The "golden era" of medical-hygiene studies of disease came to fruition as the biological, cell-based germ theory of fermentation, contagion, putrefaction and change replaced chemical-based notions of continuing "spontaneous humoral generation." Parallel advances in microscopy, histology, pathology and staining with chemical dyes were all instrumentally necessary and supportive.

1810. French pathologist and microscopist Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), at the La Charité Hospital in Paris, with some 900 post-mortem results, identified various types of lung phthisis, and affirmed the importance of the presence of small lung-tissue nodules "as being peculiar to consumption," CF: 226.

1810. Spotted Fever. Nathan Strong (1781-1837) published An inaugural dissertation on the disease termed Petechial, or Spotted Fever and presented his findings to the Connecticut Medical Society. His study concerned the elusive disease now known as cerebrospinal meningitis. See also Weichselbaum and Ricketts.

c.1828. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876)introduced the new technical terms bakterium/bakteria to replace the vaguer "germ" and "miasma."

1829. Cholera epidemic reaches Europe from Bengal, India, 1816-26; Russia and Hungary; Germany 1831; Paris and London 1832, and via shipping-lanes on to New York and beyond. These and similar events beyond medical control were among the great fears of the time. Asiatic or genuine cholera returned to Europe in 1837 and 1849 with ready transfer to North America, and only in 1883 would induce determined scientific-bacteriologic resolution. See Robert Koch, CF: 259.

c.1828 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) introduced the new technical term bakteria (sing. bakterium)to replace the vaguer "germ" and "miasma."

c.1830. Turning to the study of microscopic organisms in water, soil, and dust, Ehrenberg (1795-1876) described many new types of unicells, Protista, diatoms and general infusoria. He also demonstrated that sedimentary rocks, such as chalk, are composed of microscopic shells of ancient creatures.

1831. Cholera. J.R. Lichtenstadt publishes Die asiatische Cholera in Russland in den Jahren 1830 und 1831.... Berlin: Haude & Spener.

1832. G.E. Winslow publishes a standard text on cholera from the pre-bacterial era, Essay on the Nature, Symptoms and Treatment of Asiatic Cholera,1832, New York: Sleight & Robinson.

1833. Johannes Peter Mueller (1801-1858), now considered the founder of modern physiology, is made Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet (later Humboldt-Universitaet, Humboldt University) of Berlin. His students included three pioneers in bacteriology, Schwann, Remak, and Virchow.

1835. Ehrenberg coined the term bacillus for the spore-forming short rod-like organisms.

1837. Typhus epidemic in Philadelphia.

1839. Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) demonstrates the cellular basis of the body.

c.1840. Johann Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), a pioneer Czech experimental physiologist and histologist, introduces term "protoplasma," derived from the Greek words "proto," meaning first, and "plasm," meaning mould or cast. He also left a legacy of new, eponymous micro-anatomical structures (Purkinje cells in the brain, Purkinje fibres in the heart), all supportive of the newly recognised cell/germ Theory.

1840. Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle offers his theory of contagion in Von den Miasmen und Kontagion.

1840. F. Cramer publishes Der Abdominal-Typhus. Kassel: J. Krieger.

1844. Mueller completes his great work on physiology, Handbuch der Physiologie der Menschen, 4 vols.

1844. Agostino Bassi (1773-1856), an Italian entomologist, applies to human beings his theories regarding the role played by pathogenic organisms in infectious diseases. Bassi's work would greatly influence and aid Louis Pasteur, who in 1865 would begin studies which saved the French silk industry by curing its silkworm disease.

1844. Bubonic Plague. G.F. Grohmann publishes Das Pest-Contagium in Egypten u. seine Quelle.... Vienna: Kaulfuss Prandel & Co.

1846. Over the next three years, typhus would decimate the population of Ireland during the Great Irish Famine and would travel via immigration to New York and elsewhere, resulting in quarantines in so-called "fever sheds." No medical help or understanding of typhus would be forthcoming until 1910. See Howard Taylor Ricketts.

1847. Cranston R. Low and T.C. Dodds publish the illustrated Atlas of Bacteriology. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone.

1847. E.A. Parkes publishes Researches into the Pathology and Treatment of the Asiatic or Algide Cholera, 1847 (London: John Churchill), another standard text expressing pre-bacteriological views.

1846-53. Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle’s two-volume Handbuch der rationellen Pathologie offers concepts of contagion vivum and contagion animatum, making him the co-founder of the theory that microscopic organisms cause infections (that is, that they are the agents or vectors of infectious diseases). With his pupil, Robert Koch, he formulates the Henle-Koch Postulates of infectious diseases and their causes, which allowed for bacteriology to become a scientific discipline based on empirical evidence.

1847. Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865), a German-Hungarian physician-obstetrician working at the Vienna General Hospital in 1847, observes bedside visitor-practitioner cross-contamination with puerperal (child-bed) fever. His observation led him to empirically introduce hand-washing and use of mild chloride-of-lime solution. The delayed wider knowledge and acceptance of the new organism/bacterial theories during his lifetime led to lack of recognition after his early death. Cf. Lister. Contemporaneously, in Massachusetts, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., MD (Harvard 1836), also taught the then-controversial idea that doctors themselves could carry puerperal fever from patient to patient.

1849. Cholera returns to London and Paris, and to Liverpool and via the shipping lanes to New York and Mississippi. In the poor, crowded district of Soho, London, physician John Snow (1813-58) conducts epidemiological studies to 1854. Disease outbreaks are traced to shared yards and communal water-taps and stand-pipes, indicating a contaminated water source. Confirmation and action would await the conclusive results of Koch three decades later.

1849. Anthrax, a scourge of cattle, is successfully shown to involve short rod-like bacteria/bacilli in the blood, though without further evidence of causation (CF: 198, citing Pollender, Brauell). The matter is developed more thoroughly in 1863 when the transfer of the disease was demonstrated experimentally via blood inoculations between infected and symptom-free animals (ibid., citing Davaine). Cf. Koch.

1850. A. Haspel publishes Maladie de l'Algerie. Des causes, de la nature et du traitement des maladies endemo epidemiques de la province d'Oran, Vol. 1. Paris.

1851. The first Cholera Conference/International Sanitary Conference convenes in Paris. Subsequent conferences would be held in Paris (1859), Constantinople (1866), Vienna (1874), Washington, DC (1881) with first participation of the U.S., Rome (1885), Venice (1892), Dresden (1893), Paris (1894), (Venice) 1897, Paris (1903), and again in Paris (1911-12). The Great War (1914-1919) interrupted these and many other collaborations. The question of quarantine regulations mainly occupied the 1851 and 1859 conferences.

1853. James Paget (1814-1899), FRCS, London medical practitioner, delivers Lectures on Surgical Pathology to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The volume is published the same year and reprinted in 1860. Paget supported the new directions indicated by Schwann, Henle and others.

1855. Robert Remak (1815-1865) becomes assistant to Johannes Mueller in Berlin and makes pioneering contributions to histological technique, so essential to adequate microscopy of tissues infiltrated with pathogenic bodies. Using blue copper sulphate in alcoholic vinegar to harden and stain dividing cell membranes, Remak discovered that cells are formed by division of pre-existing cells, contrary to the prevailing orthodoxy of Schwann and independently of Rudolf Virchow (Anderson, 1986). Such basic data were fundamental for the understanding of bacterial multiplication, survival and behavior in the pathogenesis of disease.

1857. Carl Zeiss (1816-1888), a German optical-instrument maker, produces his Stand I-compound model microscope.

1858. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) publishes Die Cellularpathologie... (Berlin: Hirschwald).

