The main features of Afghanistan are the mountain chains, the general direction of which is east and west, but which throw out buttresses to the north and south. Afghanistan is traversed across the centre from east to west by a chain of mountains, which may be viewed as an offshoot of the Himalayan system. . . . Practically, almost the whole of Afghanistan is a mass of mountains interspersed with valleys, of which some are of considerable size. — Illustrated London News (October 1878): 326

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Last modified 11 June 2018