Vibrio of Asiatic cholera and other forms such as "Finkler-Prior" and "Koch's Vibrio" ( the "Kommabacillen") : Ueber die als "Kommabacillen" bezeichneten Vibrionen von Koch und Finkler-Prior, 1885, Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift, 35: nos. 9 &10. A fuller treatment of these materials forms part of Fraenkel's standard work CF: 259-284.

1896. Georges-Fernand Widal (1862-1929). French physician in the Dept. of Pathological Anatomy, University Paris, mentored by pathologist-histologist Professor Victor Cornil (1837-1908). Widal taught pathological anatomy 1886-88 and bacteriology 1888-90. A copious researcher-writer, Widal in 1896 produced the notable Widal Test, a serum-specific antibody procedure for enteric-undulating fever/typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi). He also researched "l'infection puerperale" in 1889.

1897. By now Bacteriology was an established field of many valuable applications based on strictly empirical-reproducible methodologies: among other areas, from the two standard works which follow, may be noted the dairy-milk-cheese industry, the veterinary-meat industry, the wine and beer brewing industries, the oyster and shellfish industries, the medical-pathology and epidemiological professions, the nursing profession, soil and agriculture. See: 1. M.V. Ball 1897. Essentials of Bacteriology. Being a Concise and Systematic Introduction to the Study of Micro-Organisms for the Use of Students and Practitioners. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 6th edn 1908. One of the "Saunders' Question Compends" Series. 2. T.H. Pearmain & C.G. Moor 1897. Applied Bacteriology. Paris & London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox. 2nd edn 1898, pp. 464.

1897. William Bulloch (1868-1941). A British bacteriologist later notable for his History of the science. Alma mater University of Aberdeen 1884-90. He did post-graduate work at Leipzig and Vienna; MD Aberdeen 1894. 1894-5 London, Paris and Copenhagen. In 1895 he became Chief of Bacteriology at the British Institute for Preventive Medicine's antitoxin laboratory. In 1897 Bulloch was appointed Lecturer in Bacteriology at the London Hospital, a position which in 1917 would become the Goldsmith's Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London. See Bulloch (1938) below.

1897. Robert Muir and James Ritchie. Manual of Bacteriology, pp. 519. 2nd edn 1899. 4th edn 1907, pp. 605. 6th edn 1913, pp. 736, indicating the continual growth of the science over two decades. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland.

1898. Charles Slater and Edmund Spitta. An Atlas of Bacteriology. Plates and photomicrographs by staff members, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London. London: Scientific Press.

1898. Richard Tanner Hewlett (1865-1940). A Manual of Bacteriology. Clinical and Applied with an Appendix on bacterial remedies. London: J.& A. Churchill. 2nd edn, pp. 533, 1902.

Dysentery c.1898. Kiyoshi Shiga (1871-1957), a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Medical School 1896, and went to work with Kitasato at the Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases. During a severe epidemic of dysentery, 1897-98, Shiga discovered the effective bacterium, subsequently named in his honor Shigella dysenteriae. The "shiga toxin" is produced by the microbe, a non spore-forming, non-motile rod-shaped gram-negative bacillus. Transmission, feared by hygienists, is by highly effective contaminated water supplies, and via unwashed hands, food, unwashed vegetables etc. From 1901 to 1905 Shiga worked with Ehrlich in Germany, then returning to Japan.

. 1898. In the U.S. Sternberg and Major Walter Reed create the first Typhoid Fever Board - later "Walter Reed Boards". Sternberg was made Honorary Member, the Epidemiology Society of London.

1899. William H. Park (1863-1939) was a U.S. bacteriologist and Director of laboratory at the Board of Health Division of Pathology, Bacteriology and Disinfection, New York City, 1893-1936. He graduated in 1883 from City College New York, then medical study at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons to 1886, then studies at Vienna. His specialty was diphtheria, and he closely followed the European work of Roux and Behring. Park's co-worker Anna Wessels Williams (1863-1954), alma mater the Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary, 1887-91, developed an especially efficacious diphtheria anti-toxin/sub-variant, the Park-Williams strain. Park's standard book was published on both sides of the Atlantic: Bacteriology in Medicine and Surgery: A Practical Manual. 1st. edn, pp. 693. Boston: Lea Brothers & Co.1899. London: Henry Kimpton 1900.