1858. Joseph von Gerlach (1820-1896) a professor of anatomy at Erlangen, introduced the use of carmine gelatin, the red color of which derives from crushed scale insects (e.g., cochineals), to histological staining. Earlier attempts at histological staining included use of weak saffron vegetable dye. W. H. Perkin contemporaneously produced "mauveine" dye (aniline-mauve, toluidine blue). Other durable coal-tar dyes would follow (basic/non-acidic dyes, gentian violet, methyl violet, methyl blue, fuchsin and Bismarck brown; with acid-fuchsin and eosin). See Loeffler, Weigert, Pfeiffer, Ziehl, Gram, Ehrlich, and others to 1899.

1858. Louis Pasteur published Memoire sur la fermentation appelée lactique [Memoir on Lactic Fermentation]. —  the foundation stone of the cell theory, microbiology, and bacteriology.

1859. Virchow attends the Second Cholera Conference, Paris 1859 (also called the Second International Sanitary Conference). His remarks at this meeting proved so influential they were quoted verbatim by CF: 274, twenty years later.

1860. Elisha Harris MD, publishes The Utility and Application of Heat as a Disinfectant. Boston: Rand & Avery.

1861. Typhoid fever repeatedly flares up during the American Civil War to 1865. Also known as "camp fever," typhoid fever killed more soldiers than did combat in all wars until 1915. See Almroth Wright.

1862. Louis Pasteur with physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) experiments with heat-control of microbial processes in milk and wine — that is, pasteurization. He generalised his ideas of beverage-souring to human diseases similarly caused by invisible microbes (yeasts, fungi, bacteria), influencing Joseph Lister. Pasteur decisively contradicts current ideas of spontaneous chemical generation of living organisms and advances the germ theory of unicellular microbes as agents of disease.

1863. A. S. Packard (1839-1905) and G.F. Leuckart (1822-1898) publish Die menslichen Parasiten (Leipzig & Heidelberg), an influential study of parasites affecting humans, in two volumes between 1863 and 1876. Meanwhile Robert Koch undertakes his second year of study of the natural sciences at the University of Goettingen.

1865. In Paris the French medical bacteriologist Jean Antoine Villemin (1827-92), having discovered bovine tuberculosis around 1854, demonstrates by inoculation into healthy animals the contagious nature of material from the pathological nodules. His results are later improved upon by Cohnheim and by Koch. Four decades later, Guerin and Calmette would begin a thirteen-year process of attenuation of the microbe, undertaking a series of some 239 isolations and re-cultures in order to produce a viable vaccine.

1867. Joseph Lister publishes "On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery", on the carbolic acid (phenol, C6H5OH) in the Lancet. Influenced by the "Germ Theory" of Louis Pasteur, Lister subsequently developed thorough-going aseptic-environment approach.

1867. Charles Murchison (1830-1879) publishes Die typhoiden Krankheiten...Die Epidemie des recurrirenden Typhus in St. Petersburg 1864-1865.... Braunschweig: Vieweg.

1870. Pedro Felipe Monlau publishes Elementos de Higiene Privada y el Arte de Conservar La Salud del Individuo, Escuela de Salerno y la Higiene en Refranes Castellanos, Madrid: Moya y Plaza. Includes "Atmosferologia", "Bromatologia" and "Ginastica," in a largely pre-bacteriological approach of historical interest.

1870. Ferdinand Julius Cohn (1818-1898), one of the "Fathers of Bacteriology," is the first to accord a separate status to bacteria, viewing them as part of the vegetable kingdom and re-shaping the early classification by Ehrenberg. Cohn introduced sterile culture-media, and classified bacteria by shape into four groups: cocci (spherical), bacilli (short rods), spirochaetes (spiral) and treponemes (thread-like). He demonstrated endospore formation in bacilli when their environment became life-threatening: the change being vegetative to dormant.

1871. See Weigert. "Ueber Bacterien in der Pockenhaut..." (Pockenhaut = Smallpox). Berlin: Hirschwald.

1872. Ferdinand Cohn publishes Untersuchungen ueber Bacterien (Investigations on Bacteria). Breslau: J. Kern.

1873. Charles Murchison (1830-1879) traces a typhoid outbreak in West London to a polluted source of milk.

1873. Gerhard Henrik Hansen (1841-1912 discovers the cause of leprosy — Mycobacterium leprae — which was subsequently stained and confirmed by Neisser in 1879 from samples provided by Hansen.

1873. ">Joseph Lister, A contribution to the germ theory of putrefaction...and to the natural history of Torulae and Bacteria. Lecture to the Royal Society of London, 7th April. Published by Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1876. Edinburgh: Robert Grant & Son. Lister's missive was against the more humoral theory of Sir John Scott Burden-Sanderson (1828-1905), "On the origin and distribution of microzymes (bacteria) in water," 1871.

1874. Christian A. Th. Billroth (1829-1894) detects chains of spherical organisms in surgical wound infections, and coins the genus name "Streptococcus." See Rosenbach.

1875. H. von Ziemssen (1829-1902) studied Medicine and Pathology at Greifswald, Berlin and Wurzburg. Professor of Pathology at Erlangen 1863, and Munich 1874 where he was also Director of the General Hospital. Cyclopaedia of the Practice of Medicine, Vol III: Chronic Infectious Diseases. pp. 672. English trans. by Albert Buck MD. New York: William Wood & Co. The volume deals with syphilis, glanders, anthrax, hydrophobia, migratory parasites, echinococcus (Tapeworm) and much else.

1875. Histological staining becomes a major technique. "Rapid progress was now made; everybody began to stain; the isolated and the double staining were introduced, and...the art of staining has already reached a high state of perfection. The names of Weigert, Koch and Ehrlich are closely connected with these advances." (CF: 38 & 39-48.)

1876. Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (1843-1910) showed both that the specific agent Bacillus anthracis was always present in the diseased animal and that the bacillus spores also produced anthrax — two observations that became part of "Koch's Postulates" for all disease-contagion with a bacterial aetiology. Koch also pioneered the culture of bacteria, special stains, and vaccination.

1876. Attracted by Pasteur’s germ theory, John Tyndall studies fractional sterilization by heat and heat-resistant spores. His early observation, famously repeated by Alexander Fleming in the 1920s, that moulds such as Penicillium sp. inhibit the growth of bacteria was a half-century ahead of its time.

1877. Edgar M. Crookshank (1858-1928), pupil of "Lister, publishes Manual of Bacteriology, London: H.K. Lewis & Co. 3rd edn 1890; 4th edn, pp. 714, 1896.

1878. Koch, Gaffky, and others visit Egypt to observe a cholera outbreak.

1878. Pasteur publishes Germ Theory and its Applications to Medicine and on the Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery, a summary collection of three classic papers of his own and Lister's iconic contributions.

1878. Antoine Magnin (1848-1926), French botanist and Professor to the medical faculty, University of Lyon. Director, 1881-84, Jardin botanique de Lyon. 1908 President, Societé botanique de France. Les bacteries. English trans. The Bacteria, by George Sternberg, 1880. Revised edn 1884, pp. 227. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. This was the first textbook of bacteriology in the U.S., and was followed by Sternberg's own in 1892. See also the 1891 translation of Carl Fraenkel by J.H. Lindsay MD, Professor of Bacteriology at the University of Vermont and New York pathologist.

1879. Gonorrhoea. Albert Ludwig S. Neisser (1855-1916) identifies the causative agent/microbe later named after him, "Neisseria gonorrhoeae".

1880. Koch moves to Berlin and the Imperial Dept. of Health, later becoming Professor of Hygiene, University of Berlin and Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases to 1904. His co-workers and/or students at this period would include Eberth, Gaffky, and Hueppe; from 1880 to 1884, the talented Loeffler; Fraenkel, Petri, Pfeiffer, Wasserman, and others.

