Hard Times, which appeared in American Household Edition, 1870. Page 208.by Charles S. Reinhart. 1870. 13.1 cm wide by 10.3 cm high (horizontally mounted, with text above and below on a page 24 cm high by 16.2 cm wide). Plate Book Three -- "Garnering," Chapter Three, "Very Decided." illustrating Charles Dickens's
The chapter's initial setting is Mr. Bounderby's recently-rented suite in a London hotel in St. James's Street, a locale possibly so designated by Dickens because the St. James of the first century was called both "The Just" and "The Lord's Brother" in The New Testament; shortly back at Coketown, poetic justice will be meted out upon two of the story's villains. In a triply comedic comuppance, Sissy has already dismissed James Harthouse; now Bounderby (Gradgrind's brother-in-arms in the Hard Fact political faction) dismisses Mrs. Sparsit, while Gradgrind (depicted here in a much less distorted and more normal form than in previous Reinhart plates) at last accepts the error of his anti-sentiment stance. The sketchily realised map of the world behind Gradgrind may be intended to suggest that, because he paid it too little attention, his own domestic world is collapsing about him. His hand to his brow (to ease the pain, or perhaps to block out the quarrel between Bounderby and Mrs. Sparsit), the exhausted father takes upon himself the blame for the marital breakup as he openly concedes to the son-in-law that his daughter has just left that "we are all liable to mistakes" (Book III, Ch. 3).
Finally, the formerly "indefatigible" Mrs. Sparsit cringes before Bounderby, who of course is looking for someone other than himself to blame for Louisa's humiliating him publicly by running off with Harthouse (he has not yet received Gradgrind's letter announcing the breakup of the marriage, and is still crediting Mrs. Sparsit's account of events). The "classical ruin" and "The Bully of Humility" have returned to Coketown by train and driven by coach to Stonelodge, in the study of which Reinhart has set the twelfth plate. Here he calls upon Mrs. Sparsit to recount for his father-in-law the conversation between his daughter and his "precious gentleman-friend" (207). Bounderby's being disabused of his wife's conduct and his learning of her having returned to Stonelodge have already occurred before we encounter the illustration, which therefore underscores Bounderby's acting in ignorance of the facts and his misplaced faith in Mrs. Sparsit's account. Bounderby has asked for her aplogy for her "Cock-and-a-Bull" fabrication, but Mrs. Sparsit has taken refuge in tears. In fact, by the time we reach page 208 he has already led her to waiting coach and dismissed her from his service.
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Last modified 22 October 2002