1900. Almroth Wright introduced a typhoid inoculation for the British troops in South Africa in the Second Boer War.

1900. Felix d'Herelle (1873-1949) begins bacteriological work in Guatemala and Mexico. Born in Paris and educated to High School level, he attended the University of Bonn for a short time, and was essentially self-taught. He moved to Canada c. 1894 and studied the maple syrup fermentation industry. In Guatemala City, as government bacteriologist, he worked on yellow fever and malaria, fungal infection of coffee plants and other tasks. In 1911 he returned to Paris to work as an unpaid assistant at the Pasteur Institute. The iconic break-through study by d'Herelle came in 1917 (below). Cf. also Hankin.

1901. H.W. Conn. Agricultural Bacteriology. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1901. Frederick D. Chester. A Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. London: Macmillan & Co.

1901. Opening of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in New York. Simon Flexner (1863-1946), Professor of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania 1899-1903, became the Institute's first Medical Director. His bacteriological colleagues there included Theobald Smith and Hideyo Noguchi (1876-1928). The dysentery bacillus Shigella flexneri was named after Flexner, and has also been called Flexner-Harris bacillus, after the patient whose illness furnished the essential faecal samples.

1901. Karl Bernhard Lehmann (1858-1940) was a Swiss-born German bacteriologist and hygienist. He was a pupil of Pettenkofer at Munich, and became Professor of Hygiene at Wurzburg 1894. With Rudolf Otto Neumann (1868-1952) he published Atlas und Grundriss der Bakteriologie. English trans. by George H. Weaver, Rush Medical College Chicago, from 2nd German edn. 1901. Atlas and Principles of Bacteriology. Philadelphia & London: W.B. Saunders & Co.

1902. August von Wassermann (1866-1925). After completing his MD Strasburg in 1890 he worked with Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In 1902, with W. Kolle (1868-1935) he began issuing, to 1909, the massive work on Pathogen Mikro-organismen, 6 vols. Jena: Fischer. His more famous work, on Syphilis, would appear after the discovery of Schaudinn in 1905. See below.

1902. Carl Julius Salomonsen (1847-1924) was a Danish bacteriologist working in Copenhagen. He was credited with early supportive work in the field of tuberculosis and inoculation, CF: 156. In 1902 he edited Contributions from the University Laboratory for Medical Bacteriology, to Celebrate the Inauguration of the State Serum Institute, pp. 288, with 12 papers in English. Festkrift. Copenhagen: The Carlsberg Fund & O. C. Olsen.

1903. Protozoan caused diseaseWilliam Boog Leishman (1865-1926), after medical studies at Glasgow University joined the Army Medical Service (later R.A.M.C.). In India he studied enteric fever and kala-azar disease. In 1897 he moved to the Victoria Hospital (Military) at Netley, Southampton, and by 1900 was Assistant Professor of Pathology at the Army Medical School, where a soldier from Bengal suffering from kala-azar gave the first evidence of the causative blood parasite (protozoan rather than bacterial, but susceptible to similar methods of investigation). Leishman's stain, employing methylene blue and eosin, became well known. In 1903, with Charles Donovan (1863-1951), Calcutta-born of Irish parents, Professor of Physiology, Madras Medical College and Indian Government General Hospital, Leishman confirmed the causative microbe, Leishmania donovani, a trypanosome. He also worked with Almroth Wright on anti-typhoid treatments, and in 1911-12 would be President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. See Carlos Chagos and Ronald Ross (1857-1932) on other non-bacterial parasites.

1903. George M. Sternberg, Infection and Immunity with Special Reference to the Prevention of Infectious Diseases. New York & London: G. Putnam's Sons.

1903. J.M.H. Macleod. Practical Handbook of the Pathology of the Skin. An introduction to the histology, pathology and bacteriology of the skin....pp. 408. London: H.K. Lewis.

1903. P. E. Archinard. Microscopy and Bacteriology. A Manual for Students and Practitioners. Medical Epitome Series. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers.

1903. Charles Nicolle (1866-1936), MD 1893 from the Pasteur Institute Paris. 1896 Director of Bacteriological Laboratory, Rouen University In 1903 Nicolle became Director of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis, N.Africa, where he did work on identifying body-lice as the transmission agent of epidemic typhus. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1928.

1904. The Practical Medicine Series of Year Books, (August. Vol. IX) included "Bacteriology", "Pathology" and the latest advances. Chicago: The Year Book Publishers.

1904. George Newman. Bacteriology and the Public Health, 3rd edn., pp. 497. London: John Murray.

1904. Charles E. Marshall. Bacteriology and the Bacteriological Laboratory. Michigan Dept. of Bacteriology and Hygiene.

1904. Frank Clowes and A.C. Houston. The Experimental Bacteriological Treatment of London London County Council, 1892-1903. London: L.C.C.