1880. Typhoid. Karl Joseph Eberth (1835-1926) is the first to describe a suspect rod-like bacillus ("Eberthella typhi") in a case of typhoid, while assisting Koch in Berlin. Gaffky, who is also working in Koch's laboratory, confirms this finding, which becomes known as "Gaffky-Eberth bacillus" and subsequently as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in commemoration of Dr. D.E. Salmon (see Theobald Smith).

1880. Tuberculosis. Julius F. Cohnheim (1839-1884), who studied "pus" and migration of protective white blood corpuscles (cf. Metchnikoff), invents the freezing technique of preparing histological thin-sections for tissues or bacteria.

1881. Agar-agar, a tough gelatinous component of seaweed, replaces the earlier potato slice and animal gelatin for bacterial cultures. The Berlin laboratory of Koch is responsible, thanks to his assistant Walther Hesse (1846-1911), and the improvement quickly becomes widespread. Cf. Petri.

1881. Jean J.H. Toussaint (1847-90), Professor of Veterinary Pathology, University Toulouse, independently of Pasteur, produces an early anthrax vaccine. CF: 126 passim.

1881. Pneumococcus is independently isolated by Pasteur in Paris and by Sternberg in the U.S.

1881. Robert Koch publishes Zur Untersuchung von pathogenen Organismen (On Investigations of Pathogenic Organisms). Berlin: Gerschel.

1882. Annus mirabilis for Bacteriology. Tuberculosis: the disease was then responsible for almost a seventh of all deaths, CF: 225. On 24th March 1882, in front of the Physiological Society of Berlin, Robert Koch announces that "he had found the cause of tuberculosis, which was due to a peculiar bacillus of a special shape", op. cit., 226. Crucial to the lasting impression created by the news were the investigator's methodological rigour and certainty (ibid.) Koch's crucial report was published as "Der Aetiologie der Tuberculose" in the Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 19: 221-230, with use of the new agar-agar culture medium. For this and related advances Koch would be awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1905.

1882. Phagocytosis: Elie (Ilya) Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the "Father of Immunology," formulated his principle theory of "phagocytosis" whereby macrophages (white blood cells) surround and engulf microbes or inflammation. In 1887 Metchnikoff observes blood leukocytes migrating to and surrounding certain bacteria, a process that was later known as "leukocyte killing", and valuable in antiserum and acquired immunity studies. See Almroth Wright.

1882. Franz Ziehl (1857-1926), Professor Bacteriology, Lubeck. Ziehl was noted for his carbol-fuchsin stain developed for the tubercle bacillus. In 1883, together with pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854-1898), Professor Pathology at Rostock, the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain was perfected, still in use today for tubercular and other mycobacteria. The original Ziehl stain was prepared from 1g of fuchsin and 5g of carbolic acid/phenol in a 10% v/v solution of alcohol in distilled water.

1882. Carl Friedlaender (1847-1887). German pathologist and bacteriologist who worked on the causes of pneumonia, particularly in fragile patients. i.e. the immuno-suppressed. Edwin Klebs in 1875 had noted a new bacterium, named "Klebsiella pneumonia" by Schroeter 1886 and Trevisan 1887, from the lungs of persons dying from pneumonia, but without asserting the causative link. Friedlaender took a more positive stance, exciting some controversy, and "Friedlaender's bacillus" was recommended by others. New stains were employed c.1883-7, including that of Gram. The Klebsiella sp. are generally associated with the mouth-nose and intestinal tract (Enterobacteriaceae), are Gram-negative and can be aerobic-anaerobic and have few nutritional special requirements - perfect credentials for an opportunist predator. Friedlaender died prematurely, suspected of having contracted the very organism he studied so assiduously. Cf. Pneumococcus sp. 1881.

1882. Alexander Ogston (1844-1929). University Aberdeen MD 1866. Regius Professor Surgery 1882. He early introduced the antiseptic-carbolic spray of Lister into his Aberdeen operating-theatre, and became competent with the Zeiss microscope and the staining-techniques of Koch with the methyl-aniline blue dye. Ogston supported and employed Koch's Postulates, and distinguished the string-like Streptococci sp. from the clustered Staphylococcus sp., noting the golden-yellow growth in culture of Staph. aureus. Whilst many of his contemporaries remained sceptical, Lister encouraged him. Ogston served in the Egyptian War 1884, the First Boer War, and was advisor to the Army Medical Service in 1898.

1883. Appearance of the dedicated journal Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie und fur Mikroskopische Technik. Ed. Wilhelm Julius Behrens. Braunschweig: Harald Bruhn.

1883. Diphtheria. Edwin Klebs (1834-1913), a German-born physician and pathologist, who studied with Virchow, is often credited with the discovery of the causative agent of diphtheria, then called "Klebs-Loeffler bacterium", though recent studies grant Loeffler’s work more priority, as well a host of confirmatory studies, including those by Escherich, Roux and Yersin, such that "we regard Loffler's bacilli beyond doubt as the exciter of human diphtheria"(312).

1883. Max Joseph Pettenkofer (1818-1901), a chemist and hygienist, becomes editor of the Archiv für Hygiene, a position he will hold until 1894.

1883. A new outbreak of Asiatic cholera in India prompted German Imperial Government to organise a medical mission tasked to resolve the problem of causation. Koch was chosen to lead. Before long he was able to announce the proven causative links between the newly isolated spiral organism or Spirillum - the Comma bacillus or Vibrio cholera asiaticae - with its constant presence and symptoms in live victims, and its constant presence in intestines of the deceased. Supportive studies were soon forthcoming from others associated with Koch, e.g., Loeffler, Hueppe, Kitasato, as discussed by CF: 259-61, VII. Koch was already theorising on the intestinal involvement of proteinaceous "toxalbumins" or active poisons produced by the cholera microbe, op. cit.: 275.

1884. While working with Carl Friedlaender in Berlin, the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram developed the eponymous stain composed of iodine and potassium iodide-arsenite treated with gentian-violet. The Gram stain proved particularly useful when studying medically pertinent organisms, as it identifies them as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative.

1884. Major-General Sir David Bruce (1855-1931) qualified at Edinburgh 1881 in Medicine and Bacteriology before joining the Army Medical Service. On the Mediterranean island of Malta in 1884 during an outbreak of undulating fever among the troops, he succeeded in isolating the causative agent, a small, Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, later named Brucella sp. Brucella melitensis and three other varieties infect humans, being facultative (that is, non-obligatory) intracellular parasites, causing chronic returning febrile illness. Bruce was Surgeon-General from 1914-1918.

1884. Friedrich Augustus Loeffler demonstrated the cause of diphtheria, which led to the antitoxin treatment of 1890 (see Behring). Loeffler also introduced special stains ("Loeffler stains"), "Loeffler's serum" for detecting bacteria, and founded the journal Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Parasitik (1887).

1884. Scarlet Fever, "Scarlatina". Friedrich Julius Rosenbach (1842-1923) studied medicine and bacteriology at Heidelberg, Gottingen, Vienna, Paris and Berlin. MD 1867. Mikro-Organismen bei den Wund-infections-krankheiten des Menschens. 1884. Wiesbaden: Bergmann. Also in 1884 Rosenbach isolated and named Streptococcus pyogenes, the infectious agent in "Scarlet throat", and erysipelas. In dermatology he was known for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus (golden cultures) and Staph. albus (white cultures), as also for "Rosenbach's disease" or "Erysipeloid of Rosenbach." Loeffler demonstrated that in scarlatina the streps were always present in the patient's throat.

1884. Tetanus. The ancient scourge of lock-jaw was studied by Arthur Nicolaier (1862-1942) a German-Jewish physician and assistant to bacteriologist and pioneer hygienist Carl Flugge (1847-1923) at Gottingen. Nicolaier isolated a toxin-agent from anaerobic soil bacteria, and the anaerobic, Gram-positive, club-shaped bacillus was named Clostridium tetani by Flugge. "Flugge droplets" were demonstrated as leaving the mouth even during quiet speech, and were to lead to the adoption of surgical face-masks c.1897. The proof of the human aetiology of tetanus was given by Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato c.1889.

1885. Rabies vaccine. Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux make their celebrated first application of a vaccine described as for "canine madness (which is, perhaps, a bacterial disease), by the cautious inoculation of micro-organisms in various degrees of attenuation" (CF 140). The bacterial hypothesis proved to be wrong, and until 1896 and the pioneering bacteriophage work of Hankin, the terms virus, microbe, and bacterium were largely interchangeable and scarcely differentiated.

1885. Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919), a German physician and organic chemist, specialised in naturally-occurring toxins or "toxalbumins": skatole, 1877; cadaverine and putrescine (tetramethylenediamine), 1885. His work related to the chemical group of Ptomaines, and to bacterial food-poisoning such as botulism. The following 25 years would see many advances - see 1909 below.

1885. G. Sims Woodhead MD, FRCP, Director of the New Laboratories, Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons, London; with A. W. Hare, Professor of Surgery, Owens College, Manchester. Pathological Mycology. An Enquiry into the Etiology of Infectious Diseases, pp. 174. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland. Reviews attached by the publisher included the Lancet, noting "essentially a laboratory hand-book"; the Medical Press with "Bacillus culture is the humour of the age"; and the Birmingham Medical Review entering the caveat "Whatever may be the ultimate position of micro-organisms in pathology".

1885. E.E. Klein (1844-1925) was a Croatian-born researcher, MD Vienna 1869, who was invited to work in London in 1871. Being fully conversant with the continental studies of Pasteur and Koch, Klein has some credibility as a "father of British bacteriology", though his professional life was overshadowed by his active involvement in controversial vivisection experiments. He worked at the newly-founded Brown Animal Sanatory Insitution laboratory in London, and in 1873 became a Professor of Comparative Pathology and - unwittingly - a cause of the laudable Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876. He also held positions at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. In 1884 Klein and Heneage Gibbes (1837-1912), Professor of Physiology & Morbid Histology, Westminster Hospital Medical School, were sent to India with the British Cholera Commission. Their inability to see the value of the results achieved by Koch led to Gibbes in particular being outdated with regard to modern bacteriological developments. In 1885 Klein worked on scarlet fever in cows, isolating a number of types of bacteria, including the microbe Streptococcus pyogenes as the causal agent. Klein tutored the better-known Ronald Ross (1857-1932), famous for microscopically detecting the non-bacterial parasite of malaria in the intestine of the mosquito, and awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine 1902.

1886. E.M. Crookshank, An Introduction to Practical Bacteriology. Based Upon the Methods of Koch. Illsd. 1st U.S. edn. New York: J.H. Vaill.

1886. Theodor Escherich, (1857-1911). German-Austrian pediatrician and bacteriologist. MD 1882. Professor Pediatrics at Graz 1890. In 1884 Escherich was in Naples during the cholera epidemic. His bacterial research was conducted at St. Anna's Children's Clinic, Graz. His specialty were the faecal Enterobacteria, and he pioneered familiarity with the coliforms, now named after him - Escherichia coli, or E.coli. He also campaigned for breast-feeding of infants. Die Darmbakterien des Sauglings (The Intestinal Bacteria of Infants). 1886.

1886. Theobald Smith (1859-1934) isolates the gram-negative bacillus responsible for enteric typhoid.

1886. William Halstead (1852-1922). As Professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University, Halstead established the first School of scientific surgery in the U.S. By 1890 he had introduced sterile operative procedures with use of rubber gloves.

1887. Loeffler, Geschichte zur Bakteriologie (History of Bacteriology), Vol. I. The pioneering work was recommended by Bulloch (1938).

1887. Elie (Ilya) Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the "Father of Immunology," observes blood leukocytes migrating to and surrounding certain bacteria - a process later known as "leukocyte killing" — and valuable in antiserum and acquired immunity studies. See Almroth Wright.

1887. Meningitis. Anton Weichselbaum (1845-1920) isolates the bacterium "Diplococcus intracellularis meningitides" from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients diagnosed as with bacterial meningitis. (The causative agent would be renamed Neisseria meningitides in 1901 by Albrecht & Ghon.)

1887. Richard F. Pfeiffer (1858-1945) was a German physician and bacteriologist who worked for a number of years with Koch, and became Professor of Hygiene at Konigsberg 1899. He was notable for his new concept of endotoxins; for his observation of bacteriolysis; and for his histological stains. Pfeiffer's work on the cholera vibrio was favourably reviewed by Fraenkel in CF: 281ff. In the 1890s Pfeiffer also introduced a typhoid vaccine independently of other workers. Cf. Almroth Wright.

1888. The Pasteur Institute, founded in Paris in 1887, begins to function from November 1888. Collaborators of Pasteur include Emile Roux, who from 1889 would teach the world's first microbiology course, the "Cours de Microbie Technique." Émile Duclaux and Charles Chamberland, Jacques-Joseph Grancher and the gifted Elie Metchnikoff" were early colleagues there. See also Alexandre Yersin below.

c.1888. The Petri dish. Julius Richard Petri (1852-1921), a German bacteriologist and assistant to Koch, utilised in the Berlin Imperial Health Office laboratories, his celebrated glass-plate, two-part lidded "Petri dish", specifically designed for the use of agar-agar in the culture, identification and study of micro-organisms. Petri had qualified in 1876 at the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy for Military Physicians, continuing with active military duties to 1882. He published his innovation in 1887: Eine kleine Modification des Koch'schen Plattenverfahrens (A small modification of Koch's plate-method), Centralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde, 1: 279.

1889. Carl Fraenkel and Richard Pfeiffer, Mikrophotographischer Atlas der Bakterienkunde, pp. 48+74 Plates. Berlin: August Hirschwald. Fraenkel (1861 Berlin - 1915 Hamburg) was MD Leipzig before studies with Koch in Berlin. In 1891 he became Professor Bacteriology at Konigsberg; 1895 Marburg. In 1887 he had published his Grundriss der Bakterienkunde. Berlin: Hirschwald. 3rd. edn. 1890. English transl. here cited as "CF". His broad interests and studies covered cholera, diphtheria, Gonokokken, Menginokokken, and even typhus: Ueber den mikroskopischen Nachweis der Typhusbacillen in Blutpraparaten>, 1906. (On the Microscopical Proof for Typhus Bacilli in Blood Preparations). Cf. Ricketts.

1889. Nicholas Senn (1844-1908). Professor of Surgery & Surgical Pathology, Rush Medical College, Chicago. Surgical Bacteriology. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers. 2nd edn. 1891. Cf. George Sternberg.

1889. Founding of the Society of American Bacteriologists. See their Journal from 1916.

1889-90. Sergei Nikolai Winogradsky (1856-1953). Russian, born Kiev. Alma mater University of St. Petersburg, he was an agricultural-soil bacteriologist. At Strasburg in 1887 he discovered "sulphur bacteria". At Zurich by 1890 he had discovered the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Nitrosamonas sp., Nitrococcus sp. and Nitrobacter sp., which underlie the nitrate-nitrite and amino acid-protein cycles of soil and plants.

1890. Henry E. Roscoe and Joseph Lunt, "Contributions to the Chemical Bacteriology of Sewage." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 49.

c.1890. Emile Roux (1853-1933) works on an antitoxin to the diphtheria germ, parallel to the initiatives of Behring and Kitasato.