1905. Emile Roux becomes the new Director to 1918 of the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

1905. M. Klopstock and A. Kowarsky. Praktikum der klinischen chemisch-mikroskopischen und bakteriologischen Untersuchungsmethoden. English trans., A Manual of Clinical Chemistry, Microscopy and Bacteriology, pp.296. London: Rebman Ltd.

1905. Syphilis. Fritz Schaudinn (1871-1906) was a German zoologist who did medical research on sexually transmitted diseases at the Berlin Charite, Universitatsmedizin, teaching hospital. In 1905, with dermatologist Erich Hoffmann (1868-1959), he discovered the microbe responsible for syphilis - "Spirochaeta pallida", now known as Treponema pallidum. The organism is very fine, may take a Gram stain and be G-negative, and requires dark field illumination with the light microscope. Special stains were later developed, and also serological tests. See Wassermann.

1905. The International Tuberculosis Conference provided the forum for Behring to announce a new vaccine substance obtained from "the virus of tuberculosis", for bovine rather than human use. His publications on serum-therapy dated from at least as early as 1892, "Die Blutserumtherapie", and "Die Geschichte der Diphtherie"(1893), though he was also involved in an unsavoury affair with Ehrlich over denial of recognition and remuneration to the latter for their joint collaboration on the new diphtheria anti-serum.

1906. Jean-Marie Camille Guerin (1872-1961). French veterinarian and bacteriologist who joined Calmette at the Institute Pasteur-Lille in 1897. The two became celebrated for their anti-TB serum based on Guerin's demonstration that bovine "Mycobacterium bovis" produces an immunological-protective effect in experimental rabbits. The result was their BCG-vaccine, Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin against tuberculosis, improved continually over the following two decades, and indeed to the present day.

1906. Whooping-cough (Pertussis). Jules Jean Bordet (1870-1961) was a Belgian bacteriologist, MD Brussels 1892. In 1894 he joined the Pasteur Institute in Paris, working in the lab of Elie Metchnikoff. In 1900 Bordet founded the Pasteur Institute Brussels. He discovered the serum protein "alexine", now called "complement", and used in certain "complement-fixation" tests for bacteria such as syphilis, see Wassermann. In 1906, with co-worker Octave Gengou (1875-1957), Bordet isolated the causative agent of whooping cough, "Haemophilus pertussis", later renamed and reclassified Bordetella pertussis. In 1907 Bordet became Professor of Bacteriology, University Libre de Bruxelles.

1906. Syphilis. August Paul von Wassermann (1866-1925), German bacteriologist and hygienist who worked with Koch in Berlin in the 1890s,and became Director of Experimental Therapy there in 1906. In the same year he developed the famous "Wassermann Test" for syphilis, employing a blood-antibody reaction based on the "alexine/complement"-fixation discovery of Bordet. See also the previous work of Schaudinn.

1906. Carl Fraenkel" was working on typhus and blood-preparations/vaccines (Blutpraparaten).

1907. Charles Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922), a French physician and microscopist who working chiefly with parasitic and protozoan diseases, discovered the Plasmodium responsible for malaria and the Trypanosome responsible for African sleeping sickness for which he received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology.

1907. Edward B. Voorhees and Jacob G. Lipman. A Review of Investigations in Soil Bacteriology. Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

1907. 4th revised edn., pp. 605, of Muir & Ritchie's "Manual of Bacteriology" of 1897. 6th edn. 1913, pp. 736. Indicators of this growing field of academic study. For more on Robert Muir, see Mackie

1908. Samuel Cate Prescott and Charles Winslow. Elements of Water Bacteriology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. London: Chapman Hall Ltd. 2nd edn., pp. 258, 1909. See Winslow.

. 1908. Edwin O. Jordan. A Text-Book of General Bacteriology. pp. 557. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders & Co. 2nd edn., pp. 594, 1910.

1908. Charles Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) was a French physician and microscopist largely working with parasitic and protozoan diseases, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology 1907. His alma mater was University Strasbourg 1867, followed by military service in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. He gained the Chair of Military Diseases and Epidemics, then worked in Algeria from 1878 where he discovered the Plasmodium responsible for malaria and the Trypanosome of African sleeping sickness. Laveran's contribution was truly great. From 1896-1922 he served at the Pasteur Insititute Paris, using his Nobel Prize money to establish a Laboratory of Tropical Medicine. His colleagues there included Roux and Metchnikoff. In 1908 he founded the Societe de Pathologie Exotique.