1890. Emil von Behring (1854-1917). German-Prussian military physician. Professor of Hygienics at Marburg. Behring was the acclaimed discoverer of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins, for which he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology-Medicine in 1901, though there is some controversy over his poor treatment of collaborator Ehrlich. See also Émile Roux, and Kitasato Shibasaburo. In 1902 Behring was made Foreign Hon. Member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.

1890. Kitasato Shibasaburo (1853-1931) was educated at Kumamoto Medical School, Kyushu, and Tokyo Imperial University From 1885-91 he studied with Koch in Berlin, growing the "tetanus bacillus (Kitasato)" in pure culture, CF: 332f. for 1889. The organisms are strictly anaerobic, spore-forming slender rods/bacilli and widely dispersed in soils. ("Clostridium tetani" and others). Kitasato was in 1890 a collaborator of Behring on working towards antitoxins for tetanus and diphtheria. Though proposed for the Nobel Prize, he was not selected. In 1891 he returned to Japan and founded an Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases.

1890. Albert Calmette (1863-1933), French physician and bacteriologist, returns to Paris from French West Africa after research on malaria, sleeping sickness and other tropical maladies. See Guerin.

1891. Koch becomes Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases, Berlin. His colleagues there would include Paul Ehrlich and August von Wassermann.

1891. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is invited by Koch to work at the Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 he is given his own, specialised section for serum research.

1891. R. W. Philip MD, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh & Victoria Dispensary for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest. Koch's New Treatment of Tuberculosis. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland. Sells for 1 shilling or approximately 25 cents.

1891. Transactions of the Seventh International Congress of Hygiene & Demography. London, August 10-17. Vol. 2, Bacteriology. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.

1891. Walter Migula (1863-1938), a Polish-German botanist and bacteriologist, discovered the gram-negative, flagellated-motile rod-like microbe, bacillus "Pseudomonas sp", later renamed Pseudomonas pyocyaneas (aeruginosa), which is a dangerous "hospital pathogen."

1891. Percy F. Frankland & Marshall Ward, First Report to the Water Research Committee on the Present State of Knowledge Concerning the Bacteriology of Water..., pp. 97. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 51.

1891. J. Buchanan, An Encyclopedia of the Practice of Medicine Based on Bacteriology. 3rd edn. New York: R.R. Russell.

1892. Pettenkofer tests on himself a dose of the dangerous Vibrio cholera provided by Koch.

1892. Bacillus influenza isolated by Pfeiffer. Originally known as "Pfeiffer's bacillus", and later as Haemophilus influenza, it was believed to be the cause of flu epidemics. The situation was shown to be otherwise following the major Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19. In 1899 Pfeiffer became Professor of Hygiene at the University of Marburg.

Anton Weichselbaum Grundrisse der pathologischen Histologie, 1892. English trans. Elements of Pathological Histology, 1895. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

1892. Neisser continued his courageous and controversial studies of dermatology, sexually transmitted diseases, and the contemporary Prostituiertenproblem>: "Pathologie des Ekzems" (Eczemas, from Greek = "ekzema"). Archiv füaut;r Dermatologie und Syphilis, Supplement: 116-161.

1892. George M. Sternberg (1838-1915), a U.S. Army physician, is considered the "Father of American Bacteriology". He had survived cholera but lost his wife in the Kansas epidemic of 1867. He subsequently worked on yellow fever, tuberculosis and typhoid, and in 1886 confirmed results flowing out of European centers. He became U.S. Surgeon General, 1893-1902, following publication of his major work, Textbook of Bacteriology, New York: William Wood. Also in 1892, during the cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany, Sternberg was placed in charge of the quarantine station for receiving immigrants on the New York dockside. He was the first U.S. bacteriologist to photograph the tubercle bacillus. Cf. Walter Reed.

1892. Alexander C. Abbott (1860-1935). The Principles of Bacteriology: A Practical Manual for Students and Physicians. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers. Abbott was a bacteriologist at the University of Pennsylvania where he was Professor of Hygiene & Director of the Laboratory of Hygiene.

1893. August Koehler (1866-1948). German zoologist and microscopist who developed advanced "Koehler illumination" for standard microscopes of the day, publishing his work in Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie, 1893, 10, (4): 433-40, with English summary in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1894.

1893. Vol. 1 appears of Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, with both Virchow and Metchnikoff contributing to the opening issues.

1893. Samuel Leopold Schenk (n.d.), German bacteriologist working in Vienna. Grundrisse der Bakteriologie fur Aertze und Studierende. Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg. English trans. Elements of Bacteriology for Practitioners and Students, pp. 310. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

1893. Percy Frankland, PhD, FRS. "Bacteriology in its Relations to Chemical Science". pp. 23. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Nottingham.

1893. Georgy Gabrichevsky (n.d.). Russian bacteriologist. Rukovodstvok klinicheskoj bacteriologii. (Guide to Clinical Bacteriology for Doctors and Students). St. Petersburg: Ricker. German trans. by K. Gappina, Dorpat Veterinary Institute, pp. 172. An illusd. manual for laboratory use. See: 2016 Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow.

1894. Hans Buchner (1850-1902) was a German bacteriologist associated with Munich and "the Munich School" of bacteriology, CF: 285. Buchner studied medicine at Munich; MD Leipzig 1874 and served in the Bavarian Army. In 1880 he joined the University Munich as Lecturer and in 1894 succeeded Pettenkofer as Professor of Hygiene. Buchner early conducted experiments on the inhalation of anthrax spores by test animals, and in the field of cholera "The value of Koch's investigations was most actively disputed in Munich (by) Emmerich and Buchner" op. cit. 208, 285f. He is best known for immunological studies of blood serum, and the substance "alexin", later called "complement" by Ehrlich. He was the elder brother of Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, Edward Buchner, whom he assisted in the isolation of "Zymasegarung", Zymase fermentation (published 1903). The iconic "Buchner flask" was by a third worker, the (?unrelated) Ernst Buchner, chemist.

1894. Calmette works on a serum antitoxin for the plague bacillus of Yersin.

1894. Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), a Swiss-French physician and bacteriologist who worked with Pasteur and Roux in Paris, demonstrates the presence in rats of the the plague bacillus that Kitasato had isolated and thereby revealed how the disease was transmitted.

1894. Frederick G. Novy, Directions for Laboratory Work in Bacteriology. Ann Arbor: George Wahr.

1895. Harold C. Ernst, "Bacteriology," Annual of the Universal Medical Sciences, Vol. 4: 1-26. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

1895. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Vol. 9. pp.908. Paris: Masson. Includes contributions by Yersin, Metchnikoff, Calmette and Bordet. Yersin's paper was the second part of his "La peste bubonique" (with Calmette & Borrel).

1895. E.V. Freudenreich, ed. Dairy Bacteriology: a Short Manual. English edn. from the German. London: Methuen.

1895. Hermann M. Biggs. The New Treatment of Diphtheria. Century Illustrated Magazine, Vol. XLIX, no. 3 (January). The new anti-toxin serum treatment. See Roux and Behring.

1896. Ferdinand Adolf Hueppe (1852-1938) was a German MD and bacteriologist who studied at Berlin 1872-76. He worked with Koch in Berlin 1880-84; was later associated with the Chemischen Institut Fresenius at Wiesbaden, and became Professor of Bacteriology at Charles University Prague 1889-1912. "Hueppe's Rule" derived from his work on "hormesis", or the chemical stimulation and inhibition of bacteria. Die Methoden der Bakterien-Forschung 1885. Wiesbaden: Kreidel. English trans. by Hermann M. Biggs, 1886, The Methods of Bacterial Investigation, pp. 218 with 31 Figures. New York: D. Appleton & Co. See 1890. F. Hueppe and Else Hueppe, 1892. Die Cholera-Epidemie in Hamburg, 1892...der asiatischen Cholera. Berlin: Hirschwald. See also George Sternberg. Hueppe's maturely considered work was published in 1896 as Naturewissenschaftliche Einfuhrung in die Bakteriologie, pp. 268. Wiesbaden: C.W. Kreidel Verlag. (Natural Science Introduction to Bacteriology). English trans. by E.O. Jordan, Principles of Bacteriology, pp. 467 Illusd. Chicago: Open Court. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench & Trubner, 1899.

1896. Yellow Fever . Walter Reed (1851-1902), MD, Professor of Bacteriology at George Washington University and the Army Medical School, demonstrated that yellow fever was not spread by drinking local river-water, thus opening the way for a correct aetiology. During his service on Cuba in 1900 Reed demonstrated that the mosquito "Aedes aegypti” functioned as transmission vector for yellow fever".

1896. Bacteriophage Ernest Hanbury Hankin (1865-1939), who studied with Koch and with Pasteur, discovered the "bacteriophage," a small, non-bacterial organism.

c.1896. Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947). He graduated in Medicine 1883, Trinity College Dublin, and worked at the Victoria Hospital (Military) at Nettley, Southampton to 1902, and then at St. Mary's Hospital in London. Wright worked on typhoid vaccine and the measurement of protective "opsonins" in the blood, citing the avoidable loss of life in the Second Boer War, 1899-1901, to convince the government. During the 1914-18 Great War he was able to organise a research laboratory at the British Hospital No. 13, Boulogne, France, to produce vaccines for the troops/trench warfare situation. Cf. In 1919 Wright would return to St. Mary's Hospital London, where his work influenced Sir Alexander Fleming, the later discoverer of penicillin. Wright was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1906.

1896. Max von Gruber (1853-1927) was an Austrian medical scientist and bacteriologist. In 1884 he became Associate Professor and Head of the Hygiene Institute at Graz. From 1887 he was Professor of Hygiene at Vienna. His discovery in 1896, with his British pupil Herbert Durham (1866-1945), was of "specific serum agglutinins" reactive with bacteria for immunological-diagnostic purposes: "Ueber active und passive Immunitat gegen Cholera und Typhus, sowie ueber die bacteriologische Diagnose...", Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 9: nos. 11 & 12. Gruber's earlier work was on the distinctions between the Vibrio of Asiatic cholera and other forms such as "Finkler-Prior" and "Koch's Vibrio" ( the "Kommabacillen") : Ueber die als "Kommabacillen" bezeichneten Vibrionen von Koch und Finkler-Prior, 1885, Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift, 35: nos. 9 &10. A fuller treatment of these materials forms part of Fraenkel's standard work CF: 259-284.

1896. Georges-Fernand Widal (1862-1929). French physician in the Dept. of Pathological Anatomy, University Paris, mentored by pathologist-histologist Professor Victor Cornil (1837-1908). Widal taught pathological anatomy 1886-88 and bacteriology 1888-90. A copious researcher-writer, Widal in 1896 produced the notable Widal Test, a serum-specific antibody procedure for enteric-undulating fever/typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi). He also researched "l'infection puerperale" in 1889.

1897. By now bacteriology was an established field of many valuable applications based on strictly empirical-reproducible methodologies: among other areas, from the two standard works which follow, may be noted the dairy industry, the meat industry, relevant segments of the veterinary industry, the wine and beer brewing industries, the oyster and shellfish industries, the medical-pathology and epidemiological professions, the nursing profession, soil and agriculture. See: 1. M.V. Ball 1897. Essentials of Bacteriology. Being a Concise and Systematic Introduction to the Study of Micro-Organisms for the Use of Students and Practitioners. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 6th edn 1908. One of the "Saunders' Question Compends" Series. 2. T.H. Pearmain & C.G. Moor 1897. Applied Bacteriology. Paris & London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox. 2nd edn 1898, pp. 464.

1897. William Bulloch (1868-1941). A British bacteriologist later notable for his History of the science. Alma mater University of Aberdeen 1884-90. He did post-graduate work at Leipzig and Vienna; MD Aberdeen 1894. 1894-5 London, Paris and Copenhagen. In 1895 he became Chief of Bacteriology at the British Institute for Preventive Medicine's antitoxin laboratory. In 1897 Bulloch was appointed Lecturer in Bacteriology at the London Hospital, a position which in 1917 would become the Goldsmith's Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London. See Bulloch (1938) below.

1897. Robert Muir and James Ritchie. Manual of Bacteriology, pp. 519. 2nd edn 1899. 4th edn 1907, pp. 605. 6th edn 1913, pp. 736, indicating the continual growth of the science over two decades. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland.

1898. Charles Slater and Edmund Spitta. An Atlas of Bacteriology. Plates and photomicrographs by staff members, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London. London: Scientific Press.

1898. Richard Tanner Hewlett (1865-1940). A Manual of Bacteriology. Clinical and Applied with an Appendix on bacterial remedies. London: J.& A. Churchill. 2nd edn, pp. 533, 1902.

c.1898. Dysentery Kiyoshi Shiga (1871-1957), a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Medical School 1896, and went to work with Kitasato at the Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases. During a severe epidemic of dysentery, 1897-98, Shiga discovered the effective bacterium, subsequently named in his honor Shigella dysenteriae. The "shiga toxin" is produced by the microbe, a non spore-forming, non-motile rod-shaped gram-negative bacillus. Transmission, feared by hygienists, is by highly effective contaminated water supplies, and via unwashed hands, food, unwashed vegetables etc. From 1901 to 1905 Shiga worked with Ehrlich in Germany, then returning to Japan.

1898. In the U.S. Sternberg and Major Walter Reed create the first Typhoid Fever Board, later known as "Walter Reed Boards." Sternberg made Honorary Member, Epidemiology Society of London.

1899. William H. Park (1863-1939) was a U.S. bacteriologist and Director of laboratory at the Board of Health Division of Pathology, Bacteriology and Disinfection, New York City, 1893-1936. He graduated in 1883 from City College New York, then medical study at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons to 1886, then studies at Vienna. His specialty was diphtheria, and he closely followed the European work of Roux and Behring. Park's co-worker Anna Wessels Williams (1863-1954), alma mater the Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary, 1887-91, developed an especially efficacious diphtheria anti-toxin/sub-variant, the Park-Williams strain. Park's standard book was published on both sides of the Atlantic: Bacteriology in Medicine and Surgery: A Practical Manual, 1899, Boston: Lea Brothers & Co.; followed by London: Henry Kimpton, 1900.

1900. Almroth Wright introduced a typhoid inoculation for the British troops in South Africa in the Second Boer War.

1900. Félix d'Hérelle (1873-1949) begins bacteriological work in Guatemala and Mexico. The iconic break-through study by d'Hérelle would come in 1917 (see below). Cf. also Hankin.

1901. H.W. Conn. Agricultural Bacteriology. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1901. Frederick D. Chester. A Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. London: Macmillan & Co.

1901. Opening of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in New York. Simon Flexner (1863-1946), Professor of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania 1899-1903, became the Institute's first Medical Director. His bacteriological colleagues there included Theobald Smith and Noguchi Hideyo (1876-1928). The dysentery bacillus Shigella flexneri was named for Flexner and has also been called Flexner-Harris bacillus, after the patient whose illness furnished the essential faecal samples.