1908. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) graduated as a physician and bacteriologist at the St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington, London in 1906. In 1908 he re-graduated with a Gold Medal in Bacteriology and remained at St. Mary's as assistant to Almroth Wright, and as Lecturer to the hospital. His epochal re-discovery of the anti-microbial value of penicillin was still some twenty years away in the future.

1909. Chagas disease Carlos Chagas (1879-1934) was a Brazilian hygienist and bacteriologist working at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz in Penha, Rio de Janeiro. His alma mater was the Medical School of Rio de Janeiro, MD 1903 with a study of hematology in malaria, followed by some success in Santos-SP with his innovative use of pyrethrum to fumigate houses in the combat against malaria. In 1909 he made the major discovery of a new tropical disease, amongst railroad workers near the Amazonian city of Belem (now Belem, Estado de Para). Chagas showed the insect vector, the flagellate protozoan in its intestines, and the transmission to test animals. He named the parasite "Trypanosoma cruzi" in honor of his friend Oswaldo Cruz (1872-1917). The new disease is known as "Chagas disease". Chagas succeded Cruz as Director of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in 1917.

1909. Professor Dr. A. Dieudonne and C.F. Bolduan, Eds. Bacterial Food Poisoning. A Concise Exposition of the Etiology, Bacteriology, Pathology, Symptomatology, Prophylaxis and Treatment of So-Called Ptomaine Poisoning. 1st edn. pp. 128. New York: Treat & Co. Cf. Brieger.

1909. E.R. Stitt. Practical Bacteriology, Blood Work and Animal Parasitology. 1st edn pp. 294. Includes bacteriological keys and clinical notes. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co. Inc.

1909. Savarsan Paul Ehrlich, working in Berlin, initiated the modern phase of "chemotherapy" with his discovery after many empirical trials of the arsphenamine-arsenical compound "Savarsan." "Ehrlich's reagent", a solution (stain) from aniline dyes (introduced histologically by his cousin Weigert) had from 1881 formed the basis of a urine test for typhoid.

1909. E.J. McWeeney. Observations on the Micro-Organisms of the Gaertner Group ("Meat-poisoning bacilli").... Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 79th Meeting. Winnipeg.

1909. S. Jeremiah. Normal Histology and Microscopical Anatomy. Illsd. 1st edn. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

1910. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910), was the U.S. pathologist associated with the University Chicago and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. The nature of the pathogen was for many years in doubt - bacterium, protozoan, or other, viral - until the modern era of electron-microscopy. Ricketts succeeded in demonstrating transmission by an insect vector/animal tick . He was known for dedicatedly injecting himself as a means of studying the effects of pathogens (as had the eighteenth-century surgeon-researcher John Hunter of London, with syphilis). In the 1910 Mexico City outbreak of typhus he was able to isolate the pathogen, only to die himself of the disease. The very small coccobacillus Rickettsia rickettsii, and Family Rickettsiaceae are all named after H.T. Ricketts. In 1912 his family founded the Howard Taylor Ricketts Research Prize, University of Chicago. See Weiss & Bernard (1991).

1910. Emily Stoney. Bacteriological and Surgical Technique for Nurses. 3rd edn. 4th edn. 1916, pp. 342. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders & Co.

1910. P. Hanson Hiss Jr. and Hans Zinsser. The Textbook of Bacteriology. Illsd. 5th edn. pp. 1193, 1923.

1911. Anon. Catalogue of the Annual Pathological Museum in the Practical Pathology and Bacteriology Departments and in the Brewing Laboratories, University of Birmingham,England. Birmingham: Hudson & Co.

1912. Albert Schneider. Pharmaceutical Bacteriology with Special Reference to Disinfection and Sterilization. Columbia University. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1912. Public Health Chemistry and Bacteriology. A Handbook. pp. 409. Bristol: John Wright.

1912. Clemesha William Wesley. The Bacteriology of Surface Waters in the Tropics. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. London: E. and F.N. Spon Ltd.

1912. Almroth Wright. Technique of the Teat and Capillary Action, and its Application in Medicine and Bacteriology. pp. 208. London: Constable & Co.

1913. Neisser published his Monograph on Syphilis and Salvarsan. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Neisser's new therapy was based on the novel chemotherapy of Ehrlich, 1909, whom Neisser had know since their schooldays together.

1914. Lester A. Round.Contributions to the Bacteriology of the Oyster: Results of Experiments and Observations made and Authorized by the Commission of Shell Fisheries of the State of Rhode Island, pp. 88. Providence: E.L. Freeman & Co.

1914. S. Maria Elliott. Household Bacteriology. The Library of Home Economics, Vol. II, (orig. publn 1905). 2nd edn. pp.170. Chicago: American School of Home Economics. Treated topics of dust, flies, yeasts and moulds, sanitation and food hygiene. Became a standard text for Simmons College.