1901. Karl Bernhard Lehmann (1858-1940) was a Swiss-born German bacteriologist and hygienist. He was a pupil of Pettenkofer at Munich, and became Professor of Hygiene at Wurzburg 1894. With Rudolf Otto Neumann (1868-1952) he published Atlas und Grundriss der Bakteriologie. English trans. by George H. Weaver, Rush Medical College Chicago, from 2nd German edn. 1901. Atlas and Principles of Bacteriology. Philadelphia & London: W.B. Saunders & Co.

1902. August von Wassermann (1866-1925). After completing his MD at Strasburg in 1890 he worked with Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. In 1902, with W. Kolle (1868-1935) he began issuing, to 1909, the massive work on Pathogen Mikro-organismen, 6 vols. Jena: Fischer. His more famous work, on syphilis, would appear after the discovery of Schaudinn in 1905. See below.

1902. Carl Julius Salomonsen (1847-1924) establishes a Serum Institute in Copenhagen. Its opening is accompanied by a volume edited by Salmonsen, Contributions from the University Laboratory for Medical Bacteriology, to Celebrate the Inauguration of the State Serum Institute (Copenhagen: The Carlsberg Fund & O. C. Olsen).

1903. Protozoan-caused disease. William Boog Leishman (1865-1926), after medical studies at Glasgow University joined the Army Medical Service (later R.A.M.C.). In India he studied enteric fever and kala-azar disease. In 1897 he moved to the Victoria Hospital (Military) at Netley, Southampton, and by 1900 was Assistant Professor of Pathology at the Army Medical School, where a soldier from Bengal suffering from kala-azar gave the first evidence of the causative blood parasite (protozoan rather than bacterial, but susceptible to similar methods of investigation). Leishman's stain, employing methylene blue and eosin, became well known. In 1903, with Charles Donovan (1863-1951), Calcutta-born of Irish parents, Professor of Physiology, Madras Medical College and Indian Government General Hospital, Leishman confirmed the causative microbe, Leishmania donovani, a trypanosome. He also worked with Almroth Wright on anti-typhoid treatments, and in 1911-12 would be President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. See Carlos Chagas and Ronald Ross (1857-1932) on other non-bacterial parasites.

1903. George M. Sternberg, Infection and Immunity with Special Reference to the Prevention of Infectious Diseases. New York & London: G. Putnam's Sons.

1903. J.M.H. Macleod. Practical Handbook of the Pathology of the Skin. An introduction to the histology, pathology and bacteriology of the skin....pp. 408. London: H.K. Lewis.

1903. P. E. Archinard. Microscopy and Bacteriology. A Manual for Students and Practitioners. Medical Epitome Series. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers.

1903. Charles Nicolle (1866-1936) becomes director of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis where where he investigates body-lice as the transmission agent of epidemic typhus, for which he will receive the Nobel Prize in 1928.

1904. Gaffky succeeds Koch as Director of the Berlin Institute for Infectious Diseases, a position he holds until 1913.

1904. The Practical Medicine Series of Year Books (Chicago: The Year Book Publishers) includes bacteriology, pathology, and the latest advances.

1904. George Newman. Bacteriology and the Public Health, 3rd edn. London: John Murray.

1904. Charles E. Marshall. Bacteriology and the Bacteriological Laboratory. Michigan Dept. of Bacteriology and Hygiene.

1904. Frank Clowes and A.C. Houston. The Experimental Bacteriological Treatment of London London County Council, 1892-1903. London: L.C.C.

1905. Emile Roux becomes the new Director to 1918 of the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

1905. M. Klopstock and A. Kowarsky. Praktikum der klinischen chemisch-mikroskopischen und bakteriologischen Untersuchungsmethoden. English trans., A Manual of Clinical Chemistry, Microscopy and Bacteriology, pp.296. London: Rebman Ltd.

1905. Syphilis. Fritz Schaudinn (1871-1906), with the assistance of dermatologist Erich Hoffmann (1868-1959), discovers the microbe responsible for syphilis. Spirochaeta pallida, now known as Treponema pallidum is a very fine organism that may take a Gram stain and be G-negative, and requires dark field illumination with the light microscope. Special stains were later developed, and also serological tests. See Wassermann.

1905. The International Tuberculosis Conference provided the forum for Behring to announce a new vaccine substance obtained from "the virus of tuberculosis", for bovine rather than human use. His publications on serum-therapy dated from at least as early as 1892, "Die Blutserumtherapie", and "Die Geschichte der Diphtherie"(1893), though he was also involved in an unsavoury affair with Ehrlich over denial of recognition and remuneration to the latter for their joint collaboration on the new diphtheria anti-serum.

1906. Jean-Marie Camille Guerin (1872-1961). French veterinarian and bacteriologist who joined Calmette at the Institute Pasteur-Lille in 1897. The two became celebrated for their anti-TB serum based on Guerin's demonstration that bovine Mycobacterium bovis exerts an immunological-protective effect in experimental rabbits. The result was their BCG (Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin) vaccine against tuberculosis, which has been improved continually over the following two decades and, indeed, to the present day.

1906. Whooping cough (pertussis). Jules Jean Bordet (1870-1961), working with Octave Gengou (1875-1957), isolated the causative agent of whooping cough, "Haemophilus pertussis," later renamed and reclassified Bordetella pertussis. Bordet also discovered the serum protein "alexine," now called "complement" and used in certain "complement-fixation" tests for bacteria such as syphilis (see Wassermann).

1906. Syphilis. August Paul von Wassermann (1866-1925), German bacteriologist and hygienist who worked with Koch in Berlin in the 1890s,and became Director of Experimental Therapy there in 1906. In the same year he developed the famous "Wassermann Test" for syphilis, employing a blood-antibody reaction based on the "alexine/complement"-fixation discovery of Bordet. See also the earlier work of Schaudinn.

1906. Carl Fraenkel pursues research on typhus and blood-preparations/vaccines (Blutpraparaten).

1907. Bordet becomes Professor of Bacteriology, University Libre de Bruxelles.

1907. Charles Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922), a French physician and microscopist who working chiefly with parasitic and protozoan diseases, discovered the Plasmodium responsible for malaria and the Trypanosome responsible for African sleeping sickness for which he received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology.

1907. Edward B. Voorhees and Jacob G. Lipman. A Review of Investigations in Soil Bacteriology. Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

1907. 4th revised edn., pp. 605, of Muir & Ritchie's "Manual of Bacteriology" of 1897. 6th edn. 1913, pp. 736. Indicators of this growing field of academic study. For more on Robert Muir, see Mackie

1908. Samuel Cate Prescott and Charles Winslow. Elements of Water Bacteriology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. London: Chapman Hall Ltd. 2nd edn., pp. 258, 1909. See Winslow.

. 1908. Edwin O. Jordan. A Text-Book of General Bacteriology. pp. 557. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders & Co. 2nd edn., pp. 594, 1910.

1908. Charles Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) was a French physician and microscopist largely working with parasitic and protozoan diseases, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology 1907. His alma mater was University Strasbourg 1867, followed by military service in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. He gained the Chair of Military Diseases and Epidemics, then worked in Algeria from 1878 where he discovered the Plasmodium responsible for malaria and the Trypanosome of African sleeping sickness. Laveran's contribution was truly great. From 1896-1922 he served at the Pasteur Insititute Paris, using his Nobel Prize money to establish a Laboratory of Tropical Medicine. His colleagues there included Roux and Metchnikoff. In 1908 he founded the Societe de Pathologie Exotique.

1908. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) graduated as a physician and bacteriologist at the St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington, London in 1906. In 1908 he re-graduated with a Gold Medal in Bacteriology and remained at St. Mary's as assistant to Almroth Wright, and as Lecturer to the hospital. His epochal re-discovery of the anti-microbial value of penicillin was still some twenty years in the future.