1914. J. MacNeal Ward and H.E. Williams. Pathogenic Micro-Organisms: A Text-book of Microbiology for Physicians and Students of Medicine. Phadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1914-1918. The Great European War. Many of the younger bacteriologists born and educated-trained in the High Victorian Period served in Aid-Stations and Field Hospitals close to the fighting fronts, in this period which effectively closed the Victorian and immediate Post-Victorian Era. See Fleming, Twort, Mackie, Dakin and others. Whilst records present difficulties for some combatant nations, a similar picture can be more generally assumed (Germany, Russia).

1914. Thomas Jones Mackie (1888-1955) was a Scottish bacteriologist, associated with the University of Glasgow and the Glasgow Western Infirmary, where he joined pathologist and bacteriologist Professor Robert Muir (1864-1959) c. 1911. In 1914, on the outbreak of war, Mackie became part of the Army Medical Corps, served in the Middle East and eventually was placed in command of the Central Bacteriological Laboratory in Alexandria, Egypt.

1915. Charles-Edward Amory Winslow (1877-1957) was an American bacteriologist-hygienist, alma mater M.I.T. In 1915 he founded the Yale Dept. of Public Health as part of the Yale Medical School. Winslow had begun as a water chemist-bacteriologist at the Massachusetts M.I.T. experimental sewage-treatment plant.

1916. Founding of the Journal of Bacteriology, with Editor-in-Chief Winslow. It was the organ of the American Society of Bacteriologists, founded in 1899, with Winslow as the then youngest founder-member.

1916. Carrel-Dakin wound-treatment solutionHenry Drysdale Dakin and Alexis Carrel devised a low-tech low-tech means of the prevention and cure of bacilli that cause gas gangrene consisted of 0.5% sodium hypochlorite bleach with 4% boric acid in water, and could be splashed around liberally as well as surgically.

1917. Virus and Bacterium. Felix d'Herelle in September 1917, while working on the production of vaccines for the Allied armies, re-discovered the "bacteriophage" of Hankin, which could pass through the finest filters of porcelain. Much smaller than the bacteria they preyed upon, these true virus particles heralded a new era in microbiological science. d'Herelle worked to produce a "phage therapy" for diphtheria, dysentery and cholera, with some success post-war across Europe. Prior to the 1920s and the promise of penicillin and the first sulpha drugs, aside from salvarsan for syphilis, the therapeutic arsenal had largely to rely upon mercury salts, strychnine and other dangerously powerful agents, with a not unsurprising life expectancy of only 45 years at c.1900.

Brief Bibliography and Short-Title Used

CF - Carl Fraenkel. 1887. Grundriss der Bakterienkunde. English trans. by J.H. Linsley MD, Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, Medical Dept. of the University of Vermont. Text-Book of Bacteriology, pp. 376 from 3rd German edn. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland.

Carl Friedrich Riecke, 1854. Die Reform der Lehre von den Contagionen, Epidemien und Epizootien. Quedlinburg: Verlag von H.C. Huch.

Friedrich Loeffler, 1887. Vorlesungen uber die Geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von den Bacterien. (History of Bacteriology). No English trans. available. Noted by Bulloch (1938).

Christian A. Herter, 1904. The Influence of Pasteur on Medical Science: An Address to the Medical School of Johns Hopkins University. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.

G.T. Wrench, 1910. Lord Lister. His Life and Work. New York City: Frederick Stokes.

Paul de Kruif, 1926. Microbe Hunters. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.

William Bulloch, 1938. The History of Bacteriology. University of London Heath Clark Lectures for 1936. Oxford: O.U.P.

Thomas Vogelsang, 1963 & 1964. International Journal of Leprosy.

J. Nicolle, 1971. Louis Pasteur. A Master of Scientific Enquiry. London: Hutchinson.

Roderick McGrew, 1985. Encyclopaedia of Medical History, pp. 25-30. New York: McGraw-Hill.

.T. Anderson, 1986. "Robert Remak and the multi-nucleated cell: eliminating a barrier to the acceptance of cell-division". Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 60 (4): 523-43.

Emilio Weiss and S. Bernard, 1991. "The life and career of Howard Taylor Ricketts". Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13: 1241-2. University of Chicago, 27th December 1990.

E. Flaumenhaft, 1993. "Evolution of America's pioneer bacteriologist: George M. Sternberg's formative years". Mlitary Medicine, 158 (7): 448-57.

Gerald Geison, 1995. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Last modified 12 December 2016