1909. Chagas disease Carlos Chagas (1879-1934) discovers a new tropical disease afflicting railroad workers near the Amazonian city of Belem (now Belem, Estado de Para). Chagas showed the insect vector, the flagellate protozoan in its intestines, and the transmission to test animals. He named the parasite "Trypanosoma cruzi" in honor of his friend Oswaldo Cruz (1872-1917). The new disease is known as "Chagas disease."

1909. Professor Dr. A. Dieudonne and C.F. Bolduan, Eds. Bacterial Food Poisoning. A Concise Exposition of the Etiology, Bacteriology, Pathology, Symptomatology, Prophylaxis and Treatment of So-Called Ptomaine Poisoning. 1st edn. pp. 128. New York: Treat & Co. Cf. Brieger.

1909. E.R. Stitt. Practical Bacteriology, Blood Work and Animal Parasitology. 1st edn pp. 294. Includes bacteriological keys and clinical notes. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co. Inc.

1909. Savarsan Paul Ehrlich, working in Berlin, initiated the modern phase of "chemotherapy" with his discovery after many empirical trials of the arsphenamine-arsenical compound "Savarsan." "Ehrlich's reagent", a solution (stain) from aniline dyes (introduced histologically by his cousin Weigert) had from 1881 formed the basis of a urine test for typhoid.

1909. E.J. McWeeney. Observations on the Micro-Organisms of the Gaertner Group ("Meat-poisoning bacilli").... Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 79th Meeting. Winnipeg.

1909. S. Jeremiah. Normal Histology and Microscopical Anatomy. Illsd. 1st edn. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

1910. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910), an American pathologist demonstrates transmission of spotted fever by insect vector (the tick).

1910. Emily Stoney. Bacteriological and Surgical Technique for Nurses. 3rd edn. 4th edn. 1916, pp. 342. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders & Co.

1910. P. Hanson Hiss Jr. and Hans Zinsser. The Textbook of Bacteriology. Illsd. 5th edn. pp. 1193, 1923.

1911. Anon. Catalogue of the Annual Pathological Museum in the Practical Pathology and Bacteriology Departments and in the Brewing Laboratories, University of Birmingham, England. Birmingham: Hudson & Co.

1912. Albert Schneider. Pharmaceutical Bacteriology with Special Reference to Disinfection and Sterilization. Columbia University. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1912. Public Health Chemistry and Bacteriology. A Handbook. pp. 409. Bristol: John Wright.

1912. Clemesha William Wesley. The Bacteriology of Surface Waters in the Tropics. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. London: E. and F.N. Spon Ltd.

1912. Almroth Wright publishes Technique of the Teat and Capillary Action, and its Application in Medicine and Bacteriology. London: Constable & Co.

1913. Neisser publishes Monograph on Syphilis and Salvarsan. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Neisser's new therapy was based on the novel chemotherapy of Ehrlich, 1909, whom Neisser had know since their schooldays together.

1914. Lester A. Round.Contributions to the Bacteriology of the Oyster: Results of Experiments and Observations made and Authorized by the Commission of Shell Fisheries of the State of Rhode Island, pp. 88. Providence: E.L. Freeman & Co.

1914. S. Maria Elliott. Household Bacteriology. The Library of Home Economics, Vol. II, (orig. publn 1905). 2nd edn. pp.170. Chicago: American School of Home Economics. Treated topics of dust, flies, yeasts and moulds, sanitation and food hygiene. Became a standard text for Simmons College.

1914. J. MacNeal Ward and H.E. Williams. Pathogenic Micro-Organisms: A Text-book of Microbiology for Physicians and Students of Medicine. Philadelphia: Blakiston's Son & Co.

1914-1918. The Great European War. Many of the younger bacteriologists born and educated-trained in the high Victorian period served in aid stations and Field Hospitals close to the fighting fronts. See Fleming, Twort, Mackie, Dakin and others. Whilst records present difficulties for some combatant nations, a similar picture can be more generally assumed (Germany, Russia).

1914. Thomas Jones Mackie (1888-1955) was a Scottish bacteriologist, associated with the University of Glasgow and the Glasgow Western Infirmary, where he joined pathologist and bacteriologist Professor Robert Muir (1864-1959) c. 1911. In 1914, on the outbreak of war, Mackie became part of the Army Medical Corps, served in the Middle East and eventually was placed in command of the Central Bacteriological Laboratory in Alexandria, Egypt.

1915. Charles-Edward Amory Winslow (1877-1957) was an American bacteriologist-hygienist, alma mater M.I.T. In 1915 he founded the Yale Dept. of Public Health as part of the Yale Medical School. Winslow had begun as a water chemist-bacteriologist at the Massachusetts M.I.T. experimental sewage-treatment plant.

1916. Founding of the Journal of Bacteriology, with Editor-in-Chief Winslow. It was the organ of the American Society of Bacteriologists, founded in 1899, with Winslow as the then youngest founder-member.

1916. Carrel-Dakin wound-treatment solutionHenry Drysdale Dakin (1880-1952) and Alexis Carrel (1874-1944) devised a low-tech means of preventing and treating gas gangrene by killing the bacilli that cause it. Their wound treatment solution consisted of 0.5% sodium hypochlorite bleach with 4% boric acid in water, was used in surgery and splashed around liberally as a disinfectant.

1917. Virus and bacterium. Félix d'Hérelle re-discovers the "bacteriophage" of Hankin, which could pass through the finest porcelain filters, in September 1917 while working on the production of vaccines for the Allied armies. Much smaller than the bacteria they preyed upon, these true virus particles heralded a new era in microbiological science. D'Hérelle worked to produce a "phage therapy" for diphtheria, dysentery and cholera, with some success post-war across Europe. Prior to the 1920s and the promise of penicillin and the first sulpha drugs, aside from salvarsan for syphilis, the therapeutic arsenal had largely to rely upon mercury salts, strychnine and other dangerously powerful agents.

Brief Bibliography and Short-Title Used

CF - Carl Fraenkel. 1887. Grundriss der Bakterienkunde. English trans. by J.H. Linsley MD, Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, Medical Dept. of the University of Vermont. Text-Book of Bacteriology, pp. 376 from 3rd German edn. Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland.

Carl Friedrich Riecke, 1854. Die Reform der Lehre von den Contagionen, Epidemien und Epizootien. Quedlinburg: Verlag von H.C. Huch.

Friedrich Loeffler, 1887. Vorlesungen uber die Geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von den Bacterien. (History of Bacteriology). No English trans. available. Noted by Bulloch (1938).

Christian A. Herter, 1904. The Influence of Pasteur on Medical Science: An Address to the Medical School of Johns Hopkins University. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.

G.T. Wrench, 1910. Lord Lister. His Life and Work. New York City: Frederick Stokes.

Paul de Kruif, 1926. Microbe Hunters. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.

William Bulloch, 1938. The History of Bacteriology. University of London Heath Clark Lectures for 1936. Oxford: O.U.P.

Thomas Vogelsang, 1963 & 1964. International Journal of Leprosy.

J. Nicolle, 1971. Louis Pasteur. A Master of Scientific Enquiry. London: Hutchinson.

Roderick McGrew, 1985. Encyclopaedia of Medical History, pp. 25-30. New York: McGraw-Hill.

.T. Anderson, 1986. "Robert Remak and the multi-nucleated cell: eliminating a barrier to the acceptance of cell-division". Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 60 (4): 523-43.

Emilio Weiss and S. Bernard, 1991. "The life and career of Howard Taylor Ricketts". Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13: 1241-2. University of Chicago, 27 December 1990.

E. Flaumenhaft, 1993. "Evolution of America's pioneer bacteriologist: George M. Sternberg's formative years". Mlitary Medicine, 158 (7): 448-57.

Gerald Geison, 1995. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Last modified 25 January 